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Consent is an expression of the therapeutic relationship shared by health professionals and patients. The doctrine of consent is also a function of a fundamental respect for persons, and in legal discourse it functions to protect both autonomy and respect. Consent legally performs a permissive function that requires that patient be asked for permission before any intervention is made to their body and a risk function by requiring information to be provided to patients about the risks of having or not having a proposed intervention, especially when those risks are material to the patient.
Dialysis patients may not have access to conventional renal replacement therapy (RRT) following disasters. We hypothesized that improvised renal replacement therapy (ImpRRT) would be comparable to continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in a porcine acute kidney injury model.
Following bilateral nephrectomies and 2 hours of caudal aortic occlusion, 12 pigs were randomized to 4 hours of ImpRRT or CRRT. In the ImpRRT group, blood was circulated through a dialysis filter using a rapid infuser to collect the ultrafiltrate. Improvised replacement fluid, made with stock solutions, was infused pre-pump. In the CRRT group, commercial replacement fluid was used. During RRT, animals received isotonic crystalloids and norepinephrine.
There were no differences in serum creatinine, calcium, magnesium, or phosphorus concentrations. While there was a difference between groups in serum potassium concentration over time (P < 0.001), significance was lost in pairwise comparison at specific time points. Replacement fluids or ultrafiltrate flows did not differ between groups. There were no differences in lactate concentration, isotonic crystalloid requirement, or norepinephrine doses. No difference was found in electrolyte concentrations between the commercial and improvised replacement solutions.
The ImpRRT system achieved similar performance to CRRT and may represent a potential option for temporary RRT following disasters.
Worldwide, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number 1 cause of mortality and is associated with insulin resistance (IR). Emerging biomarkers such as FGF21 and adiponectin are associated with cardiometabolic risk. Low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diets have been reported to reduce cardiometabolic risk markers; however, few studies have compared a LCHF diet vs. a high carbohydrate (HC), lower fat diet under ad libitum conditions on adiponectin and FGF21. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an ad libitum LCHF vs. HC diet on IR, FGF21 and adiponectin in 16 healthy adults. Ethical approval: Liverpool John Moores University Research Ethics Committee (16/ELS/029); registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (Ref. NCT03257085). Participants were randomly assigned to a HC diet (n = 8, the UK Eatwell guidelines; ≥ 50% of energy from carbohydrates) or a LCHF diet (n = 8, consume < 50 g/day of carbohydrates). All provided plasma samples at 0, 4 and 8 weeks. FGF21 (R&D Systems) was analysed via ELISA and adiponectin, insulin and glucose were analysed via immunoassay technology (Randox Evidence Investigator™ Metabolic Syndrome Arrays I & II). Mann Whitney, Friedmans, Wilcoxon tests and 2×3 ANOVA (IBM SPSS 25®) were undertaken to investigate significant differences between and within groups. The homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) was used to calculate IR. FGF21 significantly (P = 0.04) decreased (Mdn, IQR:148.16, 78.51–282.02 to 99.4, 39.87–132.29 pg/ml) after 4 weeks and significantly (P = 0.02) increased (Mdn, IQR:167.38, 80.82–232.89 pg/ml) by 8 weeks vs. baseline with LCHF. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between groups. Adiponectin was significantly (P = 0.03) different at week 4 only between groups. Adiponectin increased after 4 weeks (Mdn, IQR:13.44, 9.12–25.47 to 16.64, 11.96–21.51 ng/ml) but was only significantly (P = 0.03) different by 8 weeks vs. baseline in the HC group (Mdn, IQR:16, 10.8–27.43 ng/ml). Adiponectin remained unchanged (P = 0.96) in the LCHF group. HOMA significantly decreased with both diets after 8 weeks only (mean ± SD, LCHF: 2.9 ± 1.3 to 1.8 ± 0.8, HC: 2.5 ± 0.6 to 1.9 ± 0.6, P = 0.008) but was not significantly (P = 0.60) different between groups. These preliminary data reveal that while both diets improved insulin sensitivity, they may do so by different mechanisms. Future studies are warranted to investigate further, how a LCHF vs. HC diet affects FGF21 and adiponectin, and the subsequent regulation of IR. Furthermore, studies that extend these findings by determining the impact of LCHF vs. HC on peripheral metabolism to determine potential nutrition-mediated mechanisms of metabolic adaptation are warranted.
Apolipoproteins (apo) regulate lipoprotein characteristics and lipid metabolism. ApoC-III is a regulator of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) metabolism and apolipoproteins are important biomarkers for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction. A low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) diet improves cardiometabolic risk, especially via reduction of TRL. However, few studies have compared a LCHF vs. a high carbohydrate (HC), lower fat diet under ad libitum conditions on apoC-III levels. The objectives of this investigation were to measure the effect of a LCHF vs. a HC diet on apoC-III, apoA1, apoB and apoB/apoA1 in 16 healthy Caucasian adults aged 19–64. Ethical approval: Liverpool John Moores University Research Ethics Committee (16/ELS/029); registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (Ref. NCT03257085). Participants randomly assigned to a HC diet (UK Eatwell guidelines; ≥ 50% of energy from carbohydrates) (n = 8), or a LCHF diet (consume < 50 g/day of carbohydrates) (n = 8) provided plasma samples at 0, 4 and 8 weeks. ApoA1 and apoB were analysed by an automated chemistry analyser (Daytona, Randox Laboratories Ltd, UK). ApoC-III was analysed via ELISA (Thermo Fisher Ltd, USA). Factorial 2×3 ANOVA and ANCOVA (IBM SPSS 25®) were undertaken to investigate significant differences and to control for variables influenced by baseline measures and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Results show 0, 4, and 8 weeks respectively: ApoC-III (LCHF: 19.12 ± 9.14, 16.05 ± 7.95, 15.11 ± 3.17 mg/dl; HC: 22.13 ± 8.38, 28.22 ± 13.85, 22.22 ± 7.7 mg/dl) showed no significant (P = 0.319) change. No significant (P = 0.23) change was also observed in ApoB (LCHF: 107.25 ± 20.35, 111.38 ± 24.81, 111.43 ± 19.93 mg/dl; HC: 94.38 ± 20.79, 105.00 ± 20.13, 99.00 ± 29.09 mg/dl). Similarly apoA1 (LCHF: 158.71 ± 14.27, 166.50 ± 23.09, 173.00 ± 29.42 mg/dl; HC: 164.71 ± 30.25, 172.50 ± 29.44, 174.00 ± 32.83 mg/dl) showed no significant change (P = 0.76). This resulted in a relatively unchanged apoB/A1 throughout the study in both diets (P = 0.30). No significant (P > 0.05) differences were found after 4 weeks or between groups also. ANCOVA revealed a trend (P = 0.06) in apoC-III for a difference between groups (LCHF: Δ-6.6 mg/dl vs. HC: Δ1.2 mg/dl) after 8 weeks but no significant (P > 0.05) changes in other apolipoproteins were detected. These preliminary data reveal that a LCHF diet does not improve the apolipoprotein profile; however, when accounting for other metabolic risk factors (i.e. VAT) there was a trend towards lowering apoC-III levels (P = 0.06). Modulation of apoC-III may lead to improved lipid metabolism, but higher-powered studies are warranted before any improvement on CVD risk can be inferred.
A longstanding issue in the field of nutrition is the potential inaccuracy of methods traditionally used for dietary assessment (i.e. food diaries and food frequency questionnaires). It is possible to overcome the limitations and biases of these techniques by combining them with analytical measurements in human biofluids. Metabolomic technologies are gaining popularity as nutritional tools due to their capacity to measure metabolic responses to external stimuli, such as the ingestion of certain foods. This project performed both LC-MS and 1H-NMR metabolomic profiling on serum samples collected as part of the NICOLA study (Northern Irish Cohort for the Longitudinal Study of Aging) in order to discover novel dietary biomarkers. A dietary validation cohort (NIDAS) was incorporated within NICOLA, involving 45 males and 50 females, aged 50 years and over. Participants provided detailed dietary data (4-day food diary) and blood samples at two time-points, six months apart. Serum samples were processed on two analytical platforms. 1H-NMR spectra were acquired using a Bruker 600 MHz Ascent coupled to a TCI cryoprobe and processed using Bayesil (University of Alberta, Canada). A Waters TQ-S coupled with an Acquity I-class UPLC was used in combination with a targeted commercially available kit (AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit, Biocrates). Mass spectra obtained were processed with MetIDQ and verified using MassLynx (v4.1). Data were tested for normality, and metabolite concentrations were correlated with recorded dietary intake of each food type using SPSS. Additional tests (PCA, PLS-DA, ROC Curves) were performed on MetaboAnalyst 4.0 (University of Alberta, Canada). More than 50 statistically significant (P < 0.05) food-metabolite correlations were detected, 15 of which remained significant after eliminating potential confounding from sex, age and BMI. The strongest correlations were between fruit consumption and acetic acid, and between dairy consumption and certain glycerophospholipids (e.g. LysoPC aa C20:3). Stratifying the cohort by gender yielded further correlations, including PC ae C38:2 (dairy; males), PC aa C34:4 (dairy; females), PC aa C36:4 (dairy; females) and trans-4-Hydroxyproline (meat; males). A number of potential blood-based food biomarkers were detected, many of which are gender-specific, and some are corroborated by previously published studies. However, further validation work is required. For example, biological plausibility needs to be established, and the findings need to be reproduced in other cohorts to demonstrate their applicability in larger and more diverse populations. These results contribute greatly to the ongoing efforts to discover and validate reliable nutritional biomarkers as an objective and unbiased measurement of food intake.
Australian Politics in the Twenty-First Century brings to life traditional institutions, theories and concepts by considering the key question: how are Australia's political institutions holding up in the face of the new challenges, dynamics and turbulence that have emerged and intensified in the new millennium? This approach encourages students to critically examine the complex interplay between a centuries' old system and a diverse, modern Australian society. This text presents the many moving parts of Australia's political system from an institutional perspective: the legislative and judiciary bodies, as well as lobby groups, the media, minor parties and independents, and the citizenry - institutions not often considered but whose influence is rapidly increasing. Student learning is supported through learning objectives, key terms, discussion questions, further readings and breakout boxes that highlight key theories, events and individuals. The extensive resources available in the VitalSource interactive eBook reaffirm comprehension and extend learning.