1Zohar, J, Westenberg, HGM. Anxiety disorders: a review of tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2000;101(Suppl. 403):39–49.
2Nutt, DJ. Overview of diagnosis and drug treatments of anxiety disorders. CNS Spectr 2005;10:49–56.
3Bandelow, B, Zohar, J, Hollander, E, Kasper, S, Möller, HJ. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety, obsessive‐compulsive and post‐traumatic stress disorders – first revision. World J Biol Psychiatry 2008;9:248–312.
4Fuller, RW. Uptake inhibitors increase extracellular serotonin concentration measured by brain microdialysis. Life Sci 1994;55:163–167.
5Gavioli, EC, Vaughan, CW, Marzola, G et al. Antidepressant‐like effects of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor antagonist UFP‐101: new evidence from rats and mice. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2004;369:547–553.
6O'leary, OF, Bechtholt, AJ, Crowley, JJ, Hill, TE, Page, ME, Lucki, I. Depletion of serotonin and catecholamines block the acute behavioral response to different classes of antidepressant drugs in the mouse tail suspension test. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2007;192:357–371.
7Hoyer, D, Hannon, JP, Martin, GR. Molecular, pharmacological and functional diversity of 5‐HT receptors. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2002;71:533–554.
8Feighner, JP, Merideth, CH, Hendrickson, GA. A double‐blind comparison of buspirone and diazepam in outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 1982;43:103–108.
9Borsini, F, Podhorna, J, Marazziti, D. Do animal models of anxiety predict anxiolytic‐like effects of antidepressants? Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2002;163:121–141.
10Hashimoto, S, Inoue, T, Koyama, T. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors reduce conditioned fear stress‐induced freezing behavior in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1996;123:182–186.
11Inoue, T, Tsuchiya, K, Koyama, T. Serotonergic activation reduces defensive freezing in the conditioned fear paradigm. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1996;53:825–831.
12Inoue, T, Li, XB, Abekawa, T et al. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor reduces conditioned fear through its effect in the amygdala. Eur J Pharmacol 2004;497:311–316.
13Nishikawa, H, Inoue, T, Izumi, T, Koyama, T. Synergistic effects of tandospirone and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on the contextual conditioned fear stress response in rats. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2007;17:643–650.
14Sanchez, C, Hytell, J. Comparison of the effects of antidepressants and their metabolites on reuptake of biogenic amines and on receptor binding. Cell Mol Neurobiol 1999;19:467–489.
15Pozzi, L, Invernizzi, R, Garavaglia, C, Samanin, R. Fluoxetine increases extracellular dopamine in the prefrontal cortex by a mechanism not dependent on serotonin: a comparison with citalopram. J Neurochem 1999;73:1051–1057.
16Yoshioka, M, Matsumoto, M, Togashi, H, Saito, H. Effects of conditioned fear stress on 5‐HT release in the rat prefrontal cortex. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1995;51:515–519.
17Letty, S, Child, R, Dumuis, A, Pantaloni, A, Bockaert, J, Rondouin, G. 5‐HT4 receptors improve social olfactory memory in the rat. Neuropharmacology 1997;36:681–687.
18Schreiber, R, Melon, C, de Vry, J. The role of 5‐HT receptor subtypes in the anxiolytic effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the rat ultrasonic vocalization test. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1998;135:383–391.
19Martin, JR, Ballard, TM, Higgins, GA. Influence of the 5‐HT2C receptor antagonist, SB‐242084, in tests of anxiety. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2002;71:615–625.
20Harasawa, T, Ago, Y, Itoh, S, Baba, A, Matsuda, T. Role of serotonin type 1A receptors in fluvoxamine‐induced inhibition of marble‐burying behavior in mice. Behav Pharmacol 2006;17:637–640.
21Mitchell, ES, Sexton, T, Neumaier, JF. Increased expression of 5‐HT6 receptors in the rat dorsomedial striatum impairs instrumental learning. Neuropsychopharmacology 2006;32:1520–1530.
22Wesolowska, A, Nikiforuk, A, Stachowicz, K, Tatarczynska, E. Effect of the selective 5‐HT7 receptor antagonist SB 269970 in animal models of anxiety and depression. Neuropharmacology 2006;51:578–586.
23Muraki, I, Inoue, T, Koyama, T. Effect of co‐administration of the selective 5‐HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100,635 and selective 5‐HT1B/1D receptor antagonist GR 127,935 on anxiolytic effect of citalopram in conditioned fear stress in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol 2008;586:171–178.
24File, SE, Hyde, JR. The effects of p‐chlorophenylalanine and ethanolamine‐O‐sulphate in an animal test of anxiety. J Pharm Pharmacol 1977;29:735–738.
25Söderpalm, B, Engel, JA. Does the PCPA induced anticonflict effect involve activation of the GABAA/benzodiazepine chloride ionophore receptor complex? J Neural Transm 1989;76:145–153.
26Kshama, D, Hrishikeshavan, HJ, Shanbhogue, R, Munonyedi, US. Modulation of baseline behavior in rats by putative serotonergic agents in three ethoexperimental paradigms. Behav Neural Biol 1990;54:234–253.
27Hashimoto, S, Inoue, T, Koyama, T. Effects of conditioned fear stress on serotonin neurotransmission and freezing behavior in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 1999;378:23–30.
28Nutt, DJ, Forshall, S, Bell, C, Rich, A et al. Mechanisms of action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 1999;9(suppl. 3):S81–S86.
29Argyropoulos, SV, Hood, SD, Adrover, M et al. Tryptophan depletion reverses the therapeutic effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in social anxiety disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2004;56:503–509.
30Pyle, AC, Argyropoulos, SV, Nutt, DJ. The role of serotonin in panic: evidence from tryptophan depletion studies. Acta Neuropsychiatr 2004;16:79–84.
31Li, XB, Inoue, T, Abekawa, T et al. 5‐HT1A receptor agonist affects fear conditioning through stimulations of the postsynaptic 5‐HT1A receptors in the hippocampus and amygdala. Eur J Pharmacol 2006;532:74–80.
32Romero, L, Ildefonso, H, Artigas, F. The 5‐HT1A antagonist WAY 100635 selectively potentiates the presynaptic effects of serotonergic antidepressants in rat brain. Neurosci Lett 1996;219:123–126.
33Schreiber, R, de Vry, J. Neuronal circuits involved in the anxiolytic effects of the 5‐HT1A receptor agonists 8‐OH‐DPAT ipsapirone and buspirone in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol 1993;249:341–351.
34Burghardt, NS, Bush, DE, Mcewen, BS, Ledoux, JE. Acute selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors increase conditioned fear expression: blockade with a 5‐HT2C receptor antagonist. Biol Psychiatry 2007;62:1111–1118.
35Ledoux, JE. The amygdala and emotion: a view through fear. In: Aggleton, JP, eds. The amygdala: a functional analysis, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2000.
36Silvestre, JS, Fernández, AG, Palacios, JM. Effects of 5‐HT4 receptor antagonists on rat behaviour in the elevated plus‐maze test. Eur J Pharmacol 1996;309:219–222.
37Olivier, B, van Wijngaarden, I, Soudijn, W. 5‐HT3 receptor antagonists and anxiety: a preclinical and clinical review. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2000;10:77–95.
38Wesolwska, A, Nikiforuk, A, Stachowicz, K. Anxiolytic‐like and antidepressant‐like effects produced by the selective 5‐HT6 receptor antagonist SB‐258585 after intrahippocampal administration to rats. Behav Pharmacol 2007;18:439–446.
39Bai, F, Yin, T, Johnstone, EM et al. Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of the guinea pig 5‐HT1E receptor. Eur J Pharmacol 2004;484:127–139.
40Li, XB, Inoue, T, Hashimoto, S, Koyama, T. Effect of chronic administration of flesinoxan and fluvoxamine on freezing behavior induced by conditioned fear. Eur J Pharmacol 2001;425:43–50.