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By the Hellenistic period, monumental stone theaters were being built throughout the Greek world in such great number that Pausanias later suggested that a polis without a theater (and from his context it is likely that he means a stone-built theater rather than a place in or near a sanctuary where wooden seats could be erected) was hardly worthy. Western Greek cities took part in this urban development, in some cases as early as the fourth century. Archaeological remains of eighteen stone theaters have been identified in Sicily and South Italy and at least ten others are suggested by literary sources (Map 6.1).
The comic playwright Epicharmus produced original dramas acclaimed and influential for many centuries thereafter. His dramas can be better understood in the framework of contemporary Sicilian poetry and performance genres and also with the help of the exiguous records about the context of performance in early Syracuse.
The plays of Epicharmus are often described as mythological burlesques without political relevance. The accidents of preservation and the scholarly assumption that Athens was unique in its encouragement of real social dialogue through theater have contributed to a widely held view that Syracusan playwrights were entertainers without serious social concerns or roles.
Studies of ancient theater have traditionally taken Athens as their creative center. In this book, however, the lens is widened to examine the origins and development of ancient drama, and particularly comedy, within a Sicilian and southern Italian context. Each chapter explores a different category of theatrical evidence, from the literary (fragments of Epicharmus and cult traditions) to the artistic (phylax vases) and the archaeological (theater buildings). Kathryn G. Bosher argues that, unlike in classical Athens, the golden days of theatrical production on Sicily coincided with the rule of tyrants, rather than with democratic interludes. Moreover, this was not accidental, but plays and the theater were an integral part of the tyrants' propaganda system. The volume will appeal widely to classicists and to theater historians.
Although the first 100 years of the history of theater in Sicily can be roughly sketched by following scattered references in texts and piecemeal archaeological clues, as I have tried to do in the first four chapters of this book, the most important and well-known pieces of evidence for Sicilian theater, and perhaps for much of early Greek theater in general, come from the fourth century. It was at this juncture of the classical and Hellenistic periods that both theaters and theatrical vases began to be produced in great number.
In recent years, scholars have argued for a profound connection between the cult of Demeter and the early development of theater in Greek Sicily. On close examination, however, the connection appears not to be organic, but an accident of local politics.
Toddler milk (i.e., a nutrient-fortified milk-based drink marketed for children 12-36 months old) is increasingly being marketed in the US despite not being recommended for young children. There is evidence of targeted toddler milk marketing to Latinos in the US. This study aimed to explore toddler milk perceptions and behaviors among Latino and non-Latino parents.
An online survey assessed toddler milk perceptions, behaviors, and interpretations of nutrition-related claims. Multivariable logistic and linear regression explored sociodemographic correlates of parent reported past purchases and perceived healthfulness.
National convenience sample of 1,078 US parents of children ages 2-12 (48% Latino).
About half of parents (51%) had previously purchased toddler milk and few (11%) perceived toddler milk as unhealthy. Latino parents were more likely to have purchased toddler milk than non-Latino parents (p<0.001), but there were no differences in perceived product healthfulness (p=0.47). Compared to parents born in the US, parents living in the US 10 years or less were more likely to have purchased toddler milk (p<0.001) and perceive toddler milk as healthier (p=0.002). Open-ended interpretations of claims were primarily positive, suggesting “health halo” effects.
Common misperceptions about toddler milk healthfulness suggest stronger labeling regulations are needed. Greater reported purchases by Latino parents and recent immigrants warrant further investigation.
Aeschylus and Aristophanes wrote for a crowd. Like Shakespeare, they did not only cater to the sophisticated and educated, but also drew “music from the dullest heart” and offered speeches for the “dumb and unaccomplished.” It is perhaps for this reason that, in the absence of direct written evidence from most citizens of ancient Athens, plays have sometimes been tapped for the views of the audience, and, by extension, for a good segment of the population.
Gelon and especially Hieron I supported and encouraged an active literary circle, including the playwrights Epicharmus, Deinolochus, Phormis, and, more briefly, Aeschylus. Literary and historical evidence suggests that their plays were performed on a grand scale. When the Deinomenids fell, a democratic government came to power and there is little evidence of large-scale public theatrical events for more than half a century. This period of turbulent democracy was brought to an end by Dionysius I (405–367), who not only ruled Syracuse, but extended his control over most of Sicily and up the mainland as far as the gulf of Taras and beyond.
We provide a new way of deriving a number of dynamic unobserved factors from a set of variables. We show how standard principal components may be expressed in state space form and estimated using the Kalman filter. To illustrate our procedure, we perform two exercises. First, we use it to estimate a measure of the current account imbalances among northern and southern euro area countries that developed during the period leading up to the outbreak of the euro area crisis, before looking at adjustment in the post-crisis period. Second, we show how these dynamic factors can improve forecasting of the euro exchange rate.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic forced American medical systems to adapt to high patient loads of respiratory disease. Its disruption of normal routines also brought opportunities for broader reform. The purpose of this article is to describe how the Carl R. Darnall Army Medical Center (CRDAMC), a medium-sized Army hospital, capitalized on opportunities to advance its strategic aims during the pandemic. Specifically, the hospital sequentially adopted virtual video visits, surged on preventative screenings, and made-over its image to appeal to patients seeking urgent care. These campaigns supported COVID-19 efforts and larger strategic goals simultaneously, and they will endure for years to come. Predictably, CRDAMC encountered obstacles in the course of its transformation. These obstacles and their follow-on lessons are provided to assist future medical leaders seeking quantum change in the opportunities made available by health crises.