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Disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are heterogeneous at the clinical and the biological level. Therefore, the aims were to dissect the heterogeneous neurodevelopmental deviations of the affective brain circuitry and provide an integration of these differences across modalities.
We combined two novel approaches. First, normative modeling to map deviations from the typical age-related pattern at the level of the individual of (i) activity during emotion matching and (ii) of anatomical images derived from DBD cases (n = 77) and controls (n = 52) aged 8–18 years from the EU-funded Aggressotype and MATRICS consortia. Second, linked independent component analysis to integrate subject-specific deviations from both modalities.
While cases exhibited on average a higher activity than would be expected for their age during face processing in regions such as the amygdala when compared to controls these positive deviations were widespread at the individual level. A multimodal integration of all functional and anatomical deviations explained 23% of the variance in the clinical DBD phenotype. Most notably, the top marker, encompassing the default mode network (DMN) and subcortical regions such as the amygdala and the striatum, was related to aggression across the whole sample.
Overall increased age-related deviations in the amygdala in DBD suggest a maturational delay, which has to be further validated in future studies. Further, the integration of individual deviation patterns from multiple imaging modalities allowed to dissect some of the heterogeneity of DBD and identified the DMN, the striatum and the amygdala as neural signatures that were associated with aggression.
How do criminal lawyers sequence and give shape to their reasoning about criminal liability? Why do they ‘structure’ it as they do? This chapter looks at structure within legal reasoning as a means of understanding the law in the minds of criminal lawyers. It seeks to better understand how structures function and interact. One benefit of doing so is to help lawyers foreign to the legal systems analyse liability as a native might. Another benefit is that, by looking at two paradigmatic orchestrations of the many substantive, organisational and practical issues within criminal legal reasoning, the interconnectedness, priority and valuing of those elements can be revealed and made comparable.
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) frequently co-occur, and large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified significant genetic correlations between these disorders.
We used the largest published GWAS for AUD (total cases = 77 822) and SCZ (total cases = 46 827) to identify genetic variants that influence both disorders (with either the same or opposite direction of effect) and those that are disorder specific.
We identified 55 independent genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms with the same direction of effect on AUD and SCZ, 8 with robust effects in opposite directions, and 98 with disorder-specific effects. We also found evidence for 12 genes whose pleiotropic associations with AUD and SCZ are consistent with mediation via gene expression in the prefrontal cortex. The genetic covariance between AUD and SCZ was concentrated in genomic regions functional in brain tissues (p = 0.001).
Our findings provide further evidence that SCZ shares meaningful genetic overlap with AUD.
Lawyers have drawn on the distinction between crime and tort for a long time and in various contexts. There exist today many different criteria which supposedly circumscribe and demarcate the domains of crime and tort. English scholars, for instance, refer to several indicia such as:
1. moral or natural description of the wrong;
2. characterisation of the process of remedying the wrong as being of public concern rather than merely private;
3. the presence of measures that are typically perceived as quintessential forms of criminal sanctions (‘penalty’) or compensation;
4. a positivist approach of some kind, focusing on the process of creating the legal classifications and thus their resulting form;
5. a procedural approach, focusing on which court or what other legal actor deals with the issue.
Similar elements and characterisations can be found in the German discussion. Tort is primarily associated with the compensation of present and the prevention of future damage, whereas crime authorises state punishment the ultimate purpose of which could vary and has done so over time. German scholars emphasise that it is the stigmatising effect of public condemnation (sozialethisches Unwerturteil) inherent in criminal convictions that sets the field of crime apart from any other form of public sanction. However, since very few forms of punishment have come to be regarded as quintessentially criminal – imprisonment, most notably – it has basically fallen to the legislature to create criminal sanctions which can be imposed as part of a criminal conviction. Other definitional elements such as imposition by a criminal court or tying its legitimacy to infringements of fundamental social norms can also be found in German publications on the nature of crime. German scholars have conceived of the so-called Rechtsgutstheorie (theory of protected legal interests) in order to delimit the legitimate scope of deviations from social norms that deserve punishment. Although it has not been recognised as a constitutional concept under the German Basic Law (Grundgesetz), the theory still finds widespread support among academics. The protection of (positively recognised) legal interests also lies at the heart of the law of delict. But the idea of Rechtsgüterschutz is, at least in theory, a much richer concept claiming to guide and constrain legislative powers, whereas delictual liability builds on positive private law provisions and rights and thus does not have a similarly critical nature.
Pathological gambling is a behavioural addiction with negative economic, social, and psychological consequences. Identification of contributing genes and pathways may improve understanding of aetiology and facilitate therapy and prevention. Here, we report the first genome-wide association study of pathological gambling. Our aims were to identify pathways involved in pathological gambling, and examine whether there is a genetic overlap between pathological gambling and alcohol dependence.
Four hundred and forty-five individuals with a diagnosis of pathological gambling according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders were recruited in Germany, and 986 controls were drawn from a German general population sample. A genome-wide association study of pathological gambling comprising single marker, gene-based, and pathway analyses, was performed. Polygenic risk scores were generated using data from a German genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence.
No genome-wide significant association with pathological gambling was found for single markers or genes. Pathways for Huntington's disease (P-value = 6.63 × 10−3); 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signalling (P-value = 9.57 × 10−3); and apoptosis (P-value = 1.75 × 10−2) were significant. Polygenic risk score analysis of the alcohol dependence dataset yielded a one-sided nominal significant P-value in subjects with pathological gambling, irrespective of comorbid alcohol dependence status.
The present results accord with previous quantitative formal genetic studies which showed genetic overlap between non-substance- and substance-related addictions. Furthermore, pathway analysis suggests shared pathology between Huntington's disease and pathological gambling. This finding is consistent with previous imaging studies.
Late Quaternary landscapes of unglaciated Beringia were largely shaped by ice-wedge polygon tundra. Ice Complex (IC) strata preserve such ancient polygon formations. Here we report on the Yukagir IC from Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island in northeastern Siberia and suggest that new radioisotope disequilibria (230Th/U) dates of the Yukagir IC peat confirm its formation during the Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 7a–c interglacial period. The preservation of the ice-rich Yukagir IC proves its resilience to last interglacial and late glacial–Holocene warming. This study compares the Yukagir IC to IC strata of MIS 5, MIS 3, and MIS 2 ages exposed on Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island. Besides high intrasedimental ice content and syngenetic ice wedges intersecting silts, sandy silts, the Yukagir IC is characterized by high organic matter (OM) accumulation and low OM decomposition of a distinctive Drepanocladus moss-peat. The Yukagir IC pollen data reveal grass-shrub-moss tundra indicating rather wet summer conditions similar to modern ones. The stable isotope composition of Yukagir IC wedge ice is similar to those of the MIS 5 and MIS 3 ICs pointing to similar atmospheric moisture generation and transport patterns in winter. IC data from glacial and interglacial periods provide insights into permafrost and climate dynamics since about 200 ka.
The government publishes 3 different public report surgical site infection (SSI) metrics, all called standardized infection ratios (SIRs), that impact perceived hospital quality. We conducted a non-random cross-sectional observational pilot study of 20 California hospitals that voluntarily submitted colon surgery and SSI data. Discordant SIR values, leading to contradictory conclusions, occurred in 35% of these hospitals.
This paper presents a hybrid antenna design for an optically powered super high frequency (SHF) radio frequency identification transponder applicable for the integration into metal. The key feature of the antenna is its ability to receive microwave signals at SHF for data communication and optical signals for the power supply of the transponder. The antenna design is based on a circular waveguide which is filled with a bundle of polymer optical fibers to guide light to the photodiodes. In addition, a transition is placed within the circular waveguide to transfer the waveguide mode of the SHF signal into a microstrip mode which is a more suitable structure for the integration of electronic transponder components. This paper discusses the constraints and solutions for the aforementioned combination of SHF microwave and light. The figures of merit of the optical power supply are presented, including considerations of the light distribution and the obtained power as a function of the incident angle and the used polymer optical fiber diameter. Furthermore, the measured gain and return loss of the SHF antenna structure is compared to the simulated results.
Hybrid field-effect-transistors (FETs) with germanium nanowire (NW) arrays and organic gate dielectric are presented. The nanowire deposition steps are fully compatible with printed electronics route. NW FETs demonstrate good performance with On/Off ratios of ~103 and hole mobilities of ~13 cm2/Vs in both nitrogen and air atmosphere. These results suggest that the hybrid nanowire FETs could be used in large area inexpensive electronics.
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing strains of bacteria have become a major public health concern. In the present study, the incidence of carriage of ESBL-producing strains was analyzed for general trends and seasonality.
Monthly data on ESBL-producing strains were collected retrospectively at 2 large university hospitals in Germany. The mean monthly temperatures for the 2 settings were collected from Germany's national meteorological service. Multivariable time series analyses were performed to explain variations in the monthly incidence densities of carriage of ESBL-producing bacteria (number of cases involving ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and/or Klebsiella species per 1,000 patient days). For the final models, we incorporated variables for the ascending linear trends and other variables representing the mean monthly temperature.
Our models demonstrated that there was an increasing trend in the incidences of carriage of ESBL-producing bacteria. In addition, the incidences of carriage of all ESBL-producing bacteria responded positively to the mean temperature, meaning that during the summer, more cases involving ESBL-producing bacteria were detected than during the winter. The same methodology was also applied to the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage, but no association was found with the mean temperature.
In the present study, we demonstrated that the monthly incidence of carriage of ESBL-producing bacteria was highly correlated with the mean monthly temperature, a fact that should be considered in experimental studies as an additional parameter influencing the incidence of ESBL-producing bacteria.
Four firn cores were retrieved in 2007 at two ridges in the area of the Ekström Ice Shelf, Dronning Maud Land, coastal East Antarctica, in order to investigate the recent regional climate variability and the potential for future extraction of an intermediate-depth core. Stable water-isotope analysis, tritium content and electrical conductivity were used to date the cores. For the period 1981–2006 a strong and significant correlation between the stable-isotope composition of firn cores in the hinterland and mean monthly air temperatures at Neumayer station was (r = 0.54−0.71). No atmospheric warming or cooling trend is inferred from our stable-isotope data for the period 1962–2006. The stable-isotope record of the ice/firn cores could expand well beyond the meteorological record of the region. No significant temporal variation of accumulation rates was detected. However, decreasing accumulation rates were found from coast to hinterland, as well as from east (Halvfarryggen) to west (Søråsen). The deuterium excess (d) exhibits similar differences (higher d at Søråsen, lower d at Halvfarryggen), with a weak negative temporal trend on Halvfarryggen (0.04‰ a−1), probably implying increasing oceanic input. We conclude that Halvfarryggen acts as a natural barrier for moisture-carrying air masses circulating in the region from east to west.
To determine the impact of antibiotic consumption and alcohol-based hand disinfection on the incidences of nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).
Two multivariate time-series analyses were performed that used as dependent variables the monthly incidences of nosocomial MRSA infection and CDI at the Freiburg University Medical Center during the period January 2003 through October 2007. The volume of alcohol-based hand rub solution used per month was quantified in liters per 1,000 patient-days. Antibiotic consumption was calculated in terms of the number of defined daily doses per 1,000 patient-days per month.
The use of alcohol-based hand rub was found to have a significant impact on the incidence of nosocomial MRSA infection (P<.001). The multivariate analysis (R2 = 0.66) showed that a higher volume of use of alcohol-based hand rub was associated with a lower incidence of nosocomial MRSA infection. Conversely, a higher level of consumption of selected antimicrobial agents was associated with a higher incidence of nosocomial MRSA infection. This analysis showed this relationship was the same for the use of second-generation cephalosporins (P = .023), third-generation cephalosporins (P = .05), fluoroquinolones (P = .01), and lincosamides (P = .05). The multivariate analysis (R2 = 0.55) showed that a higher level of consumption of third-generation cephalosporins (P = .008), fluoroquinolones (P = .084), and/or macrolides (P = .007) was associated with a higher incidence of CDI. A correlation with use of alcohol-based hand rub was not detected.
In 2 multivariate time-series analyses, we were able to show the impact of hand hygiene and antibiotic use on the incidence of nosocomial MRSA infection, but we found no association between hand hygiene and incidence of CDI.
OLED with non-constant dopant concentration profiles have been processed by means of organic vapour phase deposition (OVPD) and were compared with regard to their luminous current efficiencies. Especially when driven at ultra-high luminance (>10,000 cd/A), OLED with a dopant concentration profile starting with a rather high dopant concentration on the anode side of the emissive layer showed improved luminous current efficiencies compared to their conventional counterparts.
To further investigate this effect, the width and location of the recombination zone have been simulated for all investigated concentration profiles by numerical solution of the semiconductor device equations using experimentally determined doping-dependent charge carrier mobilities. The obtained theoretical results are discussed with regard to the accomplished experiments.
Silver clusters (4-150 nm) anchored on nanostructured silica particles (300-400 m2/g) with closely controlled Ag content and size were made in one-step by scalable flame spray pyrolysis of Ag-nitrate and hexamethyldisiloxane containing solutions. Composite Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by S/TEM, EDX spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption. The activity of such nanoparticles against the Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli was investigated by monitoring the recombinantly synthesized green fluorescent protein. It is shown that higher Ag content particles exhibit a stronger antibacterial effect.
The current and luminous efficacy of a red phosphorescent organic light emitting diode (OLED) with sharp interfaces between each of the organic layers can be increased from 18.8 cd/A and 14.1 lm/W (at 1,000 cd/m2) to 36.5 cd/A (+94%, 18% EQE) and 33.7 lm/W (+139%) by the introduction of a layer cross-fading zone at the hole transport layer (HTL) to emission layer (EL) interface. Layer cross-fading describes a procedure of linearly decreasing the fraction in growth rate of an organic layer during deposition over a certain thickness while simultaneously increasing the fraction in growth rate of the following layer. For OLED processing and layer cross-fading organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD) is used. The typical observation of a roll-off in current efficacy of phosphorescent OLED to higher luminance can be reduced significantly. An interpenetrating network of a prevailing hole and a prevailing electron conducting material is created in the cross-fading zone. This broadens the recombination zone and furthermore lowers the driving voltage. The concept of layer cross-fading to increase the efficacies is suggested to be useful in multi-colored OLED stacks as well.
From 1999 to 2001 a 724 m deep ice core was drilled on Akademii Nauk ice cap, Severnaya Zemlya, to gain high-resolution proxy data from the central Russian Arctic. Despite strong summertime meltwater percolation, this ice core provides valuable information on the regional climate and environmental history. We present data of stable water isotopes, melt-layer content and major ions from the uppermost 57 m of this core, covering the period 1883–1998. Dating was achieved by counting seasonal isotopic cycles and using reference horizons. Multi-annual δ18O values reflect Eurasian sub-Arctic and Arctic surface air-temperature variations. We found strong correlations to instrumental temperature data from some stations (e.g. r = 0.62 for Vardø, northern Norway). The δ18O values show pronounced 20th-century temperature changes, with a strong rise about 1920 and the absolute temperature maximum in the 1930s. A recent decrease in the deuterium-excess time series indicates an increasing role of the Kara Sea as a regional moisture source. From the multi-annual ion variations we deduced decreasing sea-salt aerosol trends in the 20th century, as reflected by sodium and chloride, whereas sulphate and nitrate are strongly affected by anthropogenic pollution.