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The Rio Grande Cone is a major fanlike depositional feature in the continental slope of the Pelotas Basin, Southern Brazil. Two representative sediment cores collected in the Cone area were retrieved using a piston core device. In this work, the organic matter (OM) in the sediments was characterized for a continental vs. marine origin using chemical proxies to help constrain the origin of gas in hydrates. The main contribution of OM was from marine organic carbon based on the stable carbon isotope (δ13C-org) and total organic carbon/total nitrogen ratio (TOC:TN) analyses. In addition, the 14C data showed important information about the origin of the OM and we suggest some factors that could modify the original organic matter and therefore mask the “real” 14C ages: (1) biological activity that could modify the carbon isotopic composition of bulk terrestrial organic matter values, (2) the existence of younger sediments from mass wasting deposits unconformably overlying older sediments, and (3) the deep-sediment-sourced methane contribution due to the input of “old” (>50 ka) organic compounds from migrating fluids.
A study conducted as part of the development of the Eleventh International Classification of Mental Disorders for Primary Health Care (ICD-11 PHC) provided an opportunity to test the relationships among depressive, anxious and somatic symptoms in PHC.
Primary care physicians participating in the ICD-11 PHC field studies in five countries selected patients who presented with somatic symptoms not explained by known physical pathology by applying a 29-item screening on somatic complaints that were under study for bodily stress disorder. Patients were interviewed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised and assessed using two five-item scales that measure depressive and anxious symptoms. Structural models of anxious-depressive symptoms and somatic complaints were tested using a bi-factor approach.
A total of 797 patients completed the study procedures. Two bi-factor models fit the data well: Model 1 had all symptoms loaded on a general factor, along with one of three specific depression, anxiety and somatic factors [x2 (627) = 741.016, p < 0.0011, RMSEA = 0.015, CFI = 0.911, TLI = 0.9]. Model 2 had a general factor and two specific anxious depression and somatic factors [x2 (627) = 663.065, p = 0.1543, RMSEA = 0.008, CFI = 0.954, TLI = 0.948].
These data along with those of previous studies suggest that depressive, anxious and somatic symptoms are largely different presentations of a common latent phenomenon. This study provides support for the ICD-11 PHC conceptualization of mood disturbance, especially anxious depression, as central among patients who present multiple somatic symptoms.
Studies have shown that dietary chromium (Cr) supplementation beneficially affects physiological functions such as cell preservation, antioxidant activity and immune response that are of utmost importance to animal homeostasis and thermoregulatory capacity under heat stress conditions. For instance, Cr is essential for the synthesis of the specific low molecular weight Cr-binding-substance (LMWCr) that upon conversion to chromodulin, activates the insulin signalling cascade. This results in greater cell permeability to insulin, with a subsequent positive effect on the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Furthermore, Cr has antioxidant properties which help to attenuate the negative effects of oxidative stress. With regards to meat quality, Cr decreases lipid peroxidation. It has been suggested that Cr supplementation increases antibody responses and lymphocyte counts in broiler chickens exposed to high environmental temperatures. In addition, trivalent Cr supplementation increases growth performance and decreases the circulating levels of undesirable metabolites and hormones such as cholesterol and corticosterone in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. The aim of this review was to report the effects of Cr supplementation as a nutritional strategy to increase growth performance, immune response, carcass characteristics and meat quality of broilers produced under hot conditions. This knowledge may contribute to improve the productivity and sustainability of broiler production in a context of global warming and development of livestock production in hot climate areas.
Non-ruminant animals do not synthesize phytase enzyme, a substance capable to act on phytate molecule to liberate phosphorus. The non-available phosphorus pass through the digestive system of the non-ruminants practically without being digested and the inclusion of inorganic phosphorus sources in diets of those animals is necessary. The use of phytase enzyme in rations for pigs can contribute to the elimination or reduction of the use of inorganic phosphorus sources and reducing the environmental impact caused by the excretion of this mineral. The experiment was designed to evaluate the biological phosphorus flow in pigs fed with diet containing different phytase levels, using the isotope dilution technique.
The metabolism and kinetics model of Fernandez modified by Lopes et al. (2001) is a fundamental tool for the study of the digestive physiology of phosphorus (P) in pigs. In Brazil there is a great potential of use of rock phosphate and those represents approximately 2.9 billion metric tons. Brazilian researchers are interested to evaluate those phosphate as alternative sources in diets of pigs. All of the natural sources of phosphate in Brazil presented low level of fluor, when compared with international sources and levels of heavy metals are considered low too. The main concern resides in the fact that non-absorbed P is excreted and can cause contamination of water. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the digestive physiology of pigs fed diets supplemented with different P sources and the study the environmental pollution provoked by P excreted.
Phosphorus is the second most plentiful mineral in the animal body. It is present as structural component and it is involved in a wide variety of biochemical reactions. Research has been conducted in Brazil to study phosphorus metabolism in pigs using the model of Fernandez modified by Lopes et al. (2001). However there is little published information related to phosphorus metabolism in pigs using the model of Vitti et al. (2000). In the present study, it was considered the hypothesis that P intake regulates P utilisation and flow on gut, blood, soft tissues and bone. The isotopic technique by using labelled P allows the formulation of model of the biological flow of phosphorus in the animal organism. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of phosphorus intake on phosphorus metabolism in pigs, by using isotope and balance techniques. A mathematical model for phosphorus metabolism is formulated.
Genomic regions under high selective pressure present specific runs of homozygosity (ROH), which provide valuable information on the genetic mechanisms underlying the adaptation to environment imposed challenges. In broiler chickens, the adaptation to conventional production systems in tropical environments lead the animals with favorable genotypes to be naturally selected, increasing the frequency of these alleles in the next generations. In this study, ~1400 chickens from a paternal broiler line were genotyped with the 600 K Affymetrix® Axiom® high-density (HD) genotyping array for estimation of linkage disequilibrium (LD), effective population size (Ne), inbreeding and ROH. The average LD between adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in all autosomes was 0.37, and the LD decay was higher in microchromosomes followed by intermediate and macrochromosomes. The Ne of the ancestral population was high and declined over time maintaining a sufficient number of animals to keep the inbreeding coefficient of this population at low levels. The ROH analysis revealed genomic regions that harbor genes associated with homeostasis maintenance and immune system mechanisms, which may have been selected in response to heat stress. Our results give a comprehensive insight into the relationship between shared ROH regions and putative regions related to survival and production traits in a paternal broiler line selected for over 20 years. These findings contribute to the understanding of the effects of environmental and artificial selection in shaping the distribution of functional variants in the chicken genome.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with poorer reading ability; however, the specific neuropsychological domains linking this co-occurrence remain unclear. This study evaluates information-processing characteristics as possible neuropsychological links between ADHD symptoms and RA in a community-based sample of children and early adolescents with normal IQ (⩾70).
The participants (n = 1857, aged 6–15 years, 47% female) were evaluated for reading ability (reading single words aloud) and information processing [stimulus discriminability in the two-choice reaction-time task estimated using diffusion models]. ADHD symptoms were ascertained through informant (parent) report using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). Verbal working memory (VWM; digit span backwards), visuospatial working memory (VSWM, Corsi Blocks backwards), sex, socioeconomic status, and IQ were included as covariates.
In a moderated mediation model, stimulus discriminability mediated the effect of ADHD on reading ability. This indirect effect was moderated by age such that a larger effect was seen among younger children.
The findings support the hypothesis that ADHD and reading ability are linked among young children via a neuropsychological deficit related to stimulus discriminability. Early interventions targeting stimulus discriminability might improve symptoms of inattention/hyperactivity and reading ability.
Evergreen trees in the tropical rain forest of the Amazonas Basin can produce growth rings which are not necessarily related to annual events. Therefore, estimation of growth rate cannot be done by dendrochronology. This report presents a technique for determining the growth rate of these trees based on radiocarbon measurements of two segments of equal radial distance from the outer part of the tree trunk. The measured 14C activity is compared to local 14C fallout and growth rates are derived from models taking into account bomb 14C effects. Eleven trees from various parts of the Amazon Basin were analyzed. The average growth rates range from ca 5 to > 40 yr per centimeter corresponding to extrapolated ages from ca 60 to > 400 yr.
We present photometric and spectroscopic evidence of two new T Tauri stars formed in the conditions of isolated small Bok globules. The spectral energy distributions of these objects display excess infrared emission, they are associated with optical reflection nebulae, and their optical spectra reveal Balmer emission lines and the Li I λ6707 Å absorption line. Additionnally, we report the discovery of what is likely to be a new FU Orionis star seen towards Bok globule CB34. The star is about 4 magnitudes brighter than it appears on the Palomar plates and is associated with the aggregate of young stellar objects forming in Bok globule CB34.
The effects of uniform vorticity on a train of ‘gentle’ and ‘steep’ deep-water waves interacting with underlying flows are investigated through a fully nonlinear boundary integral method. It is shown that wave blocking and breaking can be more prominent depending on the magnitude and direction of the shear flow. Reflection continues to occur when sufficiently strong adverse currents are imposed on ‘gentle’ deep-water waves, though now affected by vorticity. For increasingly positive values of vorticity, the induced shear flow reduces the speed of right-going progressive waves, introducing significant changes to the free-surface profile until waves are completely blocked by the underlying current. A plunging breaker is formed at the blocking point when ‘steep’ deep-water waves interact with strong adverse currents. Conversely negative vorticities augment the speed of right-going progressive waves, with wave breaking being detected for strong opposing currents. The time of breaking is sensitive to the vorticity’s sign and magnitude, with wave breaking occurring later for negative values of vorticity. Stopping velocities according to nonlinear wave theory proved to be sufficient to cause wave blocking and breaking.
Appropriate legislation based on in-depth ecological evidence is essential for ecosystem conservation. Wetland areas in the Brazilian Cerrado hotspot are facing difficulties in terms of status under environmental law: only those wetlands with the palm Mauritia flexuosa (veredas) are recognized as protected. Comprehensive fieldwork in central-western Brazil (72 50-m transects) coupled with both exploratory and confirmatory analyses showed that communities with (MP) and without (MA) M. flexuosa are similar in terms of the floristics and ecology. The results demonstrate that the analysed wetlands are part of a continuum, in which a gradual replacement of species and community structure occurs without a pattern related to physiognomy. Considering such floristic and structure patterns when legally defining the ecosystem would promote a more comprehensive and realistic view of the ecosystem's characteristics and functions, and result in laws with a stronger scientific support. Conservationists should further examine the lack of consistent separation of plant community attributes between the MP and MA areas, and reconsider the scientific definition of veredas.
The organogenesis of the digestive system was described in the Amazonian pimelodid catfish species Pseudoplatystoma punctifer from hatching (3.5 mm total length, TL) to 41 days post-fertilization (dpf) (58.1 mm TL) reared at 28°C. Newly hatched larvae showed a simple digestive tract, which appeared as a straight undifferentiated and unfolded tube lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells (future enterocytes). During the endogenous feeding period, comprised between 20 and 96 h post-fertilization (3.5 to 6.1 mm TL), the larval digestive system experienced a fast transformation with the almost complete development and differentiation of most of digestive organs (buccopahrynx, oesophagus, intestine, liver and exocrine pancreas). Yolk reserves were not completely depleted at the onset of exogenous feeding (4 dpf, 6.1 mm TL), and a period of mixed nutrition was observed up to 6 to 7 dpf (6.8 to 7.3 mm TL) when yolk was definitively exhausted. The stomach was the organ that latest achieved its complete differentiation, characterized by the development of abundant gastric glands in the fundic stomach between 10 and 15 dpf (10.9 to 15.8 mm TL) and the formation of the pyloric sphincter at the junction of the pyloric stomach and the anterior intestine at 15 dpf (15.8 mm TL). The above-mentioned morphological and histological features observed suggested the achievement of a digestive system characteristic of P. punctifer juveniles and adults. The ontogeny of the digestive system in P. punctifer followed the same general pattern as in most Siluriform species so far, although some species-specific differences in the timing of differentiation of several digestive structures were noted, which might be related to different reproductive guilds, egg and larval size or even different larval rearing practices. According to present findings on the histological development of the digestive system in P. punctifer, some recommendations regarding the rearing practices of this species are also provided in order to improve the actual larval rearing techniques of this fast-growing Neotropical catfish species.
The aim of this study was to determine heritability estimates of treatment responses to a 10% hydrogen peroxide strip-based whitening system in twins. Eighty-five twin pairs were randomly assigned to 10% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips or placebo strips without peroxide. Both twins (monozygotic or dizygotic) received the same treatment. Maxillary teeth were treated for 30 minutes twice daily for 7 days. Efficacy was measured objectively as L* (light–dark), a* (red–green), and b* (yellow–blue) color change from digital images at baseline (∆) and day 8. Heritability estimates for tooth whitening treatment responses for changes from day 8 to baseline were obtained using variance-component methodologies. Whitening treatment responses were highly heritable (h2 = 71.0) for ∆b* and ∆a*(p < .0001), but not for ∆L* (h2 = 27.0), which was essentially modulated by environmental factors. This study has demonstrated that both genetic and environmental factors significantly contributed to seven-day whitening treatment responses achieved with 10% hydrogen peroxide strips.
Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) from a bath containing cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, thiourea, and ammonium hydroxide. The CdS thin films were annealed in argon (neutral atmosphere) or hydrogen (reducing atmosphere) for 1 h at various temperatures (300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 °C). The changes in optical and electrical properties of annealed treated CdS thin films were analyzed. The results showed that, the band-gap and resistivity depend on the post-deposition annealing atmosphere and temperatures. Thus, it was found that these properties of the films, were found to be affected by various processes with opposite effects, some beneficial and others unfavorable. The energy gap and resistivity for different annealing atmospheres was seen to oscillate by thermal annealing. Recrystallization, oxidation, surface passivation, sublimation and materials evaporation were found the main factors of the heat-treatment process responsible for this oscillating behavior. Annealing over 400 °C was seen to degrade the optical and electrical properties of the film.
Citral is a monoterpene commonly found as volatile component in many different aromatic plants. Although many studies have identified the presence of citral in phytotoxic essential oils, this work determines for the first time the potential herbicidal effect of citral on weeds. The use of citral against weeds and crops resulted in the potential for the management of barnyardgrass, redroot pigweed, and ribwort. Clear morphological differences were observed between adult thale cress plants exposed to citral in two different application methods: spraying and watering. Citral-sprayed and citral-watered thale cress plants showed completely different effects after treatment, suggesting that foliar or root absorption can determine the effectiveness of this compound. This work demonstrates that citral is effective not only on seedling metabolism but also on adult plants by inhibiting growth and development altering the plant oxidative status.
The distribution and composition of molluscan assemblages of seagrass beds in the Ensenada de O Grove (north-western Spain), are described in this paper. The studied bottoms were mostly muddy and colonized predominantly by Zostera marina L., Z. noltei Hornemann, or by both species. Molluscan fauna was dominated by gastropods and bivalves, in terms of both species richness and abundance. A total of 7641 individuals belonging to 68 taxa was identified. The most abundant species were the gastropods Peringia ulvae, Retusa truncatula and Calyptraea chinensis and the bivalves Abra alba, Loripes lucinalis and Kurtiella bidentata. Cluster and multidimensional scaling analyses based on Bray–Curtis similarity coefficient showed two distinct faunal assemblages. Group A comprised intertidal sites colonized either by Z. noltei or by Z. marina and Z. noltei on muddy sand and sandy mud bottoms and subtidal sites exclusively colonized by Z. marina in the outer part of the inlet on muddy sand with the highest values of species richness and diversity. Group B consisted of sites characterized by low values of species diversity and a species composition typical of a ‘reduced Macoma community’. The sorting coefficient and the combination of gravel, sorting coefficient and carbonates content (BIOENV analyses) and the salinity of bottom water and depth (canonical correspondence analyses) were the most important abiotic variables in explaining the structure of the molluscan assemblage.