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How do planetary scientists analyze and interpret data from laboratory, telescopic, and spacecraft observations of planetary surfaces? What elements, minerals, and volatiles are found on the surfaces of our Solar System's planets, moons, asteroids, and comets? This comprehensive volume answers these topical questions by providing an overview of the theory and techniques of remote compositional analysis of planetary surfaces. Bringing together eminent researchers in Solar System exploration, it describes state-of-the-art results from spectroscopic, mineralogical, and geochemical techniques used to analyze the surfaces of planets, moons, and small bodies. The book introduces the methodology and theoretical background of each technique, and presents the latest advances in space exploration, telescopic and laboratory instrumentation, and major new work in theoretical studies. This engaging volume provides a comprehensive reference on planetary surface composition and mineralogy for advanced students, researchers, and professional scientists.
TwinsUK is the largest cohort of community-dwelling adult twins in the UK. The registry comprises over 14,000 volunteer twins (14,838 including mixed, single and triplets); it is predominantly female (82%) and middle-aged (mean age 59). In addition, over 1800 parents and siblings of twins are registered volunteers. During the last 27 years, TwinsUK has collected numerous questionnaire responses, physical/cognitive measures and biological measures on over 8500 subjects. Data were collected alongside four comprehensive phenotyping clinical visits to the Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King’s College London. Such collection methods have resulted in very detailed longitudinal clinical, biochemical, behavioral, dietary and socioeconomic cohort characterization; it provides a multidisciplinary platform for the study of complex disease during the adult life course, including the process of healthy aging. The major strength of TwinsUK is the availability of several ‘omic’ technologies for a range of sample types from participants, which includes genomewide scans of single-nucleotide variants, next-generation sequencing, metabolomic profiles, microbiomics, exome sequencing, epigenetic markers, gene expression arrays, RNA sequencing and telomere length measures. TwinsUK facilitates and actively encourages sharing the ‘TwinsUK’ resource with the scientific community — interested researchers may request data via the TwinsUK website (http://twinsuk.ac.uk/resources-for-researchers/access-our-data/) for their own use or future collaboration with the study team. In addition, further cohort data collection is planned via the Wellcome Open Research gateway (https://wellcomeopenresearch.org/gateways). The current article presents an up-to-date report on the application of technological advances, new study procedures in the cohort and future direction of TwinsUK.
We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this study was to prospectively assess caregiver-perceived barriers to accessing post-acute care for their injured child and determine if caregivers report ongoing, unmet health needs for their children after trauma. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This was a prospective cohort study that followed 50 participants for 6 months and administered surveys to parents of children who are admitted to a pediatric level 1 trauma center for injury. Surveys were given bi-weekly regarding care children received after hospital discharge. At 3 months, parents were surveyed over the phone on whether they were able to access all needed health services and if there were any perceived barriers to obtaining or providing at-home care. At 6 months, parents were given the Child & Family Follow-up Survey to assess ongoing physical, mental, social, and scholastic needs. Free responses and transcribed interviews were analyzed using thematic content analysis and frequencies are reported for discrete data. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Out of 50 families recruited, 47 completed follow-up assessments. At 3 months, common themes regarding challenges after hospital discharge included difficulty scheduling specialist care; uncertainty in managing their child’s pain; transitioning home without enough knowledge to meet their child’s medical needs; lack of communication between multiple providers; distress at having providers release children to full activities before caregivers were comfortable. At 6 months, approximately 24% of parents reported children had ongoing cognitive limitations, 29% reported emotional problems, 19% reported physical limitations, 33.3% reported difficulty in school, and 15% reported play/social difficulties. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Evidence suggests families face significant barriers in accessing follow-up care, despite nearly universal health insurance coverage for children. Further, a large percentage of parents report ongoing health needs, despite the majority of the cohort having only mild or moderate severity injuries. Making follow-up care more patient-centered for families of traumatically injured children may improve compliance with medical regiments and reduce the likelihood of future disability. Examples of this may be coordinating care among multiple specialty providers, so that patients with multiple injuries can schedule multiple follow-up appointments on the same day. Additionally, more caregiver education on administering pain medication, caring for wounds, and safe practices for returning to full activities would be beneficial for families.
To assess the feasibility and acceptability of a beverage intervention in Hispanic adults.
Eligible individuals identified as Hispanic, were 18–64 years old and had BMI 30·0–50·0 kg/m2. Participants were randomized 2:2:1 to one of three beverages: Mediterranean lemonade (ML), green tea (GT) or flavoured water control (FW). After a 2-week washout period, participants were asked to consume 32 oz (946 ml) of study beverage daily for 6 weeks and avoid other sources of tea, citrus, juice and sweetened beverages; water was permissible. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and 8 weeks to assess primary and secondary efficacy outcomes.
Tucson, AZ, USA.
Fifty-two participants were recruited over 6 months; fifty were randomized (twenty-one ML, nineteen GT, ten FW). Study population mean (sd) age 44·6 (sd 10·2) years, BMI 35·9 (4·6) kg/m2; 78 % female.
Forty-four (88 %) completed the 8-week assessment. Self-reported adherence was high. No significant change (95 % CI) in total cholesterol (mg/dl) from baseline was shown −1·7 (−14·2, 10·9), −3·9 (−17·2, 9·4) and −13·2 (−30·2, 3·8) for ML, GT and FW, respectively. Mean change in HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) −2·3 (−5·3, 0·7; ML), −1·0 (−4·2, 2·2; GT), −3·9 (−8·0, 0·2; FW) and LDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 0·2 (−11·3, 11·8; ML), 0·5 (−11·4, 12·4; GT), −9·8 (−25·0, 5·4; FW) were also non-significant. Fasting glucose (mg/dl) increased significantly by 5·2 (2·6, 7·9; ML) and 3·3 (0·58, 6·4; GT). No significant change in HbA1c was demonstrated. Due to the small sample size, potential confounders and effect modifiers were not investigated.
Recruitment and retention figures indicate that a larger-scale trial is feasible; however, favourable changes in cardiometabolic biomarkers were not demonstrated.
Utilising routine surveillance data, this study presents a method for generating a baseline comparison that can be used in future foodborne outbreak investigations following a case–case methodology. Salmonella and Campylobacter cases (2012–2015) from Maricopa County, AZ were compared to determine differences in risk factors, symptoms and demographics. For foods and other risk factors, adjusted odds ratios were developed using Campylobacter as the reference. Comparisons were also made for three major Salmonella subtypes, Typhimurium, Enteritidis and Poona as compared with Campylobacter. Salmonella cases were younger, while Campylobacter cases were more Hispanic and female. Campylobacter cases reported consuming peppers, sprouts, poultry, queso fresco, eggs and raw nuts more and reported contact with animal products, birds, visiting a farm or dairy, owning a pet, a sick pet, swimming in a river, lake or pond, or handling multiple raw meats more. Salmonella cases reported visiting a petting zoo and contact with a reptile more. There were significant variations by Salmonella subtype in both foods and exposures. We recommend departments conduct this analysis to generate a baseline comparison and a running average of relevant odds ratios allowing staff to focus on trace-back of contaminated food items earlier in the outbreak investigation process.
Concentrate inclusion levels in dairy cow diets are often adjusted so that the milk yield responses remain economic. While changes in concentrate level on performance is well known, their impact on other biological parameters, including immune function, is less well understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of concentrate inclusion level in a grass silage-based mixed ration on immune function. Following calving 63 (45 multiparous and 18 primiparous) Holstein Friesian dairy cows were allocated to one of three isonitrogenous diets for the first 70 days of lactation. Diets comprised of a mixture of concentrates and grass silage, with concentrates comprising either a low (30%, LC), medium (50%, MC) or high (70%, HC) proportion of the diet on a dry matter (DM) basis. Daily DM intakes, milk yields and BW were recorded, along with weekly body condition score, milk composition and vaginal mucus scores. Blood biochemistry was measured using a chemistry analyzer, neutrophil phagocytic and oxidative burst assessed using commercial kits and flow cytometry, and interferon-γ production evaluated by ELISA after whole blood stimulation. Over the study period cows on HC had a higher total DM intake, milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat+protein yield, protein content, mean BW and mean daily energy balance, and a lower BW loss than cows on MC, whose respective values were higher than cows on LC. Cows on HC and MC had a lower serum non-esterified fatty acid concentration than cows on LC (0.37, 0.37 and 0.50 mmol/l, respectively, P=0.005, SED=0.032), while cows on HC had a lower serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration than cows on MC and LC (0.42, 0.55 and 0.55 mmol/l, respectively, P=0.002, SED=0.03). Concentrate inclusion level had no effect on vaginal mucus scores. At week 3 postpartum, cows on HC tended to have a higher percentage of oxidative burst positive neutrophils than cows on LC (43.2% and 35.3%, respectively, P=0.078, SED=3.11), although at all other times concentrate inclusion level in the total mixed ration had no effect on neutrophil phagocytic or oxidative burst characteristics, or on interferon-γ production by pokeweed mitogen stimulated whole blood culture. This study demonstrates that for high yielding Holstein Friesian cows managed on a grass silage-based diet, concentrate inclusion levels in early lactation affects performance but has no effect on neutrophil or lymphocyte immune parameters.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this study is to determine predictors and motives for sustained opioid use, prescription misuse, and nonmedical opioid use in the adolescent trauma population. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This is a prospective cohort study that will follow patients for 1 year and administer surveys to patients on prescription opioid usage; substance use; utilization of pain management and mental health services; mental and physical health conditions; and behavioral and social risk factors. Patient eligibility criteria include: (1) patient is 12–18 years of age; (2) admitted for trauma; (3) english speaking; (4) resides within Indianapolis, IN metropolitan area; and (5) consent can be obtained from a parent or guardian. Patients with severe brain injuries or other injuries that prevent survey participation will be excluded. The patient sample will comprise of 50 traumatically injured adolescents admitted for trauma who will be followed for 12 months after discharge. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We expect that the results of this study will identify multiple risk factors for sustained opioid use that can be used to create targeted interventions to reduce opioid misuse in the adolescent trauma population. Clinical predictors such as opioid type, dosage, and duration that can be modified to reduce the risk of long-term opioid use will be identified. We expect to elucidate clinical, behavioral, and social risk factors that increase the likelihood adolescents will misuse their medication and initiate nonmedical opioid use. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Trauma is a surgical specialty that often has limited collaboration with behavioral health providers. Collaborative care models for trauma patients to adequately address the psychological impact of a traumatic injury have become more common in recent years. These models have primarily been concerned with the prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder. We would like to apply the findings of our research to better understand what motivates adolescents to misuse pain medications as well as how clinical, individual, behavioral, and social factors affect medication usage. This may help identify patients at greater risk of developing a SUD by asking questions not commonly addressed in the hospital setting. For example, similar to how trauma centers have mandated brief interventions on alcohol use be performed for center verification, screening patients’ on their social environment may identify patients at greater risk for SUD than assumed. The long-term goal would be to prevent opioid use disorders in injured adolescents by providing better post-acute care support, possibly by developing and implementing a collaborative care model that addresses opioid use. Additionally, we believe our findings could be applied in the acute care setting as well to help inform opioid prescribing and pain management methods in the acute phase of an injury. Genetic testing to determine which opioid to prescribe pediatric surgical patients is starting to be done at some pediatric hospitals. Certain genes determine which specific opioid is most effective in controlling a patient’s pain and, further, using the optimal opioid medication can also reduce overdose. Our findings may help refine prescribing patterns that could increase or decrease the likelihood of developing SUD in patients with certain genetic, clinical, behavioral, and social characteristics.
To assess the feasibility, reliability and validity of reflection spectroscopy (RS) to assess skin carotenoids in a racially diverse sample.
Study 1 was a cross-sectional study of corner store customers (n 479) who completed the National Cancer Institute Fruit and Vegetable Screener as well as RS measures. Feasibility was assessed by examining the time it took to complete three RS measures, reliability was assessed by examining the variation between three RS measures, and validity was examined by correlation with self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption. In Study 2, validity was assessed in a smaller sample (n 30) by examining associations between RS measures and dietary carotenoids, fruits and vegetables as calculated from a validated FFQ and plasma carotenoids.
Eastern North Carolina, USA.
It took on average 94·0 s to complete three RS readings per person. The average variation between three readings for each participant was 6·8 %. In Study 2, in models adjusted for age, race and sex, there were statistically significant associations between RS measures and (i) FFQ-estimated carotenoid intake (P<0·0001); (ii) FFQ-estimated fruit and vegetable consumption (P<0·010); and (iii) plasma carotenoids (P<0·0001).
RS is a potentially improved method to approximate fruit and vegetable consumption among diverse participants. RS is portable and easy to use in field-based public health nutrition settings. More research is needed to investigate validity and sensitivity in diverse populations.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), located in Western Australia, is one of the low-frequency precursors of the international Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project. In addition to pursuing its own ambitious science programme, it is also a testbed for wide range of future SKA activities ranging from hardware, software to data analysis. The key science programmes for the MWA and SKA require very high dynamic ranges, which challenges calibration and imaging systems. Correct calibration of the instrument and accurate measurements of source flux densities and polarisations require precise characterisation of the telescope’s primary beam. Recent results from the MWA GaLactic Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey show that the previously implemented Average Embedded Element (AEE) model still leaves residual polarisations errors of up to 10–20% in Stokes Q. We present a new simulation-based Full Embedded Element (FEE) model which is the most rigorous realisation yet of the MWA’s primary beam model. It enables efficient calculation of the MWA beam response in arbitrary directions without necessity of spatial interpolation. In the new model, every dipole in the MWA tile (4 × 4 bow-tie dipoles) is simulated separately, taking into account all mutual coupling, ground screen, and soil effects, and therefore accounts for the different properties of the individual dipoles within a tile. We have applied the FEE beam model to GLEAM observations at 200–231 MHz and used false Stokes parameter leakage as a metric to compare the models. We have determined that the FEE model reduced the magnitude and declination-dependent behaviour of false polarisation in Stokes Q and V while retaining low levels of false polarisation in Stokes U.
A possible cause for accelerated thinning and break-up of floating marine ice shelves is warming of the water in the cavity below the ice shelf. Accurate bathymetry beneath large ice shelves is crucial for developing models of the ocean circulation in the sub-ice cavities. A grid of free-air gravity data over the floating Larsen C ice shelf collected during the IceBridge 2009 Antarctic campaign was utilized to develop the first bathymetry model of the underlying continental shelf. Independent control on the continental shelf geologic structures from marine surveys was used to constrain the inversion. Depths on the continental shelf beneath the ice shelf estimated from the inversion generally range from about 350 to 650 m, but vary from <300 to >1000 m. Localized overdeepenings, 20-30 km long and 900-1000 m deep, are located in inlets just seaward of the grounding line. Submarine valleys extending seaward from the overdeepenings coalesce into two broad troughs that extend to the seaward limit of the ice shelf and appear to extend to the edge of the continental shelf. The troughs are generally at a depth of 550-700 m although the southernmost mapped trough deepens to over 1000 m near the edge of the ice shelf just south of 68° S. The combination of the newly determined bathymetry with published ice-draft determinations based on laser altimetry and radar data defines the geometry of the water-filled cavity. These newly imaged troughs provide a conduit for water to traverse the continental shelf and interact with the overlying Larsen C ice shelf and the grounding lines of the outlet glaciers.
We present evidence for melting at the base of the ice that overlies Lake Concordia, an 800 km2 subglacial lake near Dome Concordia, East Antarctica, via a combination of glaciohydraulic melting (associated with the tilted ice ceiling and its influence on lake circulation/melting temperature) and melting by extreme strain heating (where the ice sheet is grounded). An influx of water is necessary to provide nutrients, material and biota to support subglacial lake ecosystems but has not been detected previously. Freezing is the dominant observed basal process at over 60% of the surface area above the lake. The total volume of accreted ice above the lake surface is estimated as 50-60 km3, roughly 25-30% of the 200 ± 40 km3 estimated lake volume. Estimated rates of melting and freezing are very similar, ±2-6 mm a-1. The apparent net freezing may reflect the present-day response of Lake Concordia to cooling associated with the Last Glacial Maximum, or a large influx of water either via a subglacial hydrological system or from additional melting of the ice sheet. Lake Concordia is an excellent candidate for subglacial exploration given active basal processes, proximity to the Dome Concordia ice core and traverse resupply route.
Recent theories suggest that poor working memory (WM) may be the cognitive underpinning of negative symptoms in people with schizophrenia. In this study, we first explore the effect of cognitive remediation (CR) on two clusters of negative symptoms (i.e. expressive and social amotivation), and then assess the relevance of WM gains as a possible mediator of symptom improvement.
Data were accessed for 309 people with schizophrenia from the NIMH Database of Cognitive Training and Remediation Studies and a separate study. Approximately half the participants received CR and the rest were allocated to a control condition. All participants were assessed before and after therapy and at follow-up. Expressive negative symptoms and social amotivation symptoms scores were calculated from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. WM was assessed with digit span and letter-number span tests.
Participants who received CR had a significant improvement in WM scores (d = 0.27) compared with those in the control condition. Improvements in social amotivation levels approached statistical significance (d = −0.19), but change in expressive negative symptoms did not differ between groups. WM change did not mediate the effect of CR on social amotivation.
The results suggest that a course of CR may benefit behavioural negative symptoms. Despite hypotheses linking memory problems with negative symptoms, the current findings do not support the role of this cognitive domain as a significant mediator. The results indicate that WM improves independently from negative symptoms reduction.
The current generation of experiments aiming to detect the neutral hydrogen signal from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) is likely to be limited by systematic effects associated with removing foreground sources from target fields. In this paper, we develop a model for the compact foreground sources in one of the target fields of the MWA’s EoR key science experiment: the ‘EoR1’ field. The model is based on both the MWA’s GLEAM survey and GMRT 150 MHz data from the TGSS survey, the latter providing higher angular resolution and better astrometric accuracy for compact sources than is available from the MWA alone. The model contains 5 049 sources, some of which have complicated morphology in MWA data, Fornax A being the most complex. The higher resolution data show that 13% of sources that appear point-like to the MWA have complicated morphology such as double and quad structure, with a typical separation of 33 arcsec. We derive an analytic expression for the error introduced into the EoR two-dimensional power spectrum due to peeling close double sources as single point sources and show that for the measured source properties, the error in the power spectrum is confined to high k⊥ modes that do not affect the overall result for the large-scale cosmological signal of interest. The brightest 10 mis-modelled sources in the field contribute 90% of the power bias in the data, suggesting that it is most critical to improve the models of the brightest sources. With this hybrid model, we reprocess data from the EoR1 field and show a maximum of 8% improved calibration accuracy and a factor of two reduction in residual power in k-space from peeling these sources. Implications for future EoR experiments including the SKA are discussed in relation to the improvements obtained.
Since the mid-1970's it has been apparent that giant stars of similar V and B-V within a “normal” globular cluster [i.e., one with a narrow giant branch in its color-magnitude diagram (CMD)] exhibit a perplexing range of strengths for such spectral features as CH, CN and NH. This complex subject has been reviewed by Kraft (1979), McClure (1979) and Freeman and Norris (1981). DDO photometry first revealed star-to-star differences of CN strengths at MV>+1, where observational confusion between asymptotic and first-ascent giant stars is removed (Hesser, Hartwick and McClure 1976, 1977; Hesser 1978). Subsequently, we have sought to place observational constraints on possible mechanisms by studying such questions as: At what MV's do spectral differences first become observable? Do spectral features other than those from CNO-based molecules vary from star-to-star? Can small temperature or gravity differences produce the observed ranges?
Four key policy challenges, framed here as dichotomies, are commonly associated with attempts to improve the use of natural resources in the socioecological commons. These dichotomies present tradeoffs when addressing market failures and in general seem to suggest the need to settle for second-best outcomes rather than first-best outcomes identified in stylized models. Citing examples, we argue that these models, while illustrating these dichotomies, also suggest means for circumventing them, and perhaps provide a degree of optimism about prospective outcomes in socioecological systems.
Shortages of hired labour are leading to greater interest in mechanisation for crop establishment in smallholder agriculture. Due to small field sizes, mechanised planters mounted on four-wheel tractors are not a suitable technology. The Versatile Multi-crop Planter (VMP) was developed for zero tillage (ZT), strip planting (SP) or single pass shallow tillage (SPST) on flat land and for forming and planting on tops of beds, each in a single pass operation, when mounted on a two-wheel tractor (2WT). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the field performance of the VMP in comparison to conventional broadcast seeding and full rotary tillage (2 to 4 passes; called CT) for establishing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), jute (Corchorus olitorius L.), lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus), maize (Zea mays L.), mung bean (Vigna radiata L. R. Wilczek), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in 15 locations of Bangladesh. Plant populations emerging from all single pass operations viz. SP, ZT, and bed planting (BP) were generally satisfactory and in 12 out of 15 experiments plant populations after SP were similar to or greater than after CT. In addition, SP gave comparable or greater plant populations than SPST and BP planting methods. Overall, the SP planting achieved comparable yields and lower costs of establishment than CT. We conclude that effective and reliable planters are now available for sowing a range of crop species on small fields with minimum soil disturbance. This opens up realistic options for the development of mechanised conservation agriculture suited to small field sizes.