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Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
The upsurge in the number of people affected by the COVID-19 is likely to lead to increased rates of emotional trauma and mental illnesses. This article systematically reviewed the available data on the benefits of interventions to reduce adverse mental health sequelae of infectious disease outbreaks, and to offer guidance for mental health service responses to infectious disease pandemic. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO, WHO Global Research Database on infectious disease, and the preprint server medRxiv were searched. Of 4278 reports identified, 32 were included in this review. Most articles of psychological interventions were implemented to address the impact of COVID-19 pandemic, followed by Ebola, SARS, and MERS for multiple vulnerable populations. Increasing mental health literacy of the public is vital to prevent the mental health crisis under the COVID-19 pandemic. Group-based cognitive behavioral therapy, psychological first aid, community-based psychosocial arts program, and other culturally adapted interventions were reported as being effective against the mental health impacts of COVID-19, Ebola, and SARS. Culturally-adapted, cost-effective, and accessible strategies integrated into the public health emergency response and established medical systems at the local and national levels are likely to be an effective option to enhance mental health response capacity for the current and for future infectious disease outbreaks. Tele-mental healthcare services were key central components of stepped care for both infectious disease outbreak management and routine support; however, the usefulness and limitations of remote health delivery should also be recognized.
X-ray reference powder patterns and structures have been determined for a series of cobalt- and tungsten-containing cubic alkaline-earth perovskites, (BaxSr1–x)2CoWO6 (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9). The structure of the end members of the series, Sr2CoWO6 and Ba2CoWO6, were tetragonal and cubic, respectively, agreeing with the literature data. From Rietveld refinements, it was found that when x = 0.1 and 0.2, the structure was tetragonal I4/m (a = 5.60481(6) and 5.62305(11) Å and c = 7.97989(12) and 7.9847(2) Å, respectively; Z = 2). When x > 0.2, the structure was cubic (Fm
m, No. 225; Z = 4) (from x = 0.3 to 0.9, a increases from 7.98399(13) to 8.08871(10) Å). This tetragonal series of compounds exhibit the characteristics of a distorted double-perovskite structure. The bond valence sum values for the alkaline-earth (Ba, Sr) sites in all (BaxSr1−x)2CoWO6 members are greater than the ideal value of 2.0, indicating over-bonding situation, whereas for the W sites, as x increases, a change from under-bonding to slightly over-bonding situation was observed. Density functional theory calculations revealed that while Sr2CoWO6 is a semiconductor, Ba2CoWO6 and SrBaCoWO6 are half-metals. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns of this series of compounds (BaxSr1−x)2CoWO6, with x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9, have been submitted to be included in the Powder Diffraction File.
The present study was designed to detect three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located on 22q11 that was thought as being of particularly importance for genetic research into schizophrenia. We recruited a total of 176 Chinese family trios of Han descent, consisting of mothers, fathers and affected offspring with schizophrenia for the genetic analysis. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) showed that of three SNPs, rs10314 in the 3′-untranslated region of the CLDN5 locus was associated with schizophrenia (χ2 = 4.75, P = 0.029). The other two SNPs, rs1548359 present in the CDC45L locus centromeric of rs10314 and rs739371 in the 5′-flanking region of the CLDN5 locus, did not show such an association. The global chi-square (χ2) test showed that the 3-SNP haplotype system was not associated with schizophrenia although the 1-df test for individual haplotypes showed that the rs1548359(C)-rs10314(G)-rs739371(C) haplotype was excessively non-transmitted (χ2 = 5.32, P = 0.02). Because the claudin proteins are a major component for barrier-forming tight junctions that could play a crucial role in response to changing natural, physiological and pathological conditions, the CLDN5 association with schizophrenia may be an important clue leading to look into a meeting point of genetic and environmental factors.
To determine whether chronic medical conditions mediate the association between depression and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality.
Data analyzed were from 6,394 subjects aged 25–74 years who participated in extensive health examinations in the NHEFS conducted between 1971 and 1975 and follow-up studies to 1992. CVD mortality was the endpoint. Depression predictors were clinically significant depressive symptoms at baseline by the GWB-D, and/or at 1982–84 by the CES-D (‘baseline’, ‘new’, or ‘twice’ depression). Chronic conditions were prevalent/incident high blood pressure, diabetes, and nonfatal CVD by examination and/or self-report. Mediation effects were assessed by stepwise adjustments of covariates and additive interactions in competing-risks regression models (accounting for other mortality causes) and logit models.
Baseline, new, and twice depression were significant predictors of CVD mortality in competing-risks models adjusted for demographics (HRs 1.3, 1.4, and 2.0), but effects were progressively weakened and became non-significant after adjustment for lifestyle factors, prevalent and incident medical conditions, respectively. CVD mortality risk was 80% higher for depression plus incident nonfatal CVD than without (HR 4.0 vs. 3.2, additive interaction), and mediation effects of depression via chronic medical conditions (particularly via incident nonfatal CVD) increased the risk by 2 to 11% in logit models, independent of all covariates.
Several levels of evidence suggest that the association between depression and CVD mortality is partially mediated by prevalent/incident chronic medical conditions, as well as unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. Patients presenting with clinically significant depressive symptoms, particularly if persistent, should be assessed for both chronic conditions and lifestyle risk factors.
We examine the dynamics of a thin film composed of a non-evaporative silicone oil (high surface tension) with trace amounts of an evaporative silicone oil (low surface tension) over an air bubble. An evaporating thin liquid film is formed atop a capillary-pinned air bubble by squeezing then holding the bubble against the air–silicone oil interface. Despite the simplicity of the system, complex oscillatory dynamical behaviour has been observed. Through interferometric experiments and numerical simulations, we show that as the bubble is moved towards the opposite interface, a dimple forms and during the subsequent holding period the dimple spontaneously oscillates. The evaporation-driven solutal–thermal Marangoni flow thickens the film and capillarity subsequently discharges the dimple. Solutal and thermal Marangoni flows both contribute to film thickening and as the local concentration of the non-evaporative species increases, the strength of the Marangoni flows increases. The oscillation frequency and waveform depend on initial composition and the maximum dimple volume. We suggest that these oscillatory solutions and the associated mechanism are a partial explanation for the film stabilization in multicomponent oils, reported experimentally in a recent publication (Chandran Suja et al., Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., vol. 115, 2018, pp. 7919–7924).
Nutritional therapy is a cornerstone of burns management. The optimal macronutrient intake for wound healing after burn injury has not been identified, although high-energy, high-protein diets are favoured. The present study aimed to identify the optimal macronutrient intake for burn wound healing. The geometric framework (GF) was used to analyse wound healing after a 10 % total body surface area contact burn in mice ad libitum fed one of the eleven high-energy diets, varying in macronutrient composition with protein (P5−60 %), carbohydrate (C20−75 %) and fat (F20−75 %). In the GF study, the optimal ratio for wound healing was identified as a moderate-protein, high-carbohydrate diet with a protein:carbohydrate:fat (P:C:F) ratio of 1:4:2. High carbohydrate intake was associated with lower mortality, improved body weight and a beneficial pattern of body fat reserves. Protein intake was essential to prevent weight loss and mortality, but a protein intake target of about 7 kJ/d (about 15 % of energy intake) was identified, above which no further benefit was gained. High protein intake was associated with delayed wound healing and increased liver and spleen weight. As the GF study demonstrated that an initial very high protein intake prevented mortality, a very high-protein, moderate-carbohydrate diet (P40:C42:F18) was specifically designed. The dynamic diet study was also designed to combine and validate the benefits of an initial very high protein intake for mortality, and subsequent moderate protein, high carbohydrate intake for optimal wound healing. The dynamic feeding experiment showed switching from an initial very high-protein diet to the optimal moderate-protein, high-carbohydrate diet accelerated wound healing whilst preventing mortality and liver enlargement.
In the livestock husbandry compensatory growth may be explored as a means to improve nutrient utilization, to reduce gut health problems due to excess protein intake, to simplify feeding strategies and thus to improve production efficiencies. This study investigated the effects of early protein restriction (EPR) and early antibiotic intervention (EAI) on growth performance, intestinal morphology, colonic bacteria, metabolites and mucosal gene expressions during the restriction phase and re-alimentation phase. A total of 64 piglets (10.04 ± 0.73 kg) were randomly divided into four treatment groups according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two levels of proteins (14% v. 20%) and two levels of antibiotics (0 v. 50 mg/kg kitasamycin and 20 mg/kg colistin sulphate). After a 30-day restriction phase with four kinds of diets, all groups were fed the same diets for another 74 days. The results showed that EPR decreased BW, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake in the restriction phase (P < 0.01) and increased ADG on days 66 to 104 of the late re-alimentation phase. Early protein restriction could decrease the villus height in the jejunum (P < 0.05), while shifting to the same diets restored the villus height. Meanwhile, during the re-alimentation phase, pigs in the protein restriction groups had increased concentrations of total short chain fatty acids (P < 0.05), and modified the abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the colon. Furthermore, the lower microbial diversity caused by EPR was improved, and gene expression analysis indicated a better barrier function in the colon. During the whole trial, EAI had no interaction with EPR and played a dispensable role in compensatory growth. Collectively, the retardation of growth caused by EPR can be compensated for in the later stages of pig raising, and accompanied by altered intestinal morphology, microbial composition.
Light colors may affect poultry behaviors, well-being and performance. However, preferences of layer pullets for light colors are not fully understood. This study was conducted to investigate the pullet preferences for four light-emitting diode colors, including white, red, green and blue, in a lighting preference test system. The system contained four identical compartments each provided with a respective light color. The pullets were able to move freely between the adjacent compartments. A total of three groups of 20 Chinese domestic Jingfen layer pullets (54 to 82 days of age) were used for the test. Pullet behaviors were continuously recorded and summarized for each light color/compartment into daily time spent (DTS), daily percentage of time spent (DPTS), daily times of visit (DTV), duration per visit, daily feed intake (DFI), daily feeding time (DFT), feeding rate (FR), distribution of pullet occupancy and hourly time spent. The results showed that the DTS (h/pullet·per day) were 3.9±0.4 under white, 1.4±0.3 under red, 2.2±0.3 under green and 4.5±0.4 under blue light, respectively. The DTS corresponded to 11.7% to 37.6% DPTS in 12-h lighting periods. The DTV (times/pullet·per day) were 84±5 under white, 48±10 under red, 88±10 under green and 94±8 under blue light. Each visit lasted 1.5 to 3.2 min. The DFI (g/pullet·per day) were 27.6±1.7 under white, 7.1±1.6 under red, 15.1±1.1 under green and 23.1±2.0 under blue light. The DFT was 0.18 to 0.65 h/pullet·per day and the FR was 0.57 to 0.75 g/min. For most of the time during the lighting periods, six to 10 birds stayed under white, and one to five birds stayed under red, green and blue light. Pullets preferred to stay under blue light when the light was on and under white light 4 h before the light off. Overall, pullets preferred blue light the most and red light the least. These findings substantiate the preferences of layer pullets for light colors, providing insights for use in the management of light-emitting diode colors to meet pullet needs.
Background: With advancements in technology, the use of video as a pedagogical method in medical education has gained in popularity, and may aid in teaching clinical skills. In the UBC MD program, videos have been used to assist in teaching the -neurological exam for several decades, but the currently available videos are outdated and not of contemporary quality. Methods: Drawing upon the cognitive theory of multimedia learning from Mayer and Moreno (2003) which describes methods to maximize learning by minimizing cognitive load, we developed a tool to systematically assess pedagogical videos. We inventoried twelve existing neurology videos and analyzed their use of methods such as weeding (removing extraneous information), signalling (visually highlighting important information), and chunking (grouping similar information together). Results: Generally, older videos had poor audiovisual quality that introduced extraneous load, while more current videos had higher production value, albeit inconsistent with the depth of their content. We therefore produced a new three-part neurological exam video series. We wrote storyboards, filmed with a focus on visually depicting the exam and findings, and edited to elucidate relevant physiological concepts. Conclusions: The end product has been adopted by the UBC MD program, and can be shared with other programs who may wish to adopt them.
Multimorbidity is common but little is known about its relationship with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress Study participants underwent polysomnography. Chronic diseases (CDs) were determined by biomedical measurement (diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obesity), or self-report (depression, asthma, cardiovascular disease, arthritis). Associations between CD count, multimorbidity, apnea-hyponea index (AHI) and OSA severity and quality-of-life (QoL; mental & physical component scores), were determined using multinomial regression analyses, after adjustment for age.
Of the 743 men participating in the study, overall 58% had multimorbidity (2+ CDs), and 52% had OSA (11% severe). About 70% of those with multimorbidity had undiagnosed OSA. Multimorbidity was associated with AHI and undiagnosed OSA. Elevated CD count was associated with higher AHI value and increased OSA severity.
We demonstrate an independent association between the presence of OSA and multimorbidity in this representative sample of community-based men. This effect was strongest in men with moderate to severe OSA and three or more CDs, and appeared to produce a greater reduction in QoL when both conditions were present together.
Human cystic echinococcosis is a widespread, chronic, endemic, helminthic zoonosis caused by larval tapeworms of the species Echinococcus granulosus. At present, there is no rational and effective therapy for patients with echinococcosis. The present study evaluated whether the combination of alkaloids from Sophora moorcroftiana seeds (SMSa2) and Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) was effective in the treatment of experimental echinococcosis. After 20 weeks of secondary infection with protoscoleces, mice were randomly allocated to five groups and treated for 6 weeks by daily intragastric administration of albendazole (ABZ, 100 mg/kg), SMSa2 (100 mg/kg), BCG (abdominal subcutaneous injection at 5 × 106 CFU), SMSa2 + BCG (100 mg/kg SMSa2 and 5 × 106 CFU BCG) or normal saline (untreated group), respectively. The results indicated a significant reduction in the weight of hydatid cysts in the SMSa2 + BCG group compared with the untreated, SMSa2 and BCG groups. The rate of inhibition of hydatid cyst growth in the SMSa2 + BCG group (76.1%) was obviously increased compared with that in the SMSa2 (25.7%) and BCG (26.6%) groups, respectively. Compared with the untreated control, the SMSa2 + BCG group showed a non-significant increase in serum interleukin-4 (IL-4). Furthermore, the serum levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) between the untreated and SMSa2 + BCG groups were not statistically different. Therefore, the combination of alkaloids from S. moorcroftiana seeds and BCG can reduce cyst burden and is an effective therapeutic regimen against echinococcosis.
Two middle Permian (Capitanian) to Early Triassic (Griesbachian) rugosochonetidae brachiopod genera, Fusichonetes Liao in Zhao et al., 1981 and Tethyochonetes Chen et al., 2000, have been regarded as two distinct taxa and used as such for a wide range of discussions including biostratigraphy, paleoecology, paleobiogeography, and the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction. However, the supposed morphological distinctions between the two taxa are subtle at best and appear to represent two end members of a continuum of morphological variations. In this study, we applied a range of quantitative and analytical procedures (bivariate plots, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, categorical principle component analysis, and cladistic analysis) to a dataset of 15 quantified morphological variables, integrating both key external and internal characters, measured from 141 specimens of all well-known Fusichonetes and Tethyochonetes in order to test whether or not these two genera could be distinguished in view of the chosen characters. The results indicate that these two genera are morphologically indistinguishable and that the species classification previously applied to these two genera appears to represent polyphyletic groupings within the genus Fusichonetes. Consequently, Tethyochonetes is concluded to be a junior synonym of Fusichonetes. The diagnosis and key characteristics of Fusichonetes are clarified and refined based on a new suite of well-preserved specimens from the Permian−Triassic Xinmin section in South China.
Five-dimensional gyrokinetic continuum simulations of electrostatic plasma turbulence in a straight, open-field-line geometry have been performed using a full-
discontinuous-Galerkin approach implemented in the Gkeyll code. While various simplifications have been used for now, such as long-wavelength approximations in the gyrokinetic Poisson equation and the Hamiltonian, these simulations include the basic elements of a fusion-device scrape-off layer: localised sources to model plasma outflow from the core, cross-field turbulent transport, parallel flow along magnetic field lines, and parallel losses at the limiter or divertor with sheath-model boundary conditions. The set of sheath-model boundary conditions used in the model allows currents to flow through the walls. In addition to details of the numerical approach, results from numerical simulations of turbulence in the Large Plasma Device, a linear device featuring straight magnetic field lines, are presented.
Studies from high-income countries report moderate-to-strong positive associations between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and other mental disorders, but there is little evidence about the comorbidity of AUD from low-and-middle-income countries.
A sample of 74 752 adults from five provinces that account for >12% of China's adult population was screened using the General Health Questionnaire, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was administered by psychiatrists to a subsample of 9619 males. The associations between AUD and other mental disorders at each site and the characteristics of men with AUD with and without comorbid mental disorders were estimated using logistic regression and summarized across sites using meta-analysis. Generalized estimation equations estimated the associations between the clinical features of alcohol dependence and comorbidity.
Robust inverse associations were found between current AUD and any mood disorder (adjusted OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4–0.8) and any anxiety disorder (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3–1.0). Compared with men without AUD, men with AUD without comorbid disorders were more likely to be middle-aged, to be currently married, and to have higher family incomes. Men with comorbid AUD and other disorders were more likely to have the clinical features of alcohol dependence than men with AUD without comorbid disorders.
Inverse associations between AUD and other mental disorders and the higher social status of men with AUD than men without AUD found in this large, representative sample of community-dwelling Chinese males highlight the importance of considering the local substance-use culture when designing clinical or preventive interventions for addictive conditions.
To investigate patterns of survival and estimate conditional survival rates among brain cancer patients in Canada. METHODS: Canadian Cancer Registry data were obtained for all patients with primary brain cancer diagnosed between 1992 and 2008 (n=38,095). Follow-up ended with patient death or December 31, 2008, whichever occurred first. Crude Kaplan-Meier estimates were calculated at one, two, and five years post-diagnosis and also used to estimate conditional survival (restricted to 2000-2008). Age group, sex, residence and microscopic confirmation were considered in estimating rates for major histology types using multivariate models. RESULTS: The overall five-year survival rate was 27%. Oligodendrogliomas had the highest 5-year survival rate (65%, 95% CI: 62.5-67.4%) and glioblastomas the lowest (4.0%, 95% CI: 3.7-4.3%). Compared to Ontario, the age- and sex-adjusted 5-year glioblastoma survival estimates were lower in British Columbia, Alberta and Manitoba-Saskatchewan, lower in all other regions for diffuse astrocytoma, and lower in Manitoba-Saskatchewan for anaplastic astrocytomas. Estimates were significantly higher for oligodendrogliomas in Alberta, and for anaplastic oligodendrogliomas in Alberta and Quebec (P<0.05). Longer term conditional survival rates (surviving an additional 2 years 1-4 years after diagnosis) varied by histologic group. CONCLUSION: There is a need to further explore the underlying reasons for the observed variation in survival rates by region in an effort to improve the prognosis of brain cancer in the Canadian patient population. Conditional survival information has value for clinicians as they plan the course of treatment and follow-up for individual patients.
Toxocariasis is a very prevalent zoonotic disease worldwide. Recently, investigators have focused more on Toxocara spp. seroprevalence in humans. Information regarding Toxocara seroprevalence in people from different ethnic backgrounds in China is limited. For this study, blood samples were collected from a total of 802 Han, 520 Korean, 303 Manchu, and 217 Mongol subjects from Jilin and Shandong provinces. The overall Toxocara seroprevalence was 16·07% (14·21% Han, 20·58% Korean, 11·22% Manchu, 18·89% Mongol). Living in suburban or rural areas, having dogs at home, exposure to soil, and consumption of raw/undercooked meat were risk factors for Toxocara infection. Exposure to soil was identified as the major risk factor for Toxocara seropositivity in all of the tested ethnicities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report concerning Toxocara infection in Manchus and Mongols in China. The present study provided baseline data for effective prevention strategies of toxocariasis in northeast China and recommends improvements in personal hygiene standards to achieve this goal.
We aimed to evaluate the occurrence of work-related injuries after Hurricane Sandy potentially related to response and recovery.
Emergency and hospital discharges (patients aged 18-65 years) with a diagnosis of unintentional injury were obtained from the New Jersey Department of Health. Work-related injuries were identified as those with a workers’ compensation payer or other work-related codes. Counties were categorized as high-, medium-, or low-impact areas. Poisson regression analysis was used to compare the rate of work-related injury the year following Sandy landfall with the 3 previous years.
Total work-related injuries declined the week immediately after Sandy (rate ratio [RR]: 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69-1.05) and no overall increase was found in the year after Hurricane Sandy. However, high-impact counties showed an elevated risk of work-related injuries in the first and third quarters after Hurricane Sandy among men, especially for blacks and Hispanics. The greatest excesses occurred in the third quarter after the storm, May to July, for falls (RR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.08-1.57), cut/pierce injuries (RR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.09-1.40), struck-by injuries (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.02-1.34), and overexertion (RR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.10-1.44).
Hospital data suggested an increase in injuries associated with rebuilding and recovery rather than with initial response. Future efforts aimed at prevention should evaluate the mechanisms and circumstances of injury in more detail. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:394–404)