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Metacognition and perfectionism are factors found to be associated with both anxiety and depression. A common component that underlies these factors is the influence of perseverance, or the tendency to continue a behaviour or thought even if it is no longer productive.
This study aimed to investigate the relationships between metacognitive beliefs with maladaptive aspects of perfectionism (i.e. perseverance behaviours), and their relation to anxiety and depression.
Participants (n = 1033) completed six self-report questionnaires measuring metacognitive beliefs about rumination and worry, perseverance, anxiety and depression. Data were analysed using correlational testing, and structural equation modelling.
Results of structural equation modelling revealed that positive metacognitive beliefs about repetitive negative thinking increased the likelihood to perceive the thinking as uncontrollable, and that perseverance behaviours were predicted by all metacognitive beliefs. Furthermore, examination of partial correlations revealed that both negative metacognitive beliefs about repetitive negative thinking and perseverance behaviours predicted anxiety and depression; however, negative metacognitive beliefs were the strongest predictor, in both cases.
The results provided support for current metacognitive models, in that the interpretation of cognitive perseveration sequentially influences psychopathology, but also provided insight into the inclusion of perseveration behaviours. Furthermore, the findings may also have value in a clinical setting, as targeting metacognitive beliefs in the presence of perseverance type behaviours may prove beneficial for treatment.
The increasing occurrence of herbicide resistance, along with no new herbicide modes of action developed in over 30 yr, have increased the need for nonherbicidal weed management strategies and tactics. Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) practices have been successfully adopted in Australia to manage problematic weeds. For HWSC to be effective, a high proportion of weed seeds must be retained on the plant at crop maturity. This 2-yr (2014, 2015) study evaluated seed shatter of wild oat, green foxtail, wild mustard, and cleavers in both an early (field pea) and late (spring wheat) maturity crop in field experiments at Scott, Saskatchewan. Seed shatter was assessed using shatter trays collected once a week during crop ripening stage, as well as at two crop maturation or harvest stages (swathing, direct-combining). Seed shatter differed among weed species, but was similar between crops at maturity: ca. 30% for wild oat, 5% for cleavers, < 2% for wild mustard, and < 1% for green foxtail. Overall, seed shatter of wild oat occurred sooner and at greater levels during the growing season compared with the other weed species. Viability of both shattered and plant-retained seeds was relatively high for all species. The small amount of seed shatter of cleavers, wild mustard, and green foxtail suggests that these species may be suitable candidates for HWSC. Due to the amount and timing of wild oat seed shatter, HWSC may not reduce population abundance of this grassy weed.
We have mapped cold atomic gas in 21cm line H i self-absorption (HISA) at arcminute resolution over more than 90% of the Milky Way's disk. To probe the formation of H2 clouds, we have compared our HISA distribution with CO J = 1-0 line emission. Few HISA features in the outer Galaxy have CO at the same position and velocity, while most inner-Galaxy HISA has overlapping CO. But many apparent inner-Galaxy HISA-CO associations can be explained as chance superpositions, so most inner-Galaxy HISA may also be CO-free. Since standard equilibrium cloud models cannot explain the very cold H i in many HISA features without molecules being present, these clouds may instead have significant CO-dark H2.
The rise of a recognized body of queer Native American (US) and Aboriginal (Canadian) literatures occurs in the wake of two concurrent political moments rarely spoken of together - the post-Stonewall movement for gay rights and the Red Power era of Native activism. This chapter describes the historical emergence of queer Native literature in the 1970s. Queer Native fiction, like drama and the early women of color anthologies, emerges in the 1980s. Such fiction varies widely in its depiction of Indigenous experiences, ranging from tribal trickster narratives to representations of urban alienation. The first Native novel with a queer Indigenous protagonist is Allen's The Woman Who Owned the Shadows. Although fiction, especially full-length fiction, garners a lion's share of public attention, poetry functions as the cornerstone of the queer Native literary canon. The connections between and among the queer Native women writers can be seen in the common themes and also, at times, style of their work.
A topic of long-standing interest in racial attitudes research is whites' support for principles of racial equality on one hand coupled with their intransigence on policies designed to redress that inequality on the other. Much has been written on possible explanations of this “principle-policy gap” and what the gap reveals about the state of contemporary American race relations. In this article we provide an update and partial replication of our 1996 study of whites' views of racial policies in what has been referred to as our post-racial society. Using both General Social Survey and American National Election Survey data, we assess the current state of whites' racial policy attitudes and the factors that shape those attitudes and consider whether any meaningful change has occurred in recent decades. Among the explanations of the principle-policy gap that we examine, one stands out as especially powerful: racial resentment, a variant of stratification ideology that focuses on the role of racial individualism in shaping white resistance to meaningful policy change. Moreover, we find no evidence that whites' racial policy views have changed since the 1980s.
Few issues are as controversial as race-targeted social policies. Viewed by proponents as appropriate remedies for the lingering effects of past racial injustices and by opponents as unfair “reverse discrimination,” racial policy was one of the most divisive issues in late twentieth century American social and political life.
The previous Transits of Venus Working Group report #6, covering the time mid-2006 to mid-2009, was published by the undersigned in the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, Vol. 12, p. 254 (2009). The present report #7, covering the time up to mid-2011, has been prepared for the Reports presented at the IAU General Assembly in Beijing, August 2012. It is expected that after a flurry of publications before and after the transit of 2012, the activities in the field will drop dramatically, and it is planned to terminate the activities of the working group after the Beijing General Assembly, and to write a closing report for the subsequent General Assembly.
In 1955 the British journalist and playwright Peter Wildeblood explained in Against the Law, an apologia pro vita sua he wrote after serving a prison sentence in HM Prison Wormwood Scrubs for homosexual offences, that society should tolerate good homosexuals like himself, but not 'the pathetically flamboyant pansy with the flapping wrists . . . corrupters of youth, not even the effeminate creatures who love to make an exhibition of themselves'. Wildeblood's argument for tolerance works by opposing a notion of decent homosexuality, which he believes should be legitimized, to demonized constructions of homosexuality - the elderly predator, the effeminate queen - from which he distances himself. This kind of opposition is precisely the kind of gesture challenged by 'queer' theory and activism. Although 'queer' became popular as a category in American lesbian and gay politics and scholarship in the early 1990s, the conflicts the term addressed have a long history in lesbian and gay culture. Formerly a term of abuse, 'queer' began to be used by lesbians and gay men to describe themselves. Used as a self-description, queer re-emphasized the dissident and subversive potential of gay and lesbian identities, and embraced elements of sexual culture, such as drag, fetishism, sadomasochism and cruising, which mainstream lesbian and gay politics were seen as disavowing.
In the last two decades, lesbian and gay studies have transformed literary studies and developed into a vital and influential area for students and scholars. This Companion introduces readers to the range of debates that inform studies of works by lesbian and gay writers and of literary representations of same-sex desire and queer identities. Each chapter introduces key concepts in the field in an accessible way and uses several important literary texts to illustrate how these concepts can illuminate our readings of them. Authors discussed range from Henry James, E. M. Forster and Gertrude Stein to Sarah Waters and Carol Ann Duffy. The contributors showcase the wide variety of approaches and theoretical frameworks that characterise this field, drawing on related themes of gender and sexuality. With a chronology and guide to further reading, this volume offers a stimulating introduction to the diversity of approaches to lesbian and gay literature.