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Signal-in-space (SIS) continuity and availability are important indicators of performance assessment for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs). The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) Open Service Performance Standard (BDS-OS-PS-1.0) has been released, and the corresponding public performance indicators have been provided, but the actual SIS performance is uncertain to users. SIS continuity and availability are primarily related to unscheduled outages (failures). Therefore, based on the existing failure classification system and actual operation modes, four types of failure modes are first analysed: long-term failure related to satellite service period, maintenance failure related to satellite manoeuvring, short-term failure associated with random repairable anomalies and equivalent failure corresponding to a combination of the above three types of failures. Second, based on the failure classification and selected precise and broadcast ephemerides from 2015–2016, the Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) of each failure type are obtained using appropriate detection methods. Finally, using a corresponding assessment model, the SIS continuity and availability of BeiDou are calculated for individual and equivalent failure cases, and these are compared with the provided index in the BDS Open Service Performance Standard.
The effect of maternal folate intake on small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births remains inconclusive. The present study aimed to investigate the associations of maternal folate intake from diet and supplements with the risk of SGA births using data from a cross-sectional study in Shaanxi Province of Northwest China. A total of 7307 women who were within 12 months (median 3; 10th–90th percentile 0–7) after delivery were included. Two-level models were adopted to examine the associations of folate (dietary folate, supplemental folic acid and total folate) intake with the risk of SGA births and birth weight Z score, controlling for a minimum set of confounders that were identified in a directed acyclic graph. Results showed that a higher supplemental folic acid intake during the first trimester was negatively associated with the risk of SGA births (≤60 d v. non-use: OR 0·80; 95 % CI 0·66, 0·96; >60 d v. non-use: OR 0·78; 95 % CI 0·65, 0·94; Ptrend = 0·010; per 10-d increase: OR 0·97; 95 % CI 0·95, 0·99). A higher total folate intake during pregnancy was associated with a reduced risk of SGA births (highest tertile v. lowest tertile: OR 0·77; 95 % CI 0·64, 0·94; Ptrend = 0·010; per one-unit increase in the log-transformed value: OR 0·81; 95 % CI 0·69, 0·95). A similar pattern was observed for the birth weight Z score. Our study suggested that folic acid supplementation during the first trimester and a higher total folate intake during pregnancy were associated with a reduced risk of SGA births.
There is growing evidence that suggests the association of vitamin D status with the development and progression of heart failure (HF). The objective of the present study is to assess the impact of concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) on cardiac prognosis in patients with HF. Between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2016, we consecutively recruited patients with HF. Patients were followed prospectively for a median duration of 1 year. Serum concentration of 25(OH)D was measured with competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay. The endpoints were cardiac events, including CVD death and rehospitalisation for worsening HF. Univariate and multivariable adjustments were performed with Cox proportional-hazard regression analyses. The 25(OH)D concentration was obtained in 343 patients with a median value of 17·4 (interquartile range 12·6–23·4) ng/ml. There were 102 cardiac events, including forty-three deaths and fifty-nine rehospitalisations. Multivariate Cox hazard analysis found that the serum concentration 25(OH)D was independently associated with cardiac events (hazard ratio 0·93, 95 % CI 0·88, 0·97) and CVD mortality (hazard ratio 0·83; 95 % CI 0·77, 0·89) after adjustment for confounding factors. We divided the HF patients into four groups according to the 25(OH)D quartiles. Kaplan–Meier analysis found that the patients with lower serum 25(OH)D concentration had a higher risk of cardiac events or CVD mortality than those with high serum 25(OH)D concentration (log-rank test P < 0·001 and P = 0·032). Decreased serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were associated with cardiac prognosis and CVD mortality in a Chinese population with HF independent of other baseline HF markers.
The relationship between serum Mg and blood cell counts in Chinese adult diabetes or central obesity was assessed by investigating 8163 subjects with China Health and Nutrition Survey (mean age 59⋅6 years, 54⋅9 % men). Participants were classified according to blood Mg (below 0⋅65 mmol/l, or 0⋅66–0⋅94 mmol/l or above 0⋅95 mmol/l), type 2 diabetes (yes/no) and central obesity (yes/no). Leucocytes, erythrocytes, platelets (PLT), Hb and glycated Hb (HbA1c) were determined using standardised methods and conditions. HbAc1, leucocytes and PLT were significantly higher among subjects with central obesity than without central obesity (P < 0⋅05). A significant increase for Hb, erythrocytes, PLT, but not leucocytes, across progressive Mg groups was observed in subjects without diabetes (P < 0⋅05). Hb, erythrocytes and HbAc1 were significantly higher among subjects with higher Mg than in subjects with lower Mg with diabetes (P < 0⋅05). Central obesity disturbed the positive association between PLT count and serum Mg. Type 2 diabetes caused metabolism disorder in serum Mg, blood sugar and blood cell count. Hb, erythrocytes and PLT, but not leucocytes, are positively correlated with serum Mg, but this association is somehow disturbed by type 2 diabetes or central obesity.
Image stitching is important for the perception and manipulation of undersea robots. In spite of a well-developed technique, it is still challenging for undersea images because of their inevitable appearance ambiguity caused by the limited light in the undersea environment, and local disturbance caused by moving objects, ocean current, etc. To get a clean and stable background panorama in the undersea environment, this paper proposes an undersea image-stitching method by introducing graph-based registration and blending procedures. Specifically, in the registration procedure, matching the features in each undersea image pair is formulated and solved by graph matching, to incorporate the structural information between features. In the blending procedure, an energy function on the indirect graph Markov random field is proposed, which takes both image consistency and neighboring consistency into consideration. Coincidentally, both graph matching and energy minimization can be mathematically formulated by integer quadratic programming problems with different constraints; the recently proposed graduated nonconvexity and concavity procedure is used to optimize both problems. Experiments on both synthetic images and real-world undersea images witness the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) is used to identify attached eddies in turbulent channel flows and quantify their relationship with the mean skin-friction drag generation. BEMD is an adaptive, non-intrusive, data-driven method for mode decomposition of multiscale signals especially suitable for non-stationary and nonlinear processes such as those encountered in turbulent flows. In the present study, we decompose the velocity fluctuations obtained by direct numerical simulation of channel flows into BEMD modes characterized by specific length scales. Unlike previous works (e.g. Flores & Jiménez, Phys. Fluids, vol. 22(7), 2010, 071704; Hwang, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 767, 2015, pp. 254–289), the current approach employs naturally evolving wall-bounded turbulence without modifications of the Navier–Stokes equations to maintain the inherent turbulent dynamics, and minimize artificial numerical enforcement or truncation. We show that modes identified by BEMD exhibit a self-similar behaviour, and that single attached eddies are mainly composed of streaky structures carrying intense streamwise velocity fluctuations and vortex packets permeating in all velocity components. Our findings are consistent with the existence of attached eddies in actual wall-bounded flows, and show that BEMD modes are tenable candidates to represent Townsend attached eddies. Finally, we evaluate the turbulent-drag generation from the perspective of attached eddies with the aid of the Fukagata–Iwamoto–Kasagi identity (Fukagata et al., Phys. Fluids, vol. 14(11), 2002, pp. L73–L76) by splitting the Reynolds shear stress into four different terms related to the length scale of the attached eddies.
Many studies have demonstrated that vocabulary size plays a key role in learning English as a foreign language (EFL). In recent years, mobile game-based learning (MGBL) has been considered a promising scheme for successful acquisition and retention of knowledge. Thus, this study applies a mixed methodology that combines quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess the effects of PHONE Words, a novel mobile English vocabulary learning app (application) designed with game-related functions (MEVLA-GF) and without game-related functions (MEVLA-NGF), on learners’ perceptions and learning performance. During a four-week experiment, 20 sophomore students were randomly assigned to the experimental group with MEVLA-GF support or the control group with MEVLA-NGF support for English vocabulary learning. Analytical results show that performance in vocabulary acquisition and retention by the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group. Moreover, questionnaire results confirm that MEVLA-GF is more effective and satisfying for English vocabulary learning than MEVLA-NGF. Spearman rank correlation results show that involvement and dependence on gamified functions were positively correlated with vocabulary learning performance.
The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide a comprehensive overview of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 subtypes and to investigate temporal and geographical trends of the HIV-1 epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Chinese and English articles published between January 2007 and December 2017 were systematically searched. Pooled HIV-1 prevalence was calculated, and its stability was analysed using sensitivity analysis. Subgroups were based on study time period, sampling area and prevalence. Publication bias was measured using Funnel plot and Egger's test. A total of 68 independent studies that included HIV-1 molecular investigations were eligible for meta-analysis. Circulating recombinant form (CRF) 01_AE (57.36%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 53.76–60.92) was confirmed as the most prevalent HIV-1 subtype among MSM in China. Subgroup analysis for time period found that CRF01_AE steadily increased prior to 2012 but decreased during 2012–2016. Further whereas CRF07_BC increased over time, B/B′ decreased over time. CRF55_01B has increased in recent years, with higher pooled estimated rate in Guangdong (12.22%, 95% CI 10.34–13.17) and Fujian (8.65%, 95% CI 4.98–13.17) provinces. The distribution of HIV-1 subtypes among MSM in China has changed across different regions and periods. HIV-1 strains in MSM are becoming more complex. Long-term molecular monitoring in this population remains necessary for HIV-1 epidemic control and prevention.
Direct determination of barrier height (ΦBH) value between Ir and single crystal (001) hydrogen-terminated diamond with lightly boron doped has been performed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique. 70 nm Ir islands were formed on hydrogen-terminated diamond surface using anodic aluminum oxide. The ΦBH value for Ir/hydrogen-terminated diamond was −0.43 ± 0.14 eV, indicating that Ir was a suitable metal for ohmic contact with hydrogen-terminated diamond. The band diagram of Ir/hydrogen-terminated diamond was obtained. The experimental ΦBH was compared with the theoretical ΦBH in this work.
This study presents an experimental investigation on the internal flow of a ventilated supercavity using fog flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. The ventilated supercavity is generated on a backward-facing cavitator and studied in the high-speed water tunnel at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. Fog particles are introduced into the supercavity through the ventilation line, and then illuminated by a laser sheet for flow visualizations and PIV measurements. The experiments are performed on the supercavities with two closure types, i.e. the re-entrant jet (RJ) and the twin vortex (TV), under the same water tunnel flow condition but different ventilation rates. The flow visualization revealed three distinct regions within the supercavity, including the ventilation influence region near the cavitator, the extended internal boundary layer along the liquid–gas interface and the reverse flow region occupying a large centre portion of the supercavity. The streamwise and vertical extent of the ventilation influence region, the streamwise growth of the internal boundary layer and the reverse flow within the supercavity are then quantified through PIV flow measurements. Compared to the RJ case, the results indicate that the TV supercavity yields a longer vertical extent of the ventilation influence region, a thinner internal boundary layer and a stronger reverse flow. The internal flow results suggest that at the upstream of the location of the maximum cavity diameter, the gas enters the forward flow (including the internal boundary layer and the forward moving portion of the ventilation influence region) from the reverse flow, while at the downstream of that location, the gas is stripped from the internal boundary layer and enters the reverse flow due to the increasing adverse pressure gradient in the streamwise direction. The above results are combined with visualization results of the supercavity geometry and closure patterns to further explain the influence of gas leakage mechanisms on cavity growth and closure transition. Specifically, visualization of the cavity geometry change during the RJ to TV supercavity transition indicates external flow separation associated with a critical incline angle of the bottom liquid–gas interface at the closure contributes to the onset of RJ closure. The closure visualization shows the coexistence of the toroidal vortex and twin-vortex tubes for the RJ supercavity leads to two gas leakage mechanisms: one associated with the shedding of toroidal vortices (
) and the other due to the gas entrained by the internal boundary layer and leaking from the twin-vortex tubes (
). For the RJ supercavity, with increasing ventilation input, due to the reduction of
, the supercavity needs to elongate to increase the gas entrained by the internal boundary layer (i.e.
) to balance the ventilation increase. The elongation of the supercavity leads to reduced flow separation, and eventually a transition to the TV supercavity with ventilation above a critical value. For the TV supercavity,
is absent. An increase of ventilation input can be balanced by the increase of
associated with the widening of the twin-vortex tubes, and therefore, no appreciable elongation of cavity length is observed.
In inertial confinement fusion experiments that involve short-laser pulses such as fast ignition (FI), diagnosis of neutrons is usually very challenging because high-intensity γ rays generated by short-laser pulses would mask the much weaker neutron signal. In this paper, fast-response scintillators with low afterglow and gated microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes are combined to build neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) spectrometers for such experiments. Direct-drive implosion experiments of deuterium-gas-filled capsules were performed at the Shenguang-II Upgrade (SG-II-UP) laser facility to study the compressed fuel areal density (〈ρR〉) and evaluate the performance of such nTOF diagnostics. Two newly developed quenched liquid scintillator detectors and a gated ultrafast plastic scintillator detector were used to measure the secondary DT neutrons and primary DD neutrons, respectively. The secondary neutron signals were clearly discriminated from the γ rays from (n, γ) reactions, and the compressed fuel areal density obtained with the yield-ratio method agrees well with the simulations. Additionally, a small scintillator decay tail and a clear DD neutron signal were observed in an integrated FI experiment as a result of the low afterglow of the oxygen-quenched liquid scintillator.
Super-large-scale particle image velocimetry (SLPIV) and the associated flow visualization technique using natural snowfall have been shown to be effective tools to probe the turbulent velocity field and coherent structures around utility-scale wind turbines (Hong et al.Nat. Commun., vol. 5, 2014, article 4216). Here, we present a follow-up study using the data collected during multiple deployments from 2014 to 2016 around the 2.5 MW turbine at the EOLOS field station. These data include SLPIV measurements in the near wake of the turbine in a field of view of 115 m (vertical)
66 m (streamwise), and the visualization of tip vortex behaviour near the elevation corresponding to the bottom blade tip over a broad range of turbine operational conditions. The SLPIV measurements provide velocity deficit and turbulent kinetic energy assessments over the entire rotor span. The instantaneous velocity fields from SLPIV indicate the presence of intermittent wake contraction states which are in clear contrast with the expansion states typically associated with wind turbine wakes. These contraction states feature a pronounced upsurge of velocity in the central portion of the wake. The wake velocity ratio
, defined as the ratio of the spatially averaged velocity of the inner wake to that of the outer wake, is introduced to categorize the instantaneous near wake into expansion (
) and contraction states (
). Based on the
criterion, the wake contraction occurs 25 % of the time during a 30 min time duration of SLPIV measurements. The contraction states are found to be correlated with the rate of change of blade pitch by examining the distribution and samples of time sequences of wake states with different turbine operation parameters. Moreover, blade pitch change is shown to be strongly correlated to the tower and blade strains measured on the turbine, and the result suggests that the flexing of the turbine tower and the blades could indeed lead to the interaction of the rotor with the turbine wake, causing wake contraction. The visualization of tip vortex behaviour demonstrates the presence of a state of consistent vortex formation as well as various types of disturbed vortex states. The histograms corresponding to the consistent and disturbed states are examined over a number of turbine operation/response parameters, including turbine power and tower strain as well as the fluctuation of these quantities, with different conditional sampling restrictions. This analysis establishes a clear statistical correspondence between these turbine parameters and tip vortex behaviours under different turbine operation conditions, which is further substantiated by examining samples of time series of these turbine parameters and tip vortex patterns. This study not only offers benchmark datasets for comparison with the-state-of-the-art numerical simulation, laboratory and field measurements, but also sheds light on understanding wake characteristics and the downstream development of the wake, turbine performance and regulation, as well as developing novel turbine or wind farm control strategies.
Using super-large-scale particle image velocimetry (SLPIV), we investigate the spatial structure of the near-wall region in the fully rough atmospheric surface layer with Reynolds number
. The field site consists of relatively flat, snow-covered farmland, allowing for the development of a fully rough turbulent boundary layer under near-neutral thermal stability conditions. The imaging field of view extends from 3 m to 19 m above the ground and captures the top of the roughness sublayer and the bottom of an extensive logarithmic region. The SLPIV technique uses natural snowfall as seeding particles for the flow imaging. We demonstrate that SLPIV provides reliable measurements of first- and second-order velocity statistics in the streamwise and wall-normal directions. Our results in the logarithmic region show that the structural features identified in laboratory studies are similarly present in the atmosphere. Using instantaneous vector fields and two-point correlation analysis, we identify vortex structures sharing the signature of hairpin vortex packets. We also evaluate the zonal structure of the boundary layer by tracking uniform momentum zones (UMZs) and the shear interfaces between UMZs in space and time. Statistics of the UMZs and shear interfaces reveal the role of the zonal structure in determining the mean and variance profiles. The velocity difference across the shear interfaces scales with the friction velocity, in agreement with previous studies, and the size of the UMZs scales with wall-normal distance, in agreement with the attached eddy framework.
Northeastern China is a region of high tick abundance, multiple tick-borne pathogens and likely human infections. The spectrum of diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens has not been objectively evaluated in this region for clinical management and for comparison with other regions globally where tick-transmitted diseases are common. Based on clinical symptoms, PCR, indirect immunofluorescent assay and (or) blood smear, we identified and described tick-borne diseases from patients with recent tick bite seen at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital. From May 2010 to September 2011, 42% (75/180) of patients were diagnosed with a specific tick-borne disease, including Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human babesiosis and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. When we compared clinical and laboratory features to identify factors that might discriminate tick-transmitted infections from those lacking that evidence, we revealed that erythema migrans and neurological manifestations were statistically significantly differently presented between those with and without documented aetiologies (P < 0.001, P = 0.003). Twelve patients (6.7%, 12/180) were co-infected with two tick-borne pathogens. We demonstrated the poor ability of clinicians to identify the specific tick-borne disease. In addition, it is necessary to develop specific laboratory assays for optimal diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.
Familial monozygotic (MZ) twinning reports are rare around the world, and we report a four-generation pedigree with seven recorded pairs of female MZ twins. Whole-genome sequencing of seven family members was performed to explore the featured genetic factors in MZ twins. For variations specific to MZ twins, five novel variants were observed in the X chromosome. These candidates were used to explain the seemingly X-linked dominant inheritance pattern, and only one variant was exonic, located at the 5′UTR region of ZCCHC12 (chrX: 117958597, G > A). Besides, consistent mitochondrial DNA composition in the maternal linage precluded roles of mitochondria for this trait. In this pedigree, autosomes also contain diverse variations specific to MZ twins. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of genes carrying novel SNVs in the epithelial adherens junction-signaling pathway (p = .011), contributed by FGFR1, TUBB6, and MYH7B. Meanwhile, TBC1D22A, TRIOBP, and TUBB6, also carrying similar SNVs, were involved in the GTPase family-mediated signal pathway. Furthermore, gene-set enrichment analysis for 533 genes covered by copy number variations specific to MZ twins illustrated that the tight junction-signaling pathway was significantly enriched (p < .001). Therefore, the novel changes in the X chromosome and the provided candidate variants across autosomes may be responsible for MZ twinning, giving clues to increase our understanding about the underlying mechanism.
The effects of misorientation on the quasi-static and dynamic mechanical behaviors of a second generation Ni-based single crystal superalloy DD5 were investigated. A Split-Hopkinson pressure bar system was used to perform dynamic compression. The crystallographic misorientation between the stress axis and the  direction was characterized through rotating orientation X-ray diffraction. The results demonstrated that the flow stress was closely related to the misorientation. It decreased first and consequently increased as the misorientation increased from 0° to 45°. The dynamic flow stress was significantly higher than the quasi-static stress. Moreover, the flow stress under dynamics was more sensitive to the misorientation. A constitutive model was used to illustrate the misorientation effect on the mechanical behavior. Finally, the effect of strain rate on the crystal orientation was also investigated. It was discovered that the orientation deviation change following quasi-static compression could be neglected. By contrast, the orientation changed by 3–9° subsequently to dynamic compression.
We previously reported four heterozygous missense mutations of MYH7, KCNQ1, MYLK2, and TMEM70 in a single three-generation Chinese family with dual Long QT and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy phenotypes for the first time. However, the clinical course among the family members was various, and the potential myocardial dysfunction has not been investigated.
The objective of this study was to investigate the echocardiographic and electrocardiographic characteristics in a genetic positive Chinese family with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and further to explore the association between myocardial dysfunction and electric activity, and the identified mutations.
A comprehensive echocardiogram – standard two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography and three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography – and electrocardiogram were obtained for members in this family.
As previously reported, four missense mutations – MYH7-H1717Q, KCNQ1-R190W, MYLK2-K324E, and TMEM70-I147T – were identified in this family. The MYH7-H1717Q mutation carriers had significantly increased left ventricular mass indices, elevated E/e’ ratio, deteriorated global longitudinal stain, but enhanced global circumferential and radial strain compared with those in non-mutation patients (all p<0.05). The KCNQ1-R190W carriers showed significantly prolonged QTc intervals, and the MYLK2-K324E mutation carriers showed inverted T-waves (both p<0.05). However, the TMEM70-I147T mutation carriers had similar echocardiography and electrocardiographic data as non-mutation patients.
Three of the identified four mutations had potential pathogenic effects in this family: MYH7-H1717Q was associated with increased left ventricular thickness, elevated left ventricular filling pressure, and altered myocardial deformation; KCNQ1-R190W and MYLK2-K324E mutations were correlated with electrocardiographic abnormalities reflected in long QT phenotype and inverted T-waves, respectively.