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Backward-facing step (BFS) constitutes a canonical configuration to study wall-bounded flows subject to massive expansions produced by abrupt changes in geometry. Recirculation flow regions are common in this type of flow, driving the separated flow to its downstream reattachment. Consequently, strong adverse pressure gradients arise through this process, feeding flow instabilities. Therefore, both phenomena are strongly correlated as the recirculation bubble shape defines how the flow is expanded, and how the pressure rises. In an incompressible flow, this shape depends on the Reynolds value and the expansion ratio. The influence of these two variables on the bubble length is widely studied, presenting an asymptotic behaviour when both parameters are beyond a certain threshold. This is the usual operating point of many practical applications, such as in aeronautical and environmental engineering. Several numerical and experimental studies have been carried out regarding this topic. The existing simulations considering cases beyond the above-mentioned threshold have only been achieved through turbulence modelling, whereas direct numerical simulations (DNS) have been performed only at low Reynolds numbers. Hence, despite the great importance of achieving this threshold, there is a lack of reliable numerical data to assess the accuracy of turbulence models. In this context, a DNS of an incompressible flow over a BFS is presented in this paper, considering a friction Reynolds number (
) of 395 at the inflow and an expansion ratio 2. Finally, the elongation of the Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities along the shear layer is also studied.
The new Hipparcos parallax data for local subdwarfs allow a much more reliable determination of the distance to globular clusters (by direct sequence fitting) than was previously possible. Earlier studies (Reid 1997, Gratton et al. 1997) have reported larger distances than expected, especially for the most metal-poor clusters, implying much younger ages. In our study of Hipparcos subdwarfs applied to M92 — representative of the oldest, most metal-poor clusters — we find however a distance only slightly in excess of previous expectations. We show, using Monte Carlo simulations, that most of the difference may be explained by our more detailed treatment of the Lutz-Kelker and selection biases. With up-to-date stellar evolution models, we derive a minimum age of 13 Gyr for the Universe. This value, although lower than previous estimates, still imposes a rather strict upper limit to Ho in the context of standard cosmological models.
The maximum age of galactic globular clusters provides the best observational constraint on the minimum age of the Universe. One of the main “missing link” in the globular cluster age determination has been the lack of a precise calibration, with local subdwarfs, of the position of the subdwarf sequence at different [Fe/H].
Hipparcos data may change this situation. As many precise parallaxes become available for local subdwarfs, the distance to globular clusters can be estimated directly from ZAMS fitting to the subdwarf locus. The ages can then be inferred from the turnoff luminosity (a robust prediction of stellar evolution models), rather than using secondary indicators such as Horizontal-Branch position, or indicators depending on the uncertain colour scale such as turnoff colour.
Combining Hipparcos parallaxes with [Fe/H] values determined with the CORAVEL spectrometer, we are studying the position of the subdwarfs in the Colour-Magnitude Diagram from a sample of more than 900 subdwarf candidates. Preliminary results are presented here. It is shown that the distances of many subdwarfs had been underestimated in previous studies, mainly because a large fraction of them is in fact evolved off the main sequence into the turnoff or the subgiant branch.
A group of faint, remote Cepheids in the outer disc of the Galaxy has been observed in spectroscopy and photometry. These Cepheids are used as tracers to measure the rotation curve of the disc beyond R=11 kpc, and to study the metallicity gradient in the outer disc.
The light curves of the first overtone Pop I Cepheids (s-Cepheids) show a discontinuity in their ϕ21 vs. P diagram, near P = 3.2 d. This feature, commonly attributed to the 2:1 resonance between the first and the fourth overtones (ω4 ≈ 2ω1), is not reproduced by the hydrodynamical models (Antonello & Aikawa 1995). With the goal of reexamining the resonance hypothesis, we have obtained new CORAVEL and CORALIE radial velocity curves for 17 overtone Cepheids. Together with 10 objects from Krzyt et al. (2000), the combined sample covers the whole range of overtone Cepheid periods. The velocity Fourier parameters display a strong characteristic resonant behavior. In striking contrast to photometric ones, they vary smoothly with the pulsation period and show no jump at 3.2 d. The existing radiative hydrodynamical models match very well the velocity parameters. The center of the ω4 = 2ω1 resonance is estimated to occur at Pr = 4.58 ± 0.04 d, i.e. at a period considerably longer than previously assumed (3.2 d). Five new s-Cepheids, with periods above 5 d, have been identified from the radial velocity curves morphology: V419 Cen, V659 Cen, MY Pup, GH Car and V440 Per. The data and the discussion can be found in Kienzle et al. (1999). Preprints and the data are available at: http://obswww.unige.ch/˜kienzle.
The parallax data gathered by Hipparcos for field subdwarfs allow a muchmore precise determination of globular cluster distances by direct sequencefitting than was previously possible. We determined the distance and age ofthe old, representative globular cluster M92 from a set of more than 500 subdwarf candidates with Hipparcos parallaxes. Precise [Fe/H] values were derived using the equivalent width of the CORAVEL cross-correlation function.
Our best estimate of the distance of M92 is (m — M)v = 14.67 ± 0.08 (including binaries with a statistical correction) or (m — M)v = 14.74 ± 0.08 (classic treatment, i.e. excluding binaries). The agreement of the cluster sequence with the position of extreme metal-poor field subdwarfs is remarkable [figure, left]. The distance found is slightly higher than previously thought. The corresponding ages, derived by comparing the luminosity of the turnoff and subgiant-branchstars with up-to-date evolution models [figure, right], are 14±1.2 Gyr or 13±1.2 Gyr respectively, implying a minimum age of 13 Gyr for the Universe.
Other authors have claimed that larger distances, and smaller ages, resulted from Hipparcos subdwarf parallaxes. Although there are some differences in the data sets used by each author, the main difference resides in the treatment of systematic and selection biases. We have examined at some length the biases affecting the determination of the mean luminosity of a set of subdwarfs selected in the usual way. By means of Monte Carlo simulations, we show that selection biases act in a direction opposite to the classic Lutz-Kelker bias affecting parallax data, and that they can be dominant. The biases introduced are of the order of 0.1 mag.
It is pointed out that, now that the whole Hipparcos catalogue is available, we shall be able to greatly reduce the systematic biases by refining the fitting procedure. Firstly, by imposing no [Fe/H] limits and fitting the subdwarf locus for all [Fe/H] values at the same time. Secondly, by imposing no parallax error limit and fitting the data in parallax space instead of magnitude space (comparing observed parallaxes directly with parallaxes predicted from the models).
On January 27, 2013, a fire at the Kiss Nightclub in Santa Maria, Brazil led to a mass-casualty incident affecting hundreds of college students. A total of 234 people died on scene, 145 were hospitalized, and another 623 people received treatment throughout the first week following the incident.1 Eight of the hospitalized people later died.1 The Military Police were the first on scene, followed by the state fire department, and then the municipal Mobile Prehospital Assistance (SAMU) ambulances. The number of victims was not communicated clearly to the various units arriving on scene, leading to insufficient rescue personnel and equipment. Incident command was established on scene, but the rescuers and police were still unable to control the chaos of multiple bystanders attempting to assist in the rescue efforts. The Municipal Sports Center (CDM) was designated as the location for dead bodies, where victim identification and communication with families occurred, as well as forensic evaluation, which determined the primary cause of death to be asphyxia. A command center was established at the Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo (HCAA) in Santa Maria to direct where patients should be admitted, recruit staff, and procure additional supplies, as needed. The victims suffered primarily from smoke inhalation and many required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. There was a shortage of ventilators; therefore, some had to be borrowed from local hospitals, neighboring cities, and distant areas in the state. A total of 54 patients1 were transferred to hospitals in the capital city of Porto Alegre (Brazil). The main issues with the response to the fire were scene control and communication. Areas for improvement were identified, namely the establishment of a disaster-response plan, as well as regularly scheduled training in disaster preparedness/response. These activities are the first steps to improving mass-casualty responses.
Dal PonteST, DornellesCFD, ArquillaB, BloemC, RoblinP. Mass-casualty Response to the Kiss Nightclub in Santa Maria, Brazil. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(1):1-4.
LaNiO3 thin films were deposited on SrLaAlO4 (100) and SrLaAlO4 (001) single crystal substrates by a chemical solution deposition method and heat-treated in oxygen atmosphere at 700°C in tube oven. Structural, morphological, and electrical properties of the LaNiO3 thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and electrical resistivity as temperature function (Hall measurements). The X-ray diffraction data indicated good crystallinity and a structural preferential orientation. The LaNiO3 thin films have a very flat surface and no droplet was found on their surfaces. Samples of LaNiO3 grown onto (100) and (001) oriented SrLaAlO4 single crystal substrates reveled average grain size by AFM approximately 15-30 and 20-35 nm, respectively. Transport characteristics observed were clearly dependent upon the substrate orientation which exhibited a metal-to-insulator transition. The underlying mechanism is a result of competition between the mobility edge and the Fermi energy through the occupation of electron states which in turn is controlled by the disorder level induced by different growth surfaces.
To investigate the atmospheres of ultracool brown dwarfs with temperatures covering the range of transiting and directly imaged planets, we have monitored a sample of 76 L, T and Y brown dwarfs for infrared photometric variability. This survey was conducted in the J-band using both the SOFI camera on the 3.5-m NTT and the SWIRC camera on the 6.5-m MMT. Each target was observed for a period ranging from 2.0 hours to 6.0 hours, covering a significant fraction of the expected rotation period. Breakup of the iron and silicate clouds into a patchy cloud layer has been suggested as an explanation for the variability of several objects identified at the L/T transition, and a similar process with sulfide clouds may be manifest in T/Y transition objects; our data provides the first test of these patchy cloud scenarios across the entire brown dwarf spectral range.
We report on a new survey of metallicities, ages, and Galactic orbits for a complete, magnitude-limited, and kinematically unbiased all-sky sample of 16 682 nearby F- and G-dwarfs. Our ∼ 63 000 new, accurate radial velocities for nearly 13 500 of the stars, combined with Hipparcos parallaxes and Tycho-2 proper motions, complete the kinematic data for 14 139 stars and allow us to identify most of the binary stars in the sample. Isochrone ages have been determined whenever reliable results are possible, with particular attention to realistic error estimates.
Among the basic properties of the Galactic disk that can be reinvestigated from our data are the metallicity distribution of G-dwarfs and the age–metallicity and age–velocity relations of the solar neighbourhood. We confirm the lack of metal-poor G-dwarfs relative to classical model predictions (the 'G-dwarf problem'), the near-constancy of the mean metallicity since the formation of the thin disk, and the appearance of the kinematic signature of the thick disk ∼ 10 Gyr ago.
ASTEP (Antarctic Search for Transiting Exo Planets) is a research program funded mainly by French ANR grants and by the French Polar Institute (IPEV), dedicated to the photometric study of exoplanetary transits from Antarctica.
The preliminary “pathfinder” instrument ASTEP–South is described in another communication (Crouzet et al., these proceedings), and we focus in this presentation on the main instrument of the ASTEP program: “ASTEP–400”, a 40 cm robotized and thermally-controlled photometric telescope operated from the French-Italian Concordia station (Dome C, Antarctica).
ASTEP–400 has been installed at Concordia during the 2009-2010 summer campaign. Since, the telescope has been operated in nominal conditions during 2010 and 2011 winters, and the 2012 winterover is presently in progress. Data from the first two winter campaigns are available and processed. We give a description of the ASTEP–400 telescope from the mechanical, optical and thermal point of view. Control and software issues are also addressed. We end with a discussion of some astronomical results obtained with ASTEP–400.
Cold plasma processes for surface engineering of biomaterials and biomedical devices are traditionally performed at low pressure; more and more, though, surface modification plasma processes at atmospheric pressure are also gaining popularity. This short review is aimed to list briefly atmospheric pressure plasma processes reported, in the last decade, for adapting the surface of materials to the best interactions with cells, bacteria and biomolecules.
A. Ecuvillon, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain,
G. Israelian, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain,
F. Pont, Observatoire de Genève, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny, Switzerland,
N. C. Santos, Observatoire de Genève, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny, Switzerland; Observatorio Astronomico de Lisboa, 1349-018 Lisboa, Portugal; Centro de Geofísica de Évora, Rua Romão Ramalho 59, 7000 Évora, Portugal,
M. Mayor, Observatoire de Genève, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny, Switzerland
We present a detailed study on the kinematics of metal-rich stars with and without planets, and their relation with the Hyades, Sirius and Hercules dynamical streams in the Solar neighbourhood. We compare the kinematic behaviour of known planet-host stars with that of the remaining targets belonging to the CORALIE volume-limited sample, in particular its metal-rich population. The high average metallicity of the Hyades stream is confirmed. The planet-host targets exhibit a kinematic behaviour similar to that of the metal-rich comparison subsample, rather than to that of the comparison sample as a whole, thus supporting the hypothesis of a primordial origin for the metal excess observed in stars with known planetary companions. According to the scenarios proposed as an explanation for the dynamical streams, systems with giant planets could have formed more easily in metal-rich inner Galactic regions
The SOPHIE Consortium started a large program of exoplanets search and characterization in the Northern hemisphere with the new spectrograph SOPHIE at the 1.93-m telescope of Haute-Provence Observatory, France. The objectives of this program are to characterize the zoo of exoplanets and to bring strong constraints on their processes of formation and evolution using the radial velocity technique. We present here new SOPHIE measurements of the transiting planet host star XO-3. This allowed us to observe the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect and to refine the parameters of the planet. The unusual shape of the radial velocity anomaly during the transit provides a hint for a nearly transverse Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. The sky-projected angle between the planetary orbital axis and the stellar rotation axis should be λ = 70° ± 15° to be compatible with our observations. This suggests that some close-in planets might result from gravitational interaction between planets and/or stars rather than migration. This result requires confirmation by additional observations.
Exoplanet search programs need to study how to disentangle radial-velocity (RV) variations due to Doppler motion and the noise induced by stellar activity. We monitored the active K2V HD 189733 with the high-resolution SOPHIE spectrograph (OHP, France). We refined the orbital parameters of HD 189733b and put limitations on the eccentricity and on a long-term velocity gradient. We subtracted the orbital motion of the planet and compared the variability of activity spectroscopic indices (HeI, Hα, Ca II H&K lines) to the evolution of the RV residuals and the shape of spectral lines. All are in agreement with an active stellar surface in rotation. We used such correlations to correct for the RV jitter due to stellar activity. This results in achieving a high precision on the orbital parameters, with a semi-amplitude: K=200.56±0.88m⋅s−1 and a derived planet mass of MP=1.13±0.03 MJup.
We present “A STEP” (Antarctica Search for Transiting Extrasolar
Planets), a project dedicated to the search for planetary transits
from Antartica. The project consists of a semi-automatic ~40 cm
telescope equipped with a 16-million-pixel CCD installed at Dome
C. The site offers crucial assets for a ground-based exoplanet transit
search: uninterrupted phase coverage, excellent weather, low air-mass
variations and reduced scintillation. This system would be able to detect Pegasids transiting in front of
stars as faint as magnitude sixteen and could also detect smaller
planets in close-in period around brighter stars. This short term
project is meant to be a photometric qualifyer for the site and the
first stage of a massive detection campaign. A mid-term objective of
1000 detections for 2012 could be achieved either with many small
telescopes or with a large Schmidt telescope with a large field of
view. The project is relatively simple and cost-effective, and has the
double purpose of qualifying the site and obtaining first-class
scientific results. Our team is already familiar with transit
detection with an automated telescope and cold temperature
We present “A STEP”, a project dedicated to the search for planetary
transits from Antartica. The project consists of a fully automatic 40 cm telescope equipped with an 11-million-pixel CCD installed at
Dome C. The site offers crucial assets for a ground-based exoplanet
transit search: uninterrupted phase coverage and excellent
seeing. This system would be able to detect hot Jupiters transiting in front
of stars as faint as magnitude sixteen and could also detect smaller
planets in close-in period around brighter stars. Our estimations,
based on results of previous surveys are an average of 6 detections
per 60 days survey. Compared to existing surveys, this excellent yield
is due to the nearly-continuous phase coverage and excellent seiing.
This short term project is meant to be a photometric qualifyer for the
site and the first stage of a massive detection campaign. A mid-term
objective of 1000 detections for 2012 could be achieved either with many
small telescopes or with a large Schmidt telescope with a large field
of view. The project is relatively simple and cost-effective, and has the
double purpose of qualifying the site and obtaining first-class
scientific results. Our team is already familiar with transit
detection with an automated telescope (BEST) and cold temperature
We study the potential impact of a photometric search for transiting exoplanets from Dome C. In the past year, four new transiting exoplanets have been found by ground-based surveys, including three detected by our follow-up of OGLE transit candidates with FLAMES/UVES on the VLT. Based on the experience of this survey, we have built a simulation to predict the expected number of transiting exoplanet detections from photometric searches. We apply these simulations to a possible survey based at Concordia. We find that the Antarctica location solves the two main limitations of ground-based transit surveys: the diurnal-cycle time sampling, and the hour-timescale systematic photometric variations. The expected numbers of detections are much larger than for other ground-based surveys. They show the high potential of such projects at Dome C, even with a small telescope.
In October 2001, the world population of Raso Lark Alauda razae, confined to the uninhabited, arid islet of Raso in the Cape Verde Islands, was estimated at between 128 and 138 birds, of which 61–66% were males. The biased sex ratio was confirmed by standardized observations of randomly selected birds. The male-dominated sex ratio may result from differences in bill morphology and feeding methods. The males spent much time digging for the bulbs of the nutsedge Cyperus bulbosus, whereas females were seen to dig far less frequently. These differences may have been due to significant sexual differences in bill size. Both sexes also took a range of invertebrate prey, particularly lepidopteran larvae. Unpaired males showed differences in behaviour to paired males, particularly with respect to song flight length. Measurement of museum skins suggested significant seasonal changes in bill size, possibly related to changes in diet or feeding methods. Bill sizes in both sexes were highly variable, but significantly more variable in males. Nest predation, almost certainly by a near-endemic gecko, was extremely high, Mayfield estimates suggesting a nest survival rate of less than 5% between the onset of laying and the end of incubation. Cats and dogs were thought to be absent, although analysis of droppings shows that both have been present in the recent past. Analysis of historical data shows a strong correlation between population size and rainfall, and numbers of birds have fallen to extremely low levels during droughts. The conservation of the species is discussed in the light of these findings.