To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We provide an expanded and updated, 2-locus phylogeny (mtSSU, nuLSU) of the lichenized fungal family Trypetheliaceae, with a total of 196 ingroup OTUs, in order to further refine generic delimitations and species concepts in this family. As a result, the following 15 clades are recognized as separate genera, including five newly established genera: Aptrootia, Architrypethelium, Astrothelium (including the bulk of corticate species with astrothelioid ascospores; synonyms: Campylothelium, Cryptothelium, Laurera), Bathelium s. str. (excluding B. degenerans and relatives which fall into Astrothelium), the reinstated Bogoriella (for tropical, lichenized species previously placed in Mycomicrothelia), Constrictolumina gen. nov. (for tropical, lichenized species of Arthopyrenia), Dictyomeridium gen. nov. (for a subgroup of species with muriform ascospores previously placed in Polymeridium), Julella (provisionally, as the type species remains unsequenced), Marcelaria (Laurera purpurina complex), Nigrovothelium gen. nov. (for the Trypethelium tropicum group), Novomicrothelia gen. nov. (for an additional species previously placed in Mycomicrothelia), Polymeridium s. str., Pseudopyrenula, Trypethelium s. str. (T. eluteriae group), and Viridothelium gen. nov. (for the Trypethelium virens group). All recognized genera are phenotypically characterized and a discussion on the evolution of phenotypic features in the family is given. Based on the obtained phylogeny, species delimitations are revised and the importance of characters such as thallus morphology, hymenial inspersion, and secondary chemistry for taxonomic purposes is discussed, resulting in a refined species concept.
Recently collected specimens of the crustose lichen Melaspilea demissa from south-eastern USA have been compared with those of Melaspilea spp. previously determined from North America. A review of both the historical and contemporary treatments of this species is provided. A lectotype was selected from the type collection of M. demissa in FH and is here proposed as it best matches incomplete citations in the original treatment. We also discuss the nomenclatural and taxonomic status of the name Opegrapha cymbiformis var. deformis (considered a synonym of M. gibberulosa). North American specimens of M. gibberulosa were found to be misidentifications, as were specimens attributed to M. lentiginosula, M. mesophlebia and M. octomera. We therefore recommend that these species be removed from the North American lichen checklist. We also present a key to North American Melaspilea.
Three new species of Chapsa in the family Graphidaceae are described from tropical Asia. Chapsa mastersonii Rivas Plata, Lumbsch & Lücking from the Philippines is characterized by large apothecia with thickly white-pruinose discs, large, muriform, non-amyloid ascospores, and the stictic acid chemosyndrome. Chapsa wijeyaratniana Weerakon, Lumbsch & Lücking from Sri Lanka has apothecia similar to the preceding species but forms an ecorticate thallus with maculiform to capitate soralia, has small, submuriform ascospores, and lacks secondary substances. Chapsa wolseleyana Weerakon, Lumbsch & Lücking forms apothecia with red to pinkish or purplish red discs and large, muriform ascospores becoming pale brown.
The new genus Malmographina Cáceres, Rivas Plata & Lücking is introduced for Opegrapha plicosa Meissn. (syn. Graphis malmei Redinger), with the new combination Malmographina plicosa (Meiss.) Cáceres, Rivas Plata & Lücking. The taxon is characterized by prominent, striate, orange-pigmented, non-carbonized lirellae, a more or less clear hymenium, and large, muriform, hyaline ascospores. Malmographina is most similar to Hemithecium in lirellae morphology and anatomy, but in a molecular phylogenetic analysis falls within a clade containing Phaeographis and other genera with usually inspersed hymenium and brown ascospores. Within that clade, it is thus far the only taxon that has persistently hyaline ascospores. It is otherwise similar to Pallidogramme but does not cluster within that genus. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the Phaeographis clade confirms monophyly of the genera Halegrapha, Pallidogramme, and Platygramme, and suggests that Phaeographis should be divided into several generic lineages and that Leiorreuma and Sarcographa perhaps be merged.
The new genus Halegrapha is introduced, with six species (five new species and one new combination) from Australia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Kenya, Mexico, and the United States: H. chimaera Rivas Plata & Lücking (type species; Philippines), H. floridana Common & Lücking (United States: Florida), H. intergrapha Hale ex Lücking (Malaysia), H. kenyana Kalb & Lücking (Kenya), H. mexicana A. B. Peña & Lücking (Mexico), and H. mucronata (Stirt.) Lücking (Australia). The genus resembles Graphis morphologically in the strongly carbonized, black lirellae and white-grey thallus strongly encrusted with calcium oxalate crystals, but has a Phaeographis-type hymenium (clear in two species) and ascospores, making it a ‘chimera’ between the two genera. Molecular data suggest the genus to be closely related to Phaeographis and allies but genetically distinct from any of the genera currently recognized, including Platygramme.
In the course of an ongoing systematic and taxonomic revision of the lichen family Graphidaceae (including Thelotremataceae), we present world-wide keys to the currently accepted thelotremoid genera and species, excluding the columellate taxa and their relatives of the Ocellularia-Myriotrema-Stegobolus clade (Melanotrema, Myriotrema, Ocellularia, Ocellularia clandestina group, Redingeria, Stegobolus), which will be treated in a forthcoming paper. The keys include all genera and species with chroodiscoid, lepadinoid, and topeliopsidoid apothecia and other taxa featuring periphysoids or fibrils, and their relatives. Taxa keyed out to genus and species level are Acanthotrema, Chapsa, Chroodiscus, Diploschistes, Fibrillithecis, Gyrotrema, Leptotrema, Leucodecton, Melanotopelia, the ‘Ocellularia’ cruentata group, Pseudoramonia, Reimnitzia, Schizotrema, Thelotrema, Topeliopsis and Wirthiotrema. Over 260 species are treated, including a few yet unnamed taxa. The following taxonomic and nomenclatural novelties are introduced: Acanthotrema frischii Lücking sp. nov., Chapsa aggregata (Hale) Sipman & Lücking comb. nov., C. albida (Nyl.) Lücking & Sipman comb. nov.; C. albomaculata (Sipman) Sipman & Lücking comb. nov., C. boninensis (Tat. Matsumoto) Rivas Plata & Mangold comb. nov., C. elabens (Müll. Arg.) Rivas Plata & Mangold comb. nov., C. imperfecta (Hale) Rivas Plata & Lücking comb. nov., C. laceratula (Müll. Arg.) Rivas Plata & Lücking comb. nov., C. magnifica (Berk. & Broome) Rivas Plata & Lücking comb. nov., C. meghalayensis (Patw. & Nagarkar) Lumbsch & Divakar comb. nov., C. meridensis (Kalb & Frisch) Lücking, Lumbsch & Rivas Plata comb. nov., C. mirabilis (Zahlbr.) Lücking comb. nov., C. neei (Hale) Mangold & Lücking comb. nov., C. paralbida (Riddle) Rivas Plata & Lücking comb. nov., C. pseudoexanthismocarpa (Patw. & C. R. Kulk.) Rivas Plata & Lücking comb. nov., C. pulvereodisca (Hale) Rivas Plata & Mangold comb. nov., C. scabiomarginata (Hale) Rivas Plata & Lücking comb. nov., C. waasii (Hale) Sipman & Lücking comb. nov., Fibrillithecis argentea (Müll. Arg.) Rivas Plata & Lücking comb. nov., F. carneodisca (Hale) Rivas Plata & Lücking comb. nov., F. confusa Lücking, Kalb & Rivas Plata spec. nov., F. diminita (Hale) Rivas Plata & Lücking comb. nov., F. eximia (R. C. Harris) Rivas Plata & Lücking comb. nov., F. fissurata (Nagarkar & Hale) Rivas Plata & Lücking comb. nov., F. gibbosa (H. Magn.) Rivas Plata & Lücking comb. nov., Leucodecton desquamescens (Vain.) Lücking comb. nov., L. oxysporum (Redinger) Lücking comb. nov., Schizotrema cryptotrema (Nyl.) Rivas Plata & Mangold comb. nov., Thelotrema patwardhanii (Hale) Rivas Plata & Mangold comb. nov., Topeliopsis guaiquinimae (Sipman) Rivas Plata & Mangold comb. nov., and T. tuberculifera (Vain.) Rivas Plata & Mangold comb. nov. Using the examples of Fibrillithecis halei s. lat., Leucodecton compunctellum s. lat., and Thelotrema monosporum s. lat., we show how difficult species complexes can be flexibly treated in a key, allowing for either a broad concept or the distinction of several individual taxa.
The new genus Wirthiotrema Rivas Plata, Kalb & Frisch. is described for the Thelotrema glaucopallens group, based on molecular and morphological evidence, with W. glaucopallens as the type species. The genus is characterized by myriotremoid thalli and apothecia, in combination with a paraplectenchymatous excipulum, I− ascospores, and stictic acid as a secondary compound. The new combinations W. glaucopallens (Nyl.) Rivas Plata & Kalb comb. nov., W. santessonii (Hale) Rivas Plata & Frisch comb. nov., and W. trypaneoides (Nyl.) Rivas Plata & Lücking comb. nov., are proposed and a key to the three species is presented.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.