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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To examine the relationship between epigenetic age acceleration (EAA) and depressive symptoms in a cohort of African American women (AAW) with cardiometabolic conditions (CMC) including hypertension, diabetes, obesity; and to explore clinical phenotypes of depressive symptoms in this population. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This secondary analysis utilized genomic and longitudinal clinical data from AAW in the InterGEN cohort (n = 250). EWAS data was used to estimate EAA based on the Horvath method, which incorporates the DNA methylation statuses at 353 specific CpG sites and regresses this epigenetic age on chronological age to determine EAA. Pearson’s correlations and linear regression will be used to examine the relationship between EAA and depressive symptoms and a linear mixed model will investigate this relationship over four time points during a two-year period. Clinical phenotyping of depressive symptoms will be explored using a cluster analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Analysis is underway and will be complete by the time of presentation. We hypothesize that higher EAA will associate with higher depressive symptoms and poorer trajectories over time. We expect that this relationship may be meditated by the presence of CMCs. Exploratory analysis of clinical phenotyping is expected to provide descriptive evidence with respect to specific depressive symptoms or clusters which are most associated with EAA and CMCs. These results will address several gaps. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the relationship of EAA and depressive symptoms considering the role of CMC, in a historically understudied population with disproportionate risk. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Depression limits life quality and quantity and is highly comorbid in CMC. AAW have high risk of comorbidity, and this study furthers knowledge of depression and aging with a clinically accessible marker and aids recognition of a heterogenous phenotype in an undertreated population.
The relationship of plays to their sources has always been important evidence of chronology, authorship, and the derivation of textual variants. Such evidence has been particularly important to studies of Shakespeare’s early plays. But for centuries source scholarship has been based on random anecdotes: a scholar reading one text notices something about it that reminds them of another text. We can now re-evaluate those anecdotal findings by testing them systematically against digital databases. Such tests establish that Margaret's long speech at the beginning of Scene 2 of The First Part of the Contention is based on a passage in Hall's chronicle, whereas the variants in the Folio text of 2 Henry VI instead draw upon Holinshed's chronicle. This evidence supports revision rather than memorial reconstruction. Likewise, the links between the Contention speech and Edward II are best explained by Marlowe's authorship of both.
The ‘Eugenia psyllid’ or ‘Lilly pilly psyllid’, widely recognized in Australia and in the USA as Trioza eugeniae Froggatt (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is not T. eugeniae, but rather T. adventicia Tuthill. In this study we assessed morphological comparisons of materials from throughout the native and introduced ranges and re-examined original descriptions of both taxa, together with Froggatt's type specimens of T. eugeniae. Furthermore, through DNA barcoding analyses, we confirmed the validity of both T. adventicia and T. eugeniae as separate species. We re-described both species to include additional characters not previously included and designated a lectotype for T. eugeniae. T. eugeniae has smaller fore wings that are slightly more elongate. These lack infuscation around veins R and R1, vein Rs is relatively longer, meeting the costa closer to the wing apex; with certain veins bearing long, fine divergent setae, a character not previously described. It has consistently three inner and one outer metatibial spurs. The male parameres appear narrowly pyriform with a weak dorsolateral lobe and weakly sclerotized apices. T. adventicia has larger fore wings that are slightly more ovate with dark infuscation around veins R and R1; vein Rs is relatively shorter, meeting the costa further from the wing apex, with veins lacking long, fine divergent setae. The usual configuration of two inner and one outer metatibial spurs, previously used to separate the two species, appears inconsistent. The male parameres appear a little more broadly pyriform with slightly more sclerotized apices. T. eugeniae refers to a distinct species which has a restricted distribution only in its native range in southern subcoastal New South Wales, Australia. T. adventicia refers to a separate species, with a natural distribution in eastern subcoastal Australia, but has been introduced widely in southern Australia, to New Zealand and the USA. This study elucidates a long history of misidentification of T. eugeniae in the nursery industry and in almost 30 years of literature on its biological control in the USA. Regardless, the biological control program, unknowingly, targeted the correct species of psyllid, T. adventicia, in its foreign exploration and importation of the appropriate parasitoid as a biocontrol agent in the USA. Despite being firmly entrenched in both the nursery trade and scientific literature, the name T. eugeniae is misapplied. While the acceptance of the valid name, T. adventicia, might be regarded as both problematic and protracted, this is the correct taxonomical attribution.
The National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC) Twin Registry is one of the oldest, national population-based twin registries in the USA. It comprises 15,924 White male twin pairs born in the years 1917–1927 (N = 31.848), both of whom served in the armed forces, chiefly during World War II. This article updates activities in this registry since the most recent report in Twin Research and Human Genetics (Page, 2006). Records-based data include information from enlistment charts and Veterans Administration data linkages. There have been three major epidemiologic questionnaires and an education and earnings survey. Separate data collection efforts with the NAS-NRC registry include the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) subsample, the Duke Twins Study of Memory in Aging and a clinically based study of Parkinson’s disease. Progress has been made on consolidating the various data holdings of the NAS-NRC Twin Registry. Data that had been available through the National Academy of Sciences are now freely available through National Archive of Computerized Data on Aging (NACDA).
Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron disease resulting in muscle weakness, dysarthria and dysphagia, and ultimately respiratory failure leading to death. Half of the ALS patients survive less than 3 years, and 80% of the patients survive less than 5 years. Riluzole is the only approved medication in Canada with randomized controlled clinical trial evidence to slow the progression of ALS, albeit only to a modest degree. The Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry (CNDR) collects data on over 140 different neuromuscular diseases including ALS across ten academic institutions and 28 clinics including ten multidisciplinary ALS clinics. Methods: In this study, CNDR registry data were analyzed to examine potential differences in ALS care among provinces in time to diagnosis, riluzole and feeding tube use. Results: Significant differences were found among provinces, in time to diagnosis from symptom onset, in the use of riluzole and in feeding tube use. Conclusions: Future investigations should be undertaken to identify factors contributing to such differences, and to propose potential interventions to address the provincial differences reported.
Our objective was to examine and describe the common socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of first time older sex offenders.
Research papers published in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE were searched systematically. Following removal of duplicates and irrelevant papers, a total of 423 papers were reviewed to determine whether the selection criteria were met. A total of seven publications were included and evaluated by two researchers.
Of the seven publications, there were two retrospective research studies and five case reports. There was a higher proportion of neurocognitive disorder in this offender group and the victims were usually vulnerable individuals. Yet, cognitive assessments were rarely done or reported. Two subtypes of older sex offenders were identified: (i) offenders who had offended in the past but were not previously detected; (ii) first-time offenders with a high proportion of neurocognitive disorder.
There is a paucity of research in first time sex offending by older people. This review has highlighted a need for better designed studies to explore the characteristics of older sex offenders. Better collaboration between forensic and old-age psychiatric services is required for improved assessment and management of older sex offenders.
Driving in persons with dementia poses risks that must be counterbalanced with the importance of the care for autonomy and mobility. Physicians often find substantial challenges in the assessment and reporting of driving safety for persons with dementia. This paper describes a driving in dementia decision tool (DD-DT) developed to aid physicians in deciding when to report older drivers with either mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment to local transportation administrators.
A multi-faceted, computerized decision support tool was developed, using a systematic literature and guideline review, expert opinion from an earlier Delphi study, as well as qualitative interviews and focus groups with physicians, caregivers of former drivers with dementia, and transportation administrators. The tool integrates inputs from the physician-user about the patient's clinical and driving history as well as cognitive findings, and it produces a recommendation for reporting to transportation administrators. This recommendation is translated into a customized reporting form for the transportation authority, if applicable, and additional resources are provided for the patient and caregiver.
An innovative approach was needed to develop the DD-DT. The literature and guideline review confirmed the algorithm derived from the earlier Delphi study, and barriers identified in the qualitative research were incorporated into the design of the tool.
In Sovereignty in Cyberspace:Lex Lata Vel Non?, Michael Schmitt and Liis Vihul argue that territorial sovereignty is a primary rule of international law that limits cyber activities. They recognize, however, that not all cyber effects constitute violations of territorial sovereignty, and like Rule 4 in the Tallinn Manual 2.0 and its commentary, they acknowledge a distinct lack of consensus among the Tallinn participants on the critical question of applicable thresholds. Problematically, they do not identify the necessary state practice and opinio juris that would be required to establish either the primary rule that they proffer or the existence and contours of the exception they would recognize.
International law is a foundational pillar of the modern international order, and its applicability to both state and nonstate cyber activities is, by now, beyond question. However, owing to the unique and rapidly evolving nature of cyberspace, its ubiquitous interconnectivity, its lack of segregation between the private and public sectors, and its incompatibility with traditional concepts of geography, there are difficult and unresolved questions about exactly how international law applies to this domain. Chief among these is the question of the exact role that the principle of sovereignty plays in regulating states’ cyber activities.
There is a growing need for environmental scientists, geoscientists, and analysts skilled in the use of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray diffractometry. The challenge for educators is how to inspire, teach, and make the next generation of professional X-ray users and analysts ready for employment. In this paper, we present vignettes from teaching applications of X-ray analytical techniques at three scaffolded levels, from senior high school students, undergraduate science students, to postgraduate researchers. At each of these levels the pedagogical complexity increases, from simple data use at high school, to observing how data are generated and being able to constrain analytical uncertainty at the undergraduate level, to generating high-quality data at the postgraduate level. In all cases, transportable equipment is used in on-site analytical programs to inform the experimental design, level of sampling required, and research outcomes.
Excess body adiposity, especially abdominal obesity and ectopic fat accumulation, are key risk factors in the development of a number of chronic diseases. The advent of in vivo imaging methodologies that allow direct assessment of total body fat and its distribution have been pivotal in this process. They have helped to identify a number of sub-phenotypes in the general population whose metabolic risk factors are not commensurate with their BMI. At least two such sub-phenotypes have been identified: subjects with normal BMI, but excess intra-abdominal (visceral) fat (with or without increased ectopic fat) and subjects with elevated BMI (> 25 kg/m2) but low visceral and ectopic fat. The former sub-phenotype is associated with adverse metabolic profiles, while the latter is associated with a metabolically normal phenotype, despite a high BMI. Here, examples of these phenotypes are presented and the value of carrying out enhanced phenotypical characterisation of subjects in interventional studies discussed.
Animal studies and one large cross-sectional study of 752 healthy Chinese men and women suggest that monosodium glutamate (MSG) may be associated with overweight/obesity, and these findings raise public concern over the use of MSG as a flavour enhancer in many commercial foods. The aim of this analysis was to investigate a possible association between MSG intake and obesity, and determine whether a greater MSG intake is associated with a clinically significant weight gain over 5 years. Data from 1282 Chinese men and women who participated in the Jiangsu Nutrition Study were analysed. In the present study, MSG intake and body weight were quantitatively assessed in 2002 and followed up in 2007. MSG intake was not associated with significant weight gain after adjusting for age, sex, multiple lifestyle factors and energy intake. When total glutamate intake was added to the model, an inverse association between MSG intake and 5 % weight gain was found (P = 0·028), but when the model was adjusted for either rice intake or food patterns, this association was abolished. These findings indicate that when other food items or dietary patterns are accounted for, no association exists between MSG intake and weight gain.
Remission is a new research outcome indicating long-term wellness. Remission not only sets a standard for minimal severity of symptoms and signs (resolution); it also sets a standard for how long symptoms and signs need to remain at this minimal level (6 months). Individuals who achieve remission from schizophrenia have better subjective well-being and better functional outcomes than those who do not. Research suggests that remission can be achieved in 20–60% of people with schizophrenia. There is some evidence of the usefulness of remission as an outcome indicator for clinicians, service users and their carers. This article reviews the literature on remission in schizophrenia and asks whether it could be a useful clinical standard of well-being and a foundation for functional improvement and recovery.