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This study uses an experiment where ferry passengers are sold hotel room “views” to evaluate the impact of wind turbines views on tourists’ vacation experience. Participants purchase a chance for a weekend hotel stay. Information about the hotel rooms was limited to the quality of the hotel and its distance from a large wind turbine, as well as whether or not a particular room would have a view of the turbine. While there was generally a negative effect of turbine views, this did not hold across all participants, and did not seem to be effected by distance or hotel quality.
The marketing of infant/child milk-based formulas (MF) contributes to suboptimal breast-feeding and adversely affects child and maternal health outcomes globally. However, little is known about recent changes in MF markets. The present study describes contemporary trends and patterns of MF sales at the global, regional and country levels.
Descriptive statistics of trends and patterns in MF sales volume per infant/child for the years 2008–2013 and projections to 2018, using industry-sourced data.
Eighty countries categorized by country income bracket, for developing countries by region, and in countries with the largest infant/child populations.
MF categories included total (for ages 0–36 months), infant (0–6 months), follow-up (7–12 months), toddler (13–36 months) and special (0–6 months).
In 2008–2013 world total MF sales grew by 40·8 % from 5·5 to 7·8 kg per infant/child/year, a figure predicted to increase to 10·8 kg by 2018. Growth was most rapid in East Asia particularly in China, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam and was led by the infant and follow-up formula categories. Sales volume per infant/child was positively associated with country income level although with wide variability between countries.
A global infant and young child feeding (IYCF) transition towards diets higher in MF is underway and is expected to continue apace. The observed increase in MF sales raises serious concern for global child and maternal health, particularly in East Asia, and calls into question the efficacy of current regulatory regimes designed to protect and promote optimal IYCF. The observed changes have not been captured by existing IYCF monitoring systems.
Preventing acts of terrorism remains one of the major tasks of domestic governments and regional and international organisations. Terrorism transcends borders, so anti-terrorism law must cross the boundaries of domestic, regional and international law. It also crosses traditional disciplinary boundaries between administrative, constitutional, criminal, financial, immigration, international and military law, as well as the law of war. This second edition provides a comprehensive resource on how domestic, regional and international responses to terrorism have developed since 2001. Chapters that focus on a particular country or region in the Americas, Europe, Africa and Asia are complemented by overarching thematic chapters that take a comparative approach to particular aspects of anti-terrorism law and policy.
Single-molecule magnets (SMM) are molecules that function as single-domain nanomagnets. SMMs have been characterized with a ground-state spin ranging from S = 4 to S = 13. A few SMMs have been identified that have half-integer spin ground states. [Cation][Mn12O12(O2CR)16(H2O)4] complexes, where R is some substituent, are SMMs that have either a S = 19/2 or 21/2 ground state. Quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) is observed for these half-integer-spin Kramers [Mn12]- degenerate SMMs in zero external magnetic field, as well as for a class of S = 9/2 Mn4 SMMs. The presence of QTM in zero external field is attributed to a transverse component of a nuclear spin field, dipolar interactions and intermolecular exchange interactions. The Landau-Zener method is used to measure the tunnel splitting as a function of transverse magnetic field for a single crystal of the S = 9/2 SMM [Mn4O3(OSiMe3)(OAc)3(dbm)3]. Spin parity dependent QTM is established. The effect of a magnetic exchange interaction between two S = 9/2 Mn4 SMMs upon QTM was studied for another compound. The hydrogen bonding and Cl…Cl contacts within a supramolecularly linked [Mn4]2 dimer lead to a weak antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between the two S = 9/2 SMMs. This interaction causes a shift (exchange bias) from zero field for the magnetic field at which QTM occurs.
Microwave response near zero magnetic field was observed in YAlO3 and CaYAlO4 crystals dilutely doped with Mn in concentration ranging from 0.05 to 2 atomic %. The response is due to non-resonant microwave absorption, which co-exists with normal electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) absorption due to different paramagnetic valence states of manganese. Mn2+ and Mn4+ charge states were identified in Mn-doped YAlO3, and Mn2+, Mn4+ and Mn5+ in Mn-doped CaYAlO4. The low field response has the opposite phase with respect to the paramagnetic absorption. This shows that Mn-doped YAlO3 and CaYAlO4 exhibit magnetically induced microwave absorption, which has a minimum at zero magnetic field and increases with the applied magnetic field. This effect is similar to microwave magneto-resistance effects observed in manganite perovskites, where spin-dependent electron tunneling occurs between ferromagnetically coupled manganese ions in different valence states. We show, however, that in the present case of diluted paramagnetic systems, magneto-induced microwave losses are due to intramolecular spin-dependent tunneling, where central paramagnetic ion does not change its charge state and spin-dependent charge migration occurs in the first coordination sphere of paramagnetic ion. Evidences are presented that this ion is Mn2+ exhibiting the highest electron spin S = 5/2.
We have deposited and investigated thin films of lanthanum hexaborate with 1% of the lanthanum replaced by cerium. In bulk single-crystalline form, this material has, due to the Kondo-mechanism, the highest known Seebeck coefficient at sub-K temperatures. Thus it is a good candidate for several thermoelectric applications at very low temperatures. We are studying the kinetic properties of thin films such as the conductivity and Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and the dependence of these properties on film thickness, substrate material and deposition conditions. The consequent theoretical performance limits on the device applications of these films are considered with a focus on detectors and refrigerators.