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Understanding the interaction between cooperation and conflict in establishing effective social behaviour is a fundamental challenge facing societies. Reflecting the breadth of current research in this area, this volume brings together experts from biology to political science to examine the cooperation–conflict interface at multiple levels, from genes to human societies. Exploring both the exciting new directions and the biggest challenges in their fields, the authors focus on identifying commonalities across species and disciplines to help understand what features are shared broadly and what are limited to specific contexts. Each chapter is written to be accessible to students and researchers from interdisciplinary backgrounds, with text boxes explaining terminology and concepts that may not be familiar across disciplinary boundaries, while being a valuable resource to experts in their fields.
Numerous empirical studies have examined the role of third-party peacekeeping in reducing violence around the world. Their results reveal an extraordinary relationship between peacekeepers and peace, notwithstanding a number of well-known problems. This review article has three goals. The first is to summarize the results of past empirical research to move the debate beyond the question of whether peacekeeping works to the more pressing questions of how, when and why it works. The second is to reveal the limitations of the current quantitative research in order to identify areas in which scholars can make big, new contributions to the field. The final goal is to propose a new research agenda that is heavily evaluative – one that informs policy makers about the specific practices, mission compositions, and mandates that work, and identifies the local, regional, and international conditions that amplify or diminish peacekeeping's effectiveness. This type of research could help reduce the costs of peacekeeping operations, eliminate some of the negative consequences of interventions and save even more lives.
Individuals with schizophrenia are at higher risk of physical illnesses, which are a major contributor to their 20-year reduced life expectancy. It is currently unknown what causes the increased risk of physical illness in schizophrenia.
To link genetic data from a clinically ascertained sample of individuals with schizophrenia to anonymised National Health Service (NHS) records. To assess (a) rates of physical illness in those with schizophrenia, and (b) whether physical illness in schizophrenia is associated with genetic liability.
We linked genetic data from a clinically ascertained sample of individuals with schizophrenia (Cardiff Cognition in Schizophrenia participants, n = 896) to anonymised NHS records held in the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) databank. Physical illnesses were defined from the General Practice Database and Patient Episode Database for Wales. Genetic liability for schizophrenia was indexed by (a) rare copy number variants (CNVs), and (b) polygenic risk scores.
Individuals with schizophrenia in SAIL had increased rates of epilepsy (standardised rate ratio (SRR) = 5.34), intellectual disability (SRR = 3.11), type 2 diabetes (SRR = 2.45), congenital disorders (SRR = 1.77), ischaemic heart disease (SRR = 1.57) and smoking (SRR = 1.44) in comparison with the general SAIL population. In those with schizophrenia, carrier status for schizophrenia-associated CNVs and neurodevelopmental disorder-associated CNVs was associated with height (P = 0.015–0.017), with carriers being 7.5–7.7 cm shorter than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that the increased rates of poor physical health outcomes in schizophrenia were associated with genetic liability for the disorder.
This study demonstrates the value of and potential for linking genetic data from clinically ascertained research studies to anonymised health records. The increased risk for physical illness in schizophrenia is not caused by genetic liability for the disorder.
Environmental rights are a category of human rights necessarily central to both democracy and effective earth system governance (any environmental-ecological-sustainable democracy). For any democracy to remain democratic, some aspects must be beyond democracy and must not be allowed to be subjected to any ordinary democratic collective choice processes shy of consensus. Real, established rights constitute a necessary boundary of legitimate everyday democratic practice. We analyze how human rights are made democratically and, in particular, how they can be made with respect to matters environmental, especially matters that have import beyond the confines of the modern nation state.
La schizophrénie reste une pathologie invalidante malgré une prise en charge médicamenteuse efficace. Il importe de développer d’autres stratégies adjuvantes efficaces sur les symptômes de la maladie en limitant les effets secondaires des traitements pharmacologiques. L’efficacité des activités physiques dans le traitement de la schizophrénie n’est pas démontrée mais des travaux soulignent des bénéfices sur les symptômes négatifs et dépressifs [1,2].
Nous souhaitons évaluer l’impact clinique d’un programme d’activité physique sur une population de sujets atteints de schizophrénie.
Un programme d’activités physiques supervisé par deux moniteurs a été élaboré. Il comprend une heure de multi-activités, 2 fois par semaine, pendant 12 semaines. L’intensité minimale de chaque séance était fixée à 50 % de la fréquence cardiaque de réserve. Des mesures comprenant les échelles PANSS, SANS, SAPS, CDSS, S-QoL, un bilan anthropométrique et biologique ont été réalisés à S 0, S 6, S 12 et S 16.
Deux groupes de 5 patients (n = 10) ont réalisé le programme. Une amélioration clinique est retrouvée sur l’ensemble des échelles utilisées entre S 0 et S 16. Les changements observés ne sont pas en faveur d’une amélioration du syndrome métabolique et nous notons une prise de poids des sujets sur la période de l’étude. Le traitement statistique des données présente des résultats non significatifs (p > 0,05).
In migrants, alcohol becomes a frequent problem in particular from the age of 50 onwards. Preventive behaviour is influenced by cultural differences in terms of how alcohol consumption is evaluated and dealt with. But migrants are not sufficiently reached by offers of help in combating addiction. Aim of the study was to improve the sensitisation regarding alcohol consumption.
Cluster-randomized controlled multicenter study with immigrants (n = 268) comparing a transcultural prevention measurement (one event and migration sensitive transcultural brochures; TPC) against an usual prevention measurement (event and information brochure; TAU). Main outcomes were attitudes towards alcohol and alcohol consumption after 6 months.
Overall the immigrants accept the transcultural prevention concept better (TPC > TAU; p = .023). Attitudes towards alcohol are more difficult to change. Only regarding talking openly about alcohol problems (TPC > TAU; p = .021) and willingness to seek for help (TPC > TAU; p = .001) we found an effect of the TPC. 6 months after the participants in TPC reduced their alcohol consumption markedly (I drink less/I don't drink at all: TPC 45,9% vs. TAU 16,7%; p = .004).
The consideration of cultural, migration-related and linguistic factors in health care is important to change health related behaviour. Therefore the sensitization of health care providers for transcultural perspectives and diversity is necessary.
Alcohol dependence is a complex psychiatric disorder.
To investigate the role of temperament on the course of alcohol dependence.
To further investigate the role of temperaments in alcohol dependent patients and to analyse the differences in relevant clinical features in correlation with the different temperament distributions.
The patients‘case files of 116 alcohol dependent patients, according to ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR, admitted to the Vienna General Hospital between 02/08 and 03/09, were examined retrospectively. The brief-TEMPS-M auto-questionnaire was used to assess the temperamental distribution. The dimensions of alcohol dependence have been assessed using the Lesch Alcoholism Typology, a computerized structured interview. The potential effect of temperamental scores on various outcomes describing the course of illness is investigated using multi-variable regression models.
Cyclothymic score was the only temperament which significantly influenced the age of onset of alcohol abuse and age of onset of alcohol dependence. Backward selection among temperaments exhibits depressive temperament as most important effect regarding the likelihood of suicide-attempts in the patient‘s case history and anxious temperament as most important effect regarding having psychiatric treatment focusing on alcohol dependence prior to current in- or outpatient stay.
Dominant cyclothymic, but also depressive and anxious temperament, seem to be negative predictors for the course of illness in alcohol dependence.
Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are a frequently and effectively used treatment in schizophrenia and psychotic disorders. Other than First-generation antipsychotics (FGAs), which mainly exert their pharmacologic effect in subcortical dopaminergic systems, SGAs additionally affect partly serotonergically innervated structures within prefrontal areas, such as the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC). However, only few controlled, randomized studies have so far investigated direct and indirect effects of SGAs on the ACC.
The present study investigated differential effects of one SGA (quetiapine) and one FGA (flupentixol) on the human action monitoring system.
ACC function in 18 quetiapine-medicated patients and 13 flupentixol-treated patients suffering from schizophrenia was assessed by means of the error-related negativity (ERN), a neurophysiological marker of ACC function, in a pre-post design. Results Between-group comparisons revealed different effects of quetiapine and flupentixol on ACC function despite similar improvement in psychopathology, cognitive performance and quality of life. Whereas SGA treatment was associated with an increase in amplitudes over time, there were prolonged ERN peak latencies in patients treated with the FGA. Moreover, treatment effects depended on baseline PFC function in both groups.
We conclude that both flupentixol and quetiapine improve prefrontal function especially in patients with weak initial ACC function which might be due to their shared affinity for 5HT-receptors in frontal brain regions. However, since this affinity is more pronounced for SGAs, patients treated with quetiapine seemed to profit more evidently concerning PFC function compared to patients of the flupentixol group, who exhibited a compensatory prolongation of processes.
The development and maintenance of an alcohol addiction is a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Genetic effects seem to contribute substantially to the risk of developing an addiction, but also to its course and patients’ responses to different treatments. Recent studies identified associations between polymorphisms in the genes of glutamate and μ-opioid receptors and addiction risk. Those receptors are of special interest, because they are targets of therapeutic agents, such as acamprosate and topiramate.
Objectives and aims
Several studies were conducted, in order to further determine the effects of genetic polymorphisms in glutamate and opioid receptor genes on addictive behavior, neural response to alcohol cues and relapse risk.
Genetic effects were investigated in samples of alcohol-dependent patients using functional imaging techniques, neuropsychological tests and follow-up investigation after standard clinical treatment. Data on clinical parameters, neuronal response to alcohol cues, functional neuronal connectivity and relapse risk were collected and analyzed.
Results demonstrate effects of genetic polymorphisms in glutamate and opioid receptors on neuronal response to alcohol cues in frontal and mesolimbic brain areas, subjective craving and time to first relapse. Current findings will be discussed in the light of existing evidence on the contribution of genetic effects to treatment outcome and patient stratification.
The investigation of genetic risk factors and mechanisms by which they affect addiction related phenotypes seems to be a promising tool to identify molecular treatment targets and predictors for successful treatment strategies.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Alcohol relapse is often occurring to regulate negative affect during withdrawal. On the neurobiological level, alcoholism is associated with gray matter (GM) abnormalities in regions that regulate emotional experience such as the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). However, no study to our knowledge has investigated the neurobiological unpinning of affect in alcoholism at early withdrawal and the associations of OFC volume with long-term relapse risk.
One hundred and eighty-two participants were included, 95 recently detoxified alcohol dependent patients (ADP) and 87 healthy controls (HC). We measured affective states using the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS). We collected T1-weighted brain structural images and performed Voxel-based morphometry (VBM).
Findings revealed GM volume decrease in alcoholics in the prefrontal cortex (including medial OFC), anterior cingulate gyrus, and insula. GM volume in the medial OFC was positively associated with NA in the ADP group. Cox regression analysis predicted that risk to heavy relapse at 6 months increases with decreased GM volume in the medial OFC.
Negative affect during alcohol withdrawal was positively associated with OFC volume. What is more, increased GM volume in the OFC also moderated risk to heavy relapse at 6 months. Reduced GM in the OFC poses as risk to recovery from alcohol dependence and provides valuable insights into transient negative affect states during withdrawal that can trigger relapse. Implications exist for therapeutic interventions signifying the OFC as a neurobiological marker to relapse and could explain the inability of ADP to regulate internal negative affective states.
To investigate how brain metabolites, especially glutamate and glutamate to glutamine ratio of pgACC modulate the neural response within these areas and how this affects their function during emotion facial expression matching task.
Seventy healthy volunteers underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and task functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 7 Tesla scanner. PgACC MRS data were obtained using STEAM sequence and analyzed using LCModel.
Angry, fearful, and happy facial expressions were presented in an affect-matching block where one of the two facial expressions presented matched the target facial expression. The control condition was form matching. Data were preprocessed and analyzed in SPM 8.
Glutamate to Creatine ratio measured in pgACC positively correlated with BOLD response in the right DLPFC during negative emotional perception (FWE = 0.05) Glutamate to glutamine ratio indicating on-off mechanisms in pgACC positively correlated with BOLD responses in FFA extending to cerebellum cluster (FWE < 0.05).
This study indicate that pgACC, baseline metabolism predicts neural response to emotional processing. We conclude that individuals with higher glutamate ratios, an excitatory neurotransmitter, in pgACC during rest might have a better coping mechanism to potential danger indicated by perception of angry or afraid faces.
The higher glutamate to glutamine ratio in pgACC indicates a higher turnover of excitatory metabolite glutamate. This mechanism is associated with higher emotional response in fusiform area and cerebellum suggesting higher visual attention towards negative emotions.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Species distribution models (SDMs) are statistical tools used to develop continuous predictions of species occurrence. ‘Integrated SDMs’ (ISDMs) are an elaboration of this approach with potential advantages that allow for the dual use of opportunistically collected presence-only data and site-occupancy data from planned surveys. These models also account for survey bias and imperfect detection through the use of a hierarchical modelling framework that separately estimates the species–environment response and detection process. This is particularly helpful for conservation applications and predictions for rare species, where data are often limited and prediction errors may have significant management consequences. Despite this potential importance, ISDMs remain largely untested under a variety of scenarios. We performed an exploration of key modelling decisions and assumptions on an ISDM using the endangered Baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii) as a test species. We found that site area had the strongest effect on the magnitude of population estimates and underlying intensity surface and was driven by estimates of model intercepts. Selecting a site area that accounted for the individual movements of the species within an average home range led to population estimates that coincided with expert estimates. ISDMs that do not account for the individual movements of species will likely lead to less accurate estimates of species intensity (number of individuals per unit area) and thus overall population estimates. This bias could be severe and highly detrimental to conservation actions if uninformed ISDMs are used to estimate global populations of threatened and data-deficient species, particularly those that lack natural history and movement information. However, the ISDM was consistently the most accurate model compared to other approaches, which demonstrates the importance of this new modelling framework and the ability to combine opportunistic data with systematic survey data. Thus, we recommend researchers use ISDMs with conservative movement information when estimating population sizes of rare and data-deficient species. ISDMs could be improved by using a similar parameterization to spatial capture–recapture models that explicitly incorporate animal movement as a model parameter, which would further remove the need for spatial subsampling prior to implementation.
Around 30% of individuals with schizophrenia remain symptomatic and significantly impaired despite antipsychotic treatment and are considered to be treatment resistant. Clinicians are currently unable to predict which patients are at higher risk of treatment resistance.
To determine whether genetic liability for schizophrenia and/or clinical characteristics measurable at illness onset can prospectively indicate a higher risk of treatment-resistant psychosis (TRP).
In 1070 individuals with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorders, schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRS) and large copy number variations (CNVs) were assessed for enrichment in TRP. Regression and machine-learning approaches were used to investigate the association of phenotypes related to demographics, family history, premorbid factors and illness onset with TRP.
Younger age at onset (odds ratio 0.94, P = 7.79 × 10−13) and poor premorbid social adjustment (odds ratio 1.64, P = 2.41 × 10−4) increased risk of TRP in univariate regression analyses. These factors remained associated in multivariate regression analyses, which also found lower premorbid IQ (odds ratio 0.98, P = 7.76 × 10−3), younger father's age at birth (odds ratio 0.97, P = 0.015) and cannabis use (odds ratio 1.60, P = 0.025) increased the risk of TRP. Machine-learning approaches found age at onset to be the most important predictor and also identified premorbid IQ and poor social adjustment as predictors of TRP, mirroring findings from regression analyses. Genetic liability for schizophrenia was not associated with TRP.
People with an earlier age at onset of psychosis and poor premorbid functioning are more likely to be treatment resistant. The genetic architecture of susceptibility to schizophrenia may be distinct from that of treatment outcomes.
Starburst galaxies at z ∼ 2 – 4 are among the most intensely star-forming galaxies in the universe. The way they accrete their gas to form stars at such high rates is still a controversial issue. ALMA has detected the CH+ (J = 1-0) line in emission and/or absorption in all the gravitationally lensed starburst galaxies targeted so far at z ∼ 3. Its unique spectroscopic and chemical properties enable CH+ to highlight the sites of most intense dissipation of mechanical energy. The absorption lines reveal highly turbulent, massive reservoirs of low-density molecular gas. The broad emission lines, arising in myriad UV-irradiated molecular shocks, reveal powerful galactic winds. The CH+ lines therefore probe the fate of prodigious energy releases, due to infall and/or outflows, and primarily stored in turbulence before being radiated by cool molecular gas. The turbulent reservoirs act as mass and energy buffers over the duration of the starburst phase.
To assess the reliability and validity of body weight (BW) and body image (BI) perception reported by parents (in children) and by adolescents in a South American population.
Cross-sectional study. BW perception was evaluated by the question, ‘Do you think you/your child are/is: severely wasted, wasted, normal weight, overweight, obese?’ BI perception was evaluated using the Gardner scale. To evaluate reliability, BW and BI perceptions were reported twice, two weeks apart. To evaluate validity, the BW and BI perceptions were compared with WHO BMI Z-scores. Kappa and Kendall’s tau-c coefficients were obtained.
Public and private schools and high schools from six countries of South America (Argentina, Peru, Colombia, Uruguay, Chile, Brazil).
Children aged 3–10 years (n 635) and adolescents aged 11–17 years (n 400).
Reliability of BW perception was fair in children’s parents (κ=0·337) and substantial in adolescents (κ=0·709). Validity of BW perception was slight in children’s parents (κ=0·176) and fair in adolescents (κ=0·268). When evaluating BI, most children were perceived by parents as having lower weight. Reliability of BI perception was slight in children’s parents (κ=0·124) and moderate in adolescents (κ=0·599). Validity of BI perception was poor in children’s parents (κ=−0·018) and slight in adolescents (κ=0·023).
Reliability of BW and BI perceptions was higher in adolescents than in children’s parents. Validity of BW perception was good among the parents of the children and adolescents with underweight and normal weight.
Off-target movement of dicamba and 2,4-D may injure and reduce the yield of many fruit and vegetable crops, impacting specialty crop producers and herbicide applicators alike. Two field experiments were established, using plant growth regulator–resistant soybean herbicide technologies, to evaluate drift and carryover risks to horseradish production. The drift experiment was conducted in 2015 and 2016 to evaluate impact of dicamba and 2,4-D simulated drift on horseradish production with a mid-POST application in soybean. Simulated drift rates were 1/10,000X, 1/1,000X, and 1/100X, with 1/2X, 1X, and 2X of standard application rates. Injury and yield loss was greater following application of 2,4-D than with dicamba. Yield reductions were observed beginning at the 1/1,000X rate of 2,4-D, with complete crop loss occurring when rates exceed 1/2X. In comparison, dicamba only reduced yields when applied at the 1X and 2X rates. Only horseradish roots from plants treated with dicamba at the 2X rate had greater dicamba residue than the nontreated control, and the amount detected, 0.32 parts per billion (ppb), was lower than the EPA tolerance of 100 ppb in root crops. There was little to no harvestable tissue for 2,4-D residue analysis for plants treated with 2,4-D at rates above 1/2X. The carryover experiment was a 2-yr rotational evaluation conducted in 2014, 2015, and 2016 to assess dicamba carryover to horseradish following application to dicamba-resistant soybean the previous season. Observations taken at 4, 6, and 8 wk after planting indicated no significant horseradish injury, nor was height, stand, or root weight reduced. These results suggest that horseradish growers should have few concerns about injury from dicamba drift or carryover. While 2,4-D applicators may need to be cautious when making applications near horseradish fields, 2,4-D may be an effective tool for controlling volunteer horseradish in 2,4-D–resistant soybean.
Most studies underline the contribution of heritable factors for psychiatric disorders. However, heritability estimates depend on the population under study, diagnostic instruments, and study designs that each has its inherent assumptions, strengths, and biases. We aim to test the homogeneity in heritability estimates between two powerful, and state of the art study designs for eight psychiatric disorders.
We assessed heritability based on data of Swedish siblings (N = 4 408 646 full and maternal half-siblings), and based on summary data of eight samples with measured genotypes (N = 125 533 cases and 208 215 controls). All data were based on standard diagnostic criteria. Eight psychiatric disorders were studied: (1) alcohol dependence (AD), (2) anorexia nervosa, (3) attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), (4) autism spectrum disorder, (5) bipolar disorder, (6) major depressive disorder, (7) obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and (8) schizophrenia.
Heritability estimates from sibling data varied from 0.30 for Major Depression to 0.80 for ADHD. The estimates based on the measured genotypes were lower, ranging from 0.10 for AD to 0.28 for OCD, but were significant, and correlated positively (0.19) with national sibling-based estimates. When removing OCD from the data the correlation increased to 0.50.
Given the unique character of each study design, the convergent findings for these eight psychiatric conditions suggest that heritability estimates are robust across different methods. The findings also highlight large differences in genetic and environmental influences between psychiatric disorders, providing future directions for etiological psychiatric research.