To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter opens with a summary of advice on interviewing people with intellectual disabilities. Then the need rating algorithm is provided, as it applies to CANDID-S and Section 1 of CANDID-R. Need ratings of met (M), unmet (U) and no need (N) represent a change from the numerical ratings of CANDID 1st edition. Furthermore, a set of frequently asked questions and comprehensive answers is provided. The questions are applicable to both CANDID-S and CANDID-R.
A comprehensive training programme for completing the CANDID is described. It covers both versions of CANDID and provides all training slides and notes for the trainer. Learning points covered are the background to the CAN approach, the policy background to needs assessment in intellectual disabilities services, the concept of need, research using CANDID thus far, CANDID domains, need rating (no need, met need, unmet need), CANDID rating algorithm, structure of the CANDID (including trigger questions, anchor points, perceptions of help of interventions, and the differences between staff, service user and informal carers assessment of needs. Two case vignettes are provided along with expected ratings. A role play is suggested in order to give participants the opportunity to learn, practice or consolidate needs assessment using CANDID. A discussion focusses on the rationale behind each rating,
The development and psychometric evaluation of the CANDID is reported. It was developed by modification of the Camberwell Assessment of Need (CAN). The four principles that informed the development of the CAN and the CANDID are 1. people with intellectual disabilities and mental health problems have basic needs like everybody else along with specific needs associated with their conditions
2. the primary aim is to identify rather than describe in detail each need; once a need is identified more specialist assessment can be conducted in those domains
3. needs assessment should be possible to be conducted by a wide range of people, so that it can be applied in routine clinical practice
4. there may be differences of opinion about the existence of need amongst people involved and therefore different points of view should be recorded separately.
The reliability and validity of CAN have been investigated and found to be acceptable. Research studies using CANDID are summarised here.
The policy background is provided that underpins the assessment of needs in intellectual disabilities mental health services. Developments since the publication of the 1st edition of the CANDID are provided along with an updated list of measures and instruments used to assess needs in this population.
Step by step description of using the CANDID-R as a needs assessment tool is provided. This includes suggestions on what CANDID-S can be used for (as an audit and research tool, as well as as an aid for a CANDID-S user to familiarise themselves with the approach) and who can use CANDID-R (no formal training is required and can be used by any person with experience in working with adults with intellectual disabilities and mental health problems). Then, the question of who should be interviewed is addressed, whilst highlighting the importance of assessing needs of the person from three perspectives: that of the person being assessed, their informal carer and the staff involved in their care. A description is provided as to how the instrument is used by way of a semi-structured interview using trigger questions in each domain, to initiate discussion. As with CANDID-S, a timeframe of 4 weeks is used. In addition, the rating of informal and formal help and satisfaction with the latter is described. Thus, the interview with each respondent takes typically 20–30 minutes. Finally, the approach to recording the need ratings and summary scores is descibed: one recording sheet for each interview or record ratings on CANDID-R.