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Little is known regarding how home care is affected by extreme weather. In February 2018, Fukui City in Japan experienced unprecedented levels of snowfall. We examined snowfall impact on the provision of home care to elucidate whether patients incurred any harm.
A retrospective observational study using clinical and administrative records from a clinic in Fukui City was conducted on 294 patients (mean age = 69.9 ± 27.7 years; women = 60.5%, median age = 81). The study period was from February 5 to February 18, 2018. We analysed the patients’ characteristics, daily trend of planned/actual patient visits, emergency transportation situations, and local snow accumulation. We summarized the situation in the clinic.
There were 326 planned home visits, however only 121 (37%) occurred. Despite this, there were only 2 emergency transfers. Although the available clinical staff was limited, they managed to contact most patients via telephone and social networking services.
Although the number of home visits dramatically decreased, the number of emergency transfers did not increase. This study therefore highlights the necessity for effective disaster preparation, such as assessment training, or use of telemedicine, and on-site decision-making to maintain home care during disasters.
The salp Thalia rhomboides is distributed in the shallow depths during the day, and is thus at increased risk of predation by visual predators and from the damaging effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation compared with species distributed in deeper layers in the daytime. The integument (tunic) of T. rhomboides may have adaptive optical properties, but the absorption spectra of the unfixed tunic demonstrate that the tunic transmits UV as well as visible light, indicating that the tunic is not an effective barrier against UV radiation. Ultrastructural observation revealed that the surface of the tunic cuticle is covered in a nipple array consisting of hemispherical protuberances approximately 40 and 30 nm in diameter in solitary and aggregate zooids, respectively. Simulation of light reflection of a nipple array using rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) indicated that the reflection is slightly lower for the nipple array than for a flat surface at high angles of incidence (θ > 80°). This result supports the idea that the nipple array serves to make the salp less visible. The simulation also indicated that the height and distribution of the salp nipple array do not have an optimal structure for causing an antireflection effect. A mechanical restriction might exist on the structures, and the nipple array could also serve another function. The size and distribution of nipples may be controlled by the need to meet the complex requirements of multiple essential functions.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been widely used in the treatment of most anxiety disorders. In this study, to clarify the mechanism of the anxiolytic effect, we investigated the mechanism underlying the effect of the SSRI citalopram on rat contextual conditioned fear stress (CFS), an animal model of anxiety.
Rats individually received footshocks in a shock chamber. More than 1 day later, they were given citalopram and/or dl‐p‐chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), various subtype‐selective serotonin (5‐HT) receptor antagonists: the 5‐HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635, the 5‐HT2A receptor antagonist MDL 100907, the 5‐HT2C receptor antagonist SB 242084, the 5‐HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron, the 5‐HT4 receptor antagonist GR 125487, the 5‐HT6 receptor antagonist SB 258585 or the 5‐HT7 receptor antagonist SB 269970. After drug administration, freezing behaviour, which was used as an index of anxiety, was analysed in the same shock chamber without shocks.
Citalopram dose dependently reduced conditioned freezing behaviour. The anxiolytic‐like effect of citalopram was prevented completely by pretreatment with the 5‐HT‐depleting agent PCPA, but not by the 5‐HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635. Furthermore, none of the subtype‐selective 5‐HT receptor antagonists significantly affected conditioned freezing or affected the anxiolytic‐like effect of citalopram.
The anxiolytic‐like effect of citalopram in contextual CFS model depends on 5‐HT availability. In addition, contextual CFS model is suggested to be completely different from conventional anxiety models in neural mechanism or manners of serotonergic involvement. However, further studies are needed to identify the pharmacological mechanisms responsible for the anxiolytic‐like effect of citalopram.
Defects in thermal oxides were investigated by a photoluminescence technique. Thermal oxides with a thickness of 100 nm grown either by dry or wet oxidation were studied. A broad PL band at 2-4 eV was observed for both dry and wet oxides. Effects of annealing under vacuum or in atmospheres of Ar or N2 on the PL were also examined. The PL intensity was enhanced for the case of wet oxide by vacuum annealing at 700 °C. High-temperature anneal above 750 °C without O2 further generated PL centers for both dry and wet oxides. The formation mechanism of the PL centers will be discussed in terms of the decomposition of oxide at Si/SiO2 interface.
The effects of dietary casein and soyabean-protein isolate (SPI) on gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were observed in rats fed on an 80 g casein or 80 g SPI/kg diet. After a 24 h fast, rats were given 2 g of both the test diets containing 10 g guanidinated casein/kg diet as a marker protein. The amounts of the marker protein remaining in the stomach of the rats fed on the casein or SPI diet were similar and decreased to about 50% after 20min. The emptying rate then slowed, especially in the casein group, so that the amount leaving the stomach after 1 h in the SPI group was slightly higher (P < 0.05). The small intestinal transit of chyme was estimated by a bolus injection of colloidal carbon suspension or of colloidal carbon and 3H-labelled polyethylene glycol through an implanted duodenal catheter 6 min before death. The average value of transit at 12, 20, 40 and 60 min after feeding of SPI diet was about 25% faster than that after casein diet. The transit velocity of the SPI group was also faster than that of the non-protein group 40 min after feeding. These findings reveal that SPI enhances the small intestinal transit of the liquid phase of chyme. There was no correlation between the gastric emptying of homoarginine and small intestinal transit. This result suggests that the small intestinal transit of lumen contents is controlled by the dietary protein regardless of the gastric emptying of protein.
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