To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
While extensive modelling - both physical and virtual - is imperative to develop right-first-time products, the parallel use of virtual and physical models gives rise to two interrelated issues: the lack of revision control for physical prototypes; and the need for designers to manually inspect, measure, and interpret modifications to either virtual or physical models, for subsequent update of the other. The Digital Twin paradigm addresses similar problems later in the product life-cycle, and while these digital twins, or the “twinning” process, have shown significant value, there is little work to date on their implementation in the earlier design stages. With large prospective benefits in increased product understanding, performance, and reduced design cycle time and cost, this paper explores the concept of using the Digital Twin in early design, including an introduction to digital twinning, examination of opportunities for and challenges of their implementation, a presentation of the structure of Early Stage Twins, and evaluation via two implementation cases.
To examine the association between parenting styles and overall child dietary quality within households that are low-income and food-insecure.
Child dietary intake was measured via a 24 h dietary recall. Dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Parenting styles were measured and scored using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Linear regressions were used to test main and interaction associations between HEI-2005 scores and parenting styles.
Non-probability sample of low-income and food-insecure households in South Carolina, USA.
Parent–child dyads (n 171). Parents were ≥18 years old and children were 9–15 years old.
We found a significant interaction between authoritative and authoritarian parenting style scores. For those with a mean authoritarian score, each unit increase in authoritative score was associated with a higher HEI-2005 score (b = 3·36, P < 0.05). For those with an authoritarian score that was 1 sd above the mean authoritarian score, each unit increase in authoritative score was associated with a higher HEI-2005 score (b = 8.42, P < 0.01). For those with an authoritarian score that was −1 sd below the mean authoritarian score, each unit increase in authoritative score was associated with a lower HEI-2005 score; however, this was not significant (b = −1·69, P > 0·05). Permissive parenting style scores were negatively associated with child dietary quality (b = −2·79, P < 0·05).
Parenting styles should be considered an important variable that is associated with overall dietary quality in children living within low-income and food-insecure households.
Several grass and broadleaf weed species around the world have evolved multiple-herbicide resistance at alarmingly increasing rates. Research on the biochemical and molecular resistance mechanisms of multiple-resistant weed populations indicate a prevalence of herbicide metabolism catalyzed by enzyme systems such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferases and, to a lesser extent, by glucosyl transferases. A symposium was conducted to gain an understanding of the current state of research on metabolic resistance mechanisms in weed species that pose major management problems around the world. These topics, as well as future directions of investigations that were identified in the symposium, are summarized herein. In addition, the latest information on selected topics such as the role of safeners in inducing crop tolerance to herbicides, selectivity to clomazone, glyphosate metabolism in crops and weeds, and bioactivation of natural molecules is reviewed.
It is well established that dicamba can cause severe injury to soybean that is not resistant to dicamba. Dicamba-resistant (DR) cotton became available in 2015, followed by DR soybean in 2016; in late 2016 came the release of new dicamba formulations approved for topical use in cotton and soybeans. Until this approval, use of dicamba was limited to primarily corn, small grains, range and pasture, and eco-fallow acres. Hence, studies were conducted in 2015 and 2016 to examine off-target movement of two dicamba formulations using non-DR soybean as a bio-indicator. Diglycolamine (DGA) and N,N-Bis(3-aminopropyl)methylamine (BAPMA) dicamba were applied simultaneously at 560 g ae ha–1 in the center of two side-by-side 8-ha fields to vegetative glufosinate-resistant soybean. On the same day, a rate response experiment was established encompassing nine different dicamba rates of each formulation. Results from the rate response experiment indicate that soybean is equally sensitive to DGA and BAPMA dicamba. In 2015, a rain event occurring 6 to 8 h after application of the large drift trial probably limited off-target movement by incorporating some of the herbicide into the soil. As a result, secondary drift was less in 2015 than in 2016. However, minimal secondary injury (<5%) occurred 12 m farther into DGA dicamba plots in 2015. In 2016, secondary movement was decreased by 72 m when BAPMA dicamba was used compared to DGA dicamba. Appreciable secondary movement of both DGA and BAPMA dicamba is possible following in-crop applications of either formulated product to soybean in early to mid-summer. Additionally, the risk for secondary movement of BAPMA dicamba is slightly less than for DGA dicamba.
It is well established that soybean that does not contain the dicamba-resistant (DR) trait is highly sensitive to off-target exposure to dicamba. However, there is limited information on the effect of low doses of dicamba plus glyphosate mixtures on dicamba-sensitive soybean—a mixture likely to be used on a vast acreage of dicamba/glyphosate-resistant soybean. The objective of this research was to examine leaf and pod malformation, along with height and yield effects, when dicamba, glyphosate, or a mixture of the two was applied to soybean sensitive to both dicamba and glyphosate at sublethal doses. Field applications were made at three growth stages (R1, R3, and R5) at multiple locations. Two glyphosate rates (1/64 and 1/256 of the labeled rate of 870 g ae ha−1) and two dicamba rates (1/64 and 1/256 of the labeled rate of 560 g ae ha−1) were used. Adding glyphosate to dicamba increased leaf malformation by 6% more than dicamba alone when applied at the R1 soybean growth stage. After R3 applications, pod malformation was 10% greater in treatments containing dicamba and glyphosate than dicamba alone. Applications at R5 showed minimal leaf and pod malformation. Seed from field trials was planted in the greenhouse to evaluate the offspring. The number of offspring plants showing dicamba-like symptomology was not increased with the addition of glyphosate to dicamba. Overall, injury to offspring was similar in dicamba alone and dicamba plus glyphosate treatments; however, the number of plants injured increased when parent plants were exposed to sublethal doses of dicamba at R3 and R5 compared with R1 growth-stage exposure. Vigor was reduced in dicamba-containing treatments, but not glyphosate-alone treatments. Glyphosate addition to dicamba had no effect on vigor of soybean offspring. Although there is increased injury to parent plants when glyphosate is added to dicamba, this research demonstrates that glyphosate does not contribute to the negative effects of dicamba on soybean offspring.
Objectives: Caregivers of youth with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure report impaired communication, which can significantly impact quality of life. Using data collected as part of the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD), we examined whether cognitive variables predict communication ability of youth with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Methods: Subjects (ages 10–16 years) comprised two groups: adolescents with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and non-exposed controls (CON). Selected measures of executive function (NEPSY, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System), working memory (CANTAB), and language were tested in the child, while parents completed communication ratings (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales – Second Edition). Separate multiple regression analyses determined which cognitive domains predicted communication ability. A final, global model of communication comprised the three cognitive models. Results: Spatial Working Memory and Inhibition significantly contributed to communication ability across groups. Twenty Questions performance related to communication ability in the CON group only while Word Generation performance related to communication ability in the AE group only. Effects remained significant in the global model, with the exception of Spatial Working Memory. Conclusions: Both groups displayed a relation between communication and Spatial Working Memory and Inhibition. Stronger communication ability related to stronger verbal fluency in the AE group and Twenty Questions performance in the CON group. These findings suggest that alcohol-exposed adolescents may rely more heavily on learned verbal storage or fluency for daily communication while non-exposed adolescents may rely more heavily on abstract thinking and verbal efficiency. Interventions aimed at aspects of executive function may be most effective at improving communication ability of these individuals. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1026–1037)
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: New Beginnings is a 12-week community-based behavioral intervention for improving health, strength, and wellness through a holistic approach to coaching that supports lifestyle change. The program serves predominantly low-income, minority women. Given the substantial focus on exercise, including resistance training, we aimed to test whether pain at baseline is associated with program completion in a prospective cohort. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: At the entry of the New Beginnings program, women completed a survey that included a body map of sites at which they experienced pain for most days in the prior week. Using logistic regression, we independently tested the association between presence of pain, the total number of pain sites, and grouped location of pain with program completion, assessing the following a priori candidate confounders: age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and income. We also tested for interaction of pain and age in influencing completion. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Seventy-five percent of participants, 185 of 247, completed the program. They had an average age of 44.2±11.7 years, weight of 244.5±115.4 pounds, and BMI of 41.3±18.2. Fifty-seven percent were African American and 3% were Hispanic. The majority reported preexisting pain (83%), with an average of 3.4±2.7 pain sites. Completers and non-completers did not differ by the total number of pain sites (p=0.2). Having preexisting pain compared to no pain [odds ratio (OR)=1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5–3.4] and to the number of pain sites (OR=1.0; 95% CI: 0.9–1.1) did not influence program completion after adjusting for the sole confounder, which was age. Likewise, we observed no association between limb/joint pain (OR=1.1; 95% CI: 0.6–2.1) or back pain (OR=0.9; 95% CI: 0.5–1.6) with program completion. The association of pain with completion was not modified by age. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: While pain is believed to be a barrier to improving fitness, preexisting pain may not be a strong predictor of completing a holistic lifestyle intervention with a substantial exercise component. Rather, women’s commitment to making a healthy lifestyle change may result in program completion irrespective of preexisting pain. Addressing and accommodating pain-related modifications to exercise interventions promise to be more effective than excluding those with pain from participation.
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a candidate biomarker for major depressive disorder (MDD), but it is unclear how peripheral CRP levels relate to the heterogeneous clinical phenotypes of the disorder.
To explore CRP in MDD and its phenotypic associations.
We recruited 102 treatment-resistant patients with MDD currently experiencing depression, 48 treatment-responsive patients with MDD not currently experiencing depression, 48 patients with depression who were not receiving medication and 54 healthy volunteers. High-sensitivity CRP in peripheral venous blood, body mass index (BMI) and questionnaire assessments of depression, anxiety and childhood trauma were measured. Group differences in CRP were estimated, and partial least squares (PLS) analysis explored the relationships between CRP and specific clinical phenotypes.
Compared with healthy volunteers, BMI-corrected CRP was significantly elevated in the treatment-resistant group (P = 0.007; Cohen's d = 0.47); but not significantly so in the treatment-responsive (d = 0.29) and untreated (d = 0.18) groups. PLS yielded an optimal two-factor solution that accounted for 34.7% of variation in clinical measures and for 36.0% of variation in CRP. Clinical phenotypes most strongly associated with CRP and heavily weighted on the first PLS component were vegetative depressive symptoms, BMI, state anxiety and feeling unloved as a child or wishing for a different childhood.
CRP was elevated in patients with MDD, and more so in treatment-resistant patients. Other phenotypes associated with elevated CRP included childhood adversity and specific depressive and anxious symptoms. We suggest that patients with MDD stratified for proinflammatory biomarkers, like CRP, have a distinctive clinical profile that might be responsive to second-line treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs.
Declaration of interest
S.R.C. consults for Cambridge Cognition and Shire; and his input in this project was funded by a Wellcome Trust Clinical Fellowship (110049/Z/15/Z). E.T.B. is employed half time by the University of Cambridge and half time by GlaxoSmithKline; he holds stock in GlaxoSmithKline. In the past 3 years, P.J.C. has served on an advisory board for Lundbeck. N.A.H. consults for GlaxoSmithKline. P.d.B., D.N.C.J. and W.C.D. are employees of Janssen Research & Development, LLC., of Johnson & Johnson, and hold stock in Johnson & Johnson. The other authors report no financial disclosures or potential conflicts of interest.
Relationships between sow nutrition, milk yield, milk composition and piglet performance during lactation have been studied in numerous experiments. However, the subsequent effects of these pre-weaning factors on post-weaning piglet performance are less well studied. Commonly a growth check in piglets in response to weaning is noted, but to date it is unknown why some piglets do better than others in this period. The present experiment explored some of the pre-weaning factors that could explain the variability in piglet post-weaning growth.
The performance of piglets from 41 litters was monitored during a lactation period of 26 days. Litter size was standardised to 10 piglets, which were not offered creep food. Piglets were weighed individually on a weekly basis from farrowing to weaning at 26 days. Daily litter milk intake was estimated by a weigh-suckle-weigh technique in 24 litters on 4 occasions at 5 day intervals across lactation. On the day after each of these days, the composition of milk was determined from milk samples obtained by hand milking following oxytocin injection. Litter milk intake and composition of milk were used to calculate the mean daily piglet nutrient intakes during lactation. After weaning some piglets were sacrificed for the analysis of body composition and 310 piglets out of the 41 litters were penned in litter groups in controlled environment flat decks for two weeks to monitor daily group feed intakes and weekly individual growth rates.
Starch and fat are the two major energy sources available for sow lactation diets. Fat is more energy dense and can be used to maximise energy intakes, particularly in sows with low appetite. However, the quantity of milk produced in sows has been associated with milk lactose production and the main precursor for lactose is glucose, for which dietary starch is the major source. It is therefore important to know the consequences of using a glucose deficient energy source, such as fat, compared to starch in lactation diets. The following experiment was designed to assess energy sources in lactation diets at an isocaloric level in determining sow and piglet performance, in association with the effects of dietary glucose availability on the metabolic state of the sow around peak lactation.
The extent to which young sows, which still have a strong drive to continue maternal growth, partition nutrients from body reserves towards milk production, may be influenced by their genetic growth target. Modern genotype sows, with a high mature body protein mass, are thus particularly challenged. It has been suggested that to optimise their metabolic state for expressing lactational potential they will have to achieve a satisfactory proportion of their mature body protein mass before farrowing. This could be constrained by current feeding and breeding regimes. To test this hypothesis, gilts of genotypes differing in their body protein:lipid content were given the choice between a low and a high protein diet during rearing and pregnancy, and their intake, subsequent performance and metabolic state in lactation were measured.
The Taipan galaxy survey (hereafter simply ‘Taipan’) is a multi-object spectroscopic survey starting in 2017 that will cover 2π steradians over the southern sky (δ ≲ 10°, |b| ≳ 10°), and obtain optical spectra for about two million galaxies out to z < 0.4. Taipan will use the newly refurbished 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory with the new TAIPAN instrument, which includes an innovative ‘Starbugs’ positioning system capable of rapidly and simultaneously deploying up to 150 spectroscopic fibres (and up to 300 with a proposed upgrade) over the 6° diameter focal plane, and a purpose-built spectrograph operating in the range from 370 to 870 nm with resolving power R ≳ 2000. The main scientific goals of Taipan are (i) to measure the distance scale of the Universe (primarily governed by the local expansion rate, H0) to 1% precision, and the growth rate of structure to 5%; (ii) to make the most extensive map yet constructed of the total mass distribution and motions in the local Universe, using peculiar velocities based on improved Fundamental Plane distances, which will enable sensitive tests of gravitational physics; and (iii) to deliver a legacy sample of low-redshift galaxies as a unique laboratory for studying galaxy evolution as a function of dark matter halo and stellar mass and environment. The final survey, which will be completed within 5 yrs, will consist of a complete magnitude-limited sample (i ⩽ 17) of about 1.2 × 106 galaxies supplemented by an extension to higher redshifts and fainter magnitudes (i ⩽ 18.1) of a luminous red galaxy sample of about 0.8 × 106 galaxies. Observations and data processing will be carried out remotely and in a fully automated way, using a purpose-built automated ‘virtual observer’ software and an automated data reduction pipeline. The Taipan survey is deliberately designed to maximise its legacy value by complementing and enhancing current and planned surveys of the southern sky at wavelengths from the optical to the radio; it will become the primary redshift and optical spectroscopic reference catalogue for the local extragalactic Universe in the southern sky for the coming decade.
Confocal microwave imaging for breast cancer detection relies on accurate knowledge of the average dielectric properties of the patient-specific breast. When accurately estimated, coherent addition will occur at the tumor site, producing a clear and sharp image thereof. Conversely, if the average dielectric properties are poorly estimated, a blurred, unfocused image will be reconstructed, potentially obscuring cancerous lesions. Several methods have been proposed to estimate the patient-specific average dielectric properties, for example, time-of-flight estimation. However, such methods are specific to the individual imaging hardware, can be susceptible to multipath propagation and assume the chosen paths are representative of the whole volume. In this paper, a novel method to estimate the patient-specific average dielectric properties is presented, based on focal quality metrics (FQMs); used historically to measure the clarity and focus of microscopic or digital photographic images. These FQMs are applied to confocal microwave breast images to assess their focus, and hence estimate the patient-specific average dielectric properties. In this way, FQMs can be used to generate the optimum microwave image of the breast. The performance and robustness of these FQMs for microwave breast imaging applications is examined in this paper and preliminary results are presented and discussed.
Training for the clinical research workforce does not sufficiently prepare workers for today’s scientific complexity; deficiencies may be ameliorated with training. The Enhancing Clinical Research Professionals’ Training and Qualifications developed competency standards for principal investigators and clinical research coordinators.
Clinical and Translational Science Awards representatives refined competency statements. Working groups developed assessments, identified training, and highlighted gaps.
Forty-eight competency statements in 8 domains were developed.
Training is primarily investigator focused with few programs for clinical research coordinators. Lack of training is felt in new technologies and data management. There are no standardized assessments of competence.
The Southern Hemisphere VLBI Experiment (SHEVE) program is aimed at producing high-resolution images of southern radio sources. The radio telescopes of the present SHEVE array are described below and some recent results presented.
Centaurus A is the closest active extragalactic radio source, at a distance of approximately 3.5 Mpc, and is identified with the peculiar elliptical galaxy NGC 5128. As such it is a very important target for observations of the small-scale (sub-parsec) and large-scale (kpc) structures in extragalactic jets. Here we present Mk-II VLBI observations made at 8.4 GHz over a 4.3 year period from early 1991 until mid-1995, as well as a 4.8 GHz observation that was co-eval with one of the 8.4 GHz observations. All of the observations were made with the SHEVE array except for the last observation which was made with the VLBA. The dual-frequency observations identify the core of the radio source, while the multi-epoch observations show the complex structural evolution at a resolution of 0.1 pc. Subluminal motion of ≈ 0.15c is evident. Structural changes are observed on time scales shorter than four months.
Centaurus A (NGC 5128) is the nearest giant radio galaxy. It is a Fanaroff-Riley type 1 (low luminosity) radio source, but the compact radio source in the nucleus is strong enough that VLBI imaging has been possible with both the SHEVE array and the VLBA at several frequencies. These observations have detected a sub-parsec scale counterjet. This shows that jet formation in at least some FR I sources is intrinsically two-sided over very small distances and the radio jets in Centaurus A are probably only moderately relativistic. We also find evidence that the center of activity in Centaurus A is partially obscured by a disk or torus of dense plasma.
Two important factors for understanding the physical nature of compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio sources are determining the correct radio morphological classification of these objects together with their characteristics in wavebands different from the radio (Fanti et al. 1995, A&A, 302, 317). Seven CSS sources (linear dimensions < 30kpc for Ho = 50 kms–1Mpc–1 and α > 0.5, S ≃ v–α) have been found in a complete sample of strong southern radio sources. This group of CSS sources is particularly interesting because some optical and X-ray information is already available as part of a more general study of southern radio sources (Morganti et al. & Siebert et al. these Proceedings). The spectra of all the sources were presented in Tadhunter et al. (1993, MNRAS, 263, 999.) Here we present VLBI observations for three of these sources (0252-71, 1306-09 and 1814-63). The remaining four have already been imaged with VLBI (King et al. these Proceedings).