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A method for measurement of the aberration status from high-resolution dark-field images is developed using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), called the Segmented Image Autocorrelation function Matrix (SIAM). The method employs an autocorrelation function from the segmented area in the defocused STEM images from an aligned crystalline specimen to measure the defocus and twofold astigmatism for the probe-forming system. The values measured using this method can be fed directly back to the instrument by changing the strength of the stigmator and the objective lens of the microscope. It is successfully demonstrated that the feedback system can automatically correct the defocus and twofold astigmatism of the microscope after several iterations using practical STEM images from an actual crystalline specimen.
Tilted illumination exit-wave restoration is compared for two aberration-corrected instruments at different accelerating voltages. The experimental progress of this technique is also reviewed and the significance of off-axial aberrations examined. Finally, the importance of higher order aberration compensation combined with careful correction of the lower order aberrations is highlighted.