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The reshocked Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) is examined in three different configurations via shock-tube experiments: RMI at a single-mode interface with a planar reshock (configuration I); RMI at a flat interface with a sinusoidal reshock (configuration II); RMI at a single-mode interface with a sinusoidal reshock (configuration III). The sinusoidal reshock is created by an incident shock reflecting off a sine-shaped wall surface. For all three configurations, the initial conditions of the experiment are specially set such that the interface evolution is at the linear stage when the reshock arrives. It is found that the amplitude of the reshocked interface increases linearly with time for all three configurations. For configuration I, the post-reshock perturbation growth depends heavily on the pre-reshock amplitude and growth rate, which can be predicted by a modified Mikaelian model (Phys. Rev. A, vol. 31, 1985, pp. 410–419). For configuration II, velocity perturbation associated with the non-uniform rippled reshock plays an important role in the instability growth. For configuration III, the post-reshock instability growth is much quicker (lower) than in configuration I when the sinusoidal reshock is in phase (out of phase) with the interface. A major reason is that for the in-phase (anti-phase) case, the velocity perturbation gives rise to an instability growth with an identical (opposite) direction to the pressure perturbation. A linear theory is developed that takes velocity perturbation, pressure perturbation and pre-reshock growth rate into account, which gives a reasonable prediction of the growth of the reshocked RMI in configurations II and III.
To comprehensively study the physical properties of inductively coupled plasma (ICP), a finite element method (FEM) simulation model of ICP is developed using the well-established COMSOL software. To benchmark the validation of the FEM model, two key physical parameters, the electron density and the electron temperature of the ICP plasma, are precisely measured by the state-of-the-art laser Thomson scattering diagnostic approach. For low-pressure plasma such as ICP, the local pressure in the generator tube is difficult to measure directly. The local gas pressure in the ICP tube has been calibrated by comparing the experimental and simulation results of the maximum electron density. And on this basis, the electron density and electron temperature of ICP under the same gas pressure and absorbed power have been compared by experiments and simulations. The good agreement between the experimental and simulation data of these two key physical parameters fully verifies the validity of the ICP FEM simulation model. The experimental verification of the ICP FEM simulation model lays a foundation for further study of the distribution of various physical quantities and their variation with pressure and absorption power, which is beneficial for improving the level of ICP-related processes.
The Wood Snipe Gallinago nemoricola is one of the least known shorebird species, and its habitat associations are very poorly understood. Here we provide the first assessment of the habitat use of the Wood Snipe during the breeding season. Between May and July 2021 at a 4-km2 alpine meadow in Sichuan province, China, we conducted population surveys and behavioural observations to identify sites where breeding Wood Snipe occurred and foraged. We quantified the habitat characteristics and food resource availability of these sites and compared them with randomly selected “background” sites. Comparison between 34 occurrence sites and 25 background sites indicated that during the breeding season, Wood Snipes are not distributed evenly across alpine meadow habitats, but preferred habitats in the lower part (3,378–3,624 m) of the alpine meadow with intermediate levels of soil moisture. In addition, comparison between 17 foraging sites and 24 background sites showed that the Wood Snipe tended to forage at sites with higher soil fauna abundance. We found weak evidence for denser vegetation cover at its height and no evidence for other biotic habitat variables such as vegetation composition or other abiotic habitat variables such as slope, soil penetrability, or disturbance level to influence Wood Snipe habitat associations. Our results suggest that the actual distribution range of the Wood Snipe during the breeding season may be smaller than expected from the extent of apparently suitable habitat. We advise caution in evaluating the potential habitat availability and distribution of the Wood Snipe, and call for further research to better understand the ecology of this rare species to inform its conservation.
Previous hydrocarbon explorations in the middle of the Tarim Basin indicate that strike-slip faults play an important role in the development of Ordovician carbonate reservoirs and hydrocarbon accumulation. The SB5 fault in the Tarim Basin was the target of this investigation. An evaluation of the stress in situ was carried out and provided boundary conditions to build a 3D geomechanical model. The distribution and application of present in situ stress in the strike-slip fault were studied. The results show good agreement between the absolute measured stress in situ and the modelled stresses, revealing a different stress regime along the strike-slip fault. The uplift segment belongs to a strike-slip stress state, and other areas belong to a normal fault stress state. The strike-slip fault has a significant influence on the present in situ stress distribution. The direction of the maximum horizontal stress deflects near the fault and tends to be parallel to the fault strike. This work introduces a comprehensive evaluation of the present in situ stress of the fractured carbonate reservoirs controlled by the strike-slip fault system. The present in situ stress direction can clarify the propagation direction of hydraulic fracturing and serve to evaluate the effectiveness of natural fractures.
Steinernema populi n. sp. was recovered by baiting from beneath poplar trees in China. Morphological and molecular features provided evidence for placing the new species into the Kushidai clade. The new species is characterized by the following morphological features: third-stage infective juveniles (IJ) with a body length of 1095 (973–1172) μm, a distance from the anterior end to excretory pore of 77 (70–86) μm and a tail length of 64 (55–72) μm. The Body length/Tail length (c) ratio and Anterior end to Excretory pore/ Tail length × 100 (E%) of S. populi n. sp. are substantially greater than those of all other ‘Feltiae–Kushidai–Monticolum’ group members. The first-generation males can be recognized by a spicule length of 66 (57–77) μm and a gubernaculum length of 46 (38–60) μm. The new species is further characterized by sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and partial 28S regions of the ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analyses show that Steinernema akhursti and Steinernema kushidai are the closest relatives to S. populi n. sp.
The gut microbiota plays an important role in animals’ survival in their local environments. The intertidal rocky shore is a key interface of oceanic, atmospheric and terrestrial environments, and the transmission modes of microbes between an intertidal host and the environment are complex and largely ignored. In the present study, we characterized the gut microbiota of the intertidal snail Nerita yoldii, which is experiencing a northward range shift under the combined impacts of climate change and anthropogenic seascape transformation, and also determined the nearby environmental microbiota on the rock and in the seawater at five locations along the snail's distribution range in China. The gut microbial communities were significantly different from the environmental microbial communities, and the dominant phyla were Tenericutes, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria in the gut, rock and seawater microbial communities, respectively. At the genus level, Mycoplasma, with a relative abundance of 48.0 ± 10.2%, was the dominant genus in the gut microbial community, however, the relative abundances of this genus on the rock and in the water were low. These results imply that the gut microbial community of the intertidal snail N. yoldii is relatively independent from the environmental microbial community, and the dominant genus Mycoplasma in the gut, that is rare in the environment, can potentially assist the snail living in the harsh intertidal environment, especially at its northernmost distribution range edge.
The southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) records the assembly process between several micro-continental blocks and the North China Craton (NCC), with the consumption of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO), but whether the S-wards subduction of the PAO beneath the northern NCC was ongoing during Carboniferous–Permian time is still being debated. A key issue to resolve this controversy is whether the Carboniferous magmatism in the northern NCC was continental arc magmatism. The Alxa Block is the western segment of the northern NCC and contiguous to the southeastern CAOB, and their Carboniferous–Permian magmatism could have occurred in similar tectonic settings. In this contribution, new zircon U–Pb ages, elemental geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotopic analyses are presented for three early Carboniferous granitic plutons in the southwestern Alxa Block. Two newly identified aluminous A-type granites, an alkali-feldspar granite (331.6 ± 1.6 Ma) and a monzogranite (331.8 ± 1.7 Ma), exhibit juvenile and radiogenic Sr–Nd isotopic features, respectively. Although a granodiorite (326.2 ± 6.6 Ma) is characterized by high Sr/Y ratios (97.4–139.9), which is generally treated as an adikitic feature, this sample has highly radiogenic Sr–Nd isotopes and displays significantly higher K2O/Na2O ratios than typical adakites. These three granites were probably derived from the partial melting of Precambrian continental crustal sources heated by upwelling asthenosphere in lithospheric extensional setting. Regionally, both the Alxa Block and the southeastern CAOB are characterized by the formation of early Carboniferous extension-related magmatic rocks but lack coeval sedimentary deposits, suggesting a uniform lithospheric extensional setting rather than a simple continental arc.
The origins of metal coinage and the monetisation of ancient economies have long been a research focus in both archaeology and economic history. Recent excavations of an Eastern Zhou period (c. 770–220 BC) bronze foundry at Guanzhuang in Henan Province, China, have yielded clay moulds for casting spade coins. The technical characteristics of the moulds demonstrate that the site functioned as a mint for producing standardised coins. Systematic AMS radiocarbon-dating indicates that well-organised minting developed c. 640–550 BC, making Guanzhuang the world's oldest-known, securely dated minting site. This discovery provides important new data for exploring the origin of monetisation in ancient China.
Pareto distribution is an important distribution in extreme value theory. In this paper, we consider parallel systems with Pareto components and study the effect of heterogeneity on skewness of such systems. It is shown that, when the lifetimes of components have different shape parameters, the parallel system with heterogeneous Pareto component lifetimes is more skewed than the system with independent and identically distributed Pareto components. However, for the case when the lifetimes of components have different scale parameters, the result gets reversed in the sense of star ordering. We also establish the relation between star ordering and dispersive ordering by extending the result of Deshpande and Kochar [(1983). Dispersive ordering is the same as tail ordering. Advances in Applied Probability 15(3): 686–687] from support $(0, \infty )$ to general supports $(a, \infty )$, $a > 0$. As a consequence, we obtain some new results on dispersion of order statistics from heterogeneous Pareto samples with respect to dispersive ordering.
The work aims to realize energy-efficient bipedal walking by employing the three-mass inverted pendulum model (3MIPM) and compare its energy performance with linear inverted pendulum model (LIPM). To do this, a general optimal index on center of mass (CoM) acceleration is first derived for energetic cost evaluation. After defining the equivalent zero moment point (ZMP) motion, an unconstrained optimization approach for CoM generation is extended for 3MIPM, which can track different ZMP references and address the height variation as well. To make use of the allowable ZMP movement, a constrained optimization method is also employed, contributing to lower energetic cost. Simulation and hardware experiments on a humanoid robot demonstrate that the 3MIPM could achieve higher energy efficiency.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerged disease with various clinical manifestations and imaging features. The diagnosis of COVID-19 depends on a positive nucleic acid amplification test by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, the clinical manifestations and imaging features of COVID-19 are non-specific, and nucleic acid test for SARS-CoV-2 can have false-negative results. It is presently believed that detection of specific antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 is an effective screening and diagnostic indicator for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, a combination of nucleic acid and specific antibody tests for SARS-CoV-2 will be more effective to diagnose COVID-19, especially to exclude suspected cases.
Examine mother–son, mother–daughter, father–son and father–daughter resemblance in weight status, and potential modifying effects of socio-demographic and childcare characteristics.
1973 school-age children and their parents from five mega-cities across China in 2017.
Pearson correlation coefficients (r) for BMI of father–son, father–daughter, mother–son and mother–daughter pairs were 0·16, 0·24, 0·26 and 0·24, respectively, while their weighted kappa coefficients (k) were 0·09, 0·14, 0·04 and 0·15, respectively. Children aged 6–9 years (r ranged from 0·30 to 0·35) had larger BMI correlation with their parents than their counterparts aged 10–14 years or 15–17 years (r ranged from 0·15 to 0·24). Children residing at home (r ranged from 0·17 to 0·27) had greater BMI correlations with their parents than children residing at school/other places. BMI correlation coefficients were significant if children were mainly cared for by their mothers (r ranged from 0·17 to 0·29) but non-significant if they were mainly cared for by others. Only children who ate the same meal as their parents ‘most times’ (r ranged from 0·17 to 0·27) or had dinner with their parents ‘at most times’ (r ranged from 0·21 to 0·27) had significant BMI correlation with their parents. Similarly, children who had dinner with their parents ‘most times’ but not ‘sometimes,’ had significant BMI correlation coefficients.
Parent–child resemblance in weight status was modest and varied by child age, gender, primary caregiver, whether having similar food or dinner with parents in China.
To investigate the association between parity and the risk of incident dementia in women.
We pooled baseline and follow-up data for community-dwelling women aged 60 or older from six population-based, prospective cohort studies from four European and two Asian countries. We investigated the association between parity and incident dementia using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age, educational level, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cohort, with additional analysis by dementia subtype (Alzheimer dementia (AD) and non-Alzheimer dementia (NAD)).
Of 9756 women dementia-free at baseline, 7010 completed one or more follow-up assessments. The mean follow-up duration was 5.4 ± 3.1 years and dementia developed in 550 participants. The number of parities was associated with the risk of incident dementia (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02–1.13). Grand multiparity (five or more parities) increased the risk of dementia by 30% compared to 1–4 parities (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.02–1.67). The risk of NAD increased by 12% for every parity (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.02–1.23) and by 60% for grand multiparity (HR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.00–2.55), but the risk of AD was not significantly associated with parity.
Grand multiparity is a significant risk factor for dementia in women. This may have particularly important implications for women in low and middle-income countries where the fertility rate and prevalence of grand multiparity are high.
We prove the Decomposability Conjecture for functions of Baire class
from a Polish space to a separable metrizable space. This partially answers an important open problem in descriptive set theory.
There is increasing evidence that both black and green tea are beneficial for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the effects of tea flavonoids on cardiovascular (CVD) and all-cause mortality outcomes.Searches across five databases including PubMed and Embase were conducted through November 2018 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies reporting cardiovascular and all-cause mortality outcomes. Two investigators independently conducted abstract and full-text screenings, data extractions, and risk of bias (ROB) assessments using the Nutrition Evidence Library Bias Assessment Tool (NEL BAT). Mixed-effects dose-response meta-regression and standard random-effects meta-analyses for outcomes with ≥ 4 studies were performed. 0 RCTs and 38 prospective cohort studies were included in the systematic review. NEL BAT scores ranged from 0–15 (0 being the lowest risk). Our linear meta-regression model showed that each cup increase in daily tea consumption (about 280 mg and 338 mg of total flavonoids for black and green tea, respectively) was associated with 3–4% lower risk of CVD mortality (predicted adjusted RR = 0.96; CI 0.93–0.99 for green tea and RR = 0.97; CI 0.94–0.99 for black tea). Furthermore, eachcup increase in daily tea consumption was associated a 2% lower risk of all-cause mortality (predicted adjusted relative risk (RR) = 0.98; 95% CI 0.97–0.99 for black tea and RR = 0.98; CI 0.96–0.99 for green tea, respectively). Two studies reported multivariable Cox regression analysis results for the relationship between black tea intake and risks of all-cause mortality outcomes. The results from these two studies were combined with our linear meta-regression result in a random-effects model meta-analysis and showed that each cup increase in daily black tea consumption was associated with an average of 3% lower risk of all-cause mortality (pooled adjusted RR = 0.97; 95% CI 0.87- 1.00) with large heterogeneity (I2 = 81.4%; p = 0.005). Current evidence indicates that increased tea consumption may reduce cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in a dose-response manner. This systematic review was registered on PROSPERO.
In this article, Al75Cu25 (at.%) ribbons were dealloyed by HCl, H2C2O4, H3PO4, and NaOH solutions, respectively, to prepare nanoporous copper (NPC). The dealloying behavior is varied with dealloying solutions, allowing modulating the microstructure and porosity of the NPC. Al75Cu25 ribbons are fully dealloyed in HCl, H2C2O4, and NaOH solutions, whereas they are partially dealloyed in H3PO4 solution. Except the NPC prepared in the NaOH solution, no obvious cracks are traced in other samples. The surface diffusivity (Ds) of Cu atoms along the alloy/solution interfaces is varied with solutions, producing the NPC with different microstructure. NPC with higher specific surface area can be obtained by dealloying the Al75Cu25 ribbons in the HCl solution. Compared with the dealloying in H2C2O4, H3PO4, and NaOH solutions, the dealloying in 10 wt% HCl solution for 25 min at 90 ± 1 °C facilitates the best NPC in this work.
Influenza is a major human respiratory pathogen. Due to the high levels of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Zhejiang, China, the control and prevention of influenza was challenging during the 2017–2018 season. To identify the clinical spectrum of illness related to influenza and characterise the circulating influenza virus strains during this period, the characteristics of ILI were studied. Viral sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to investigate the virus types, substitutions at the amino acid level and phylogenetic relationships between sequences. This study has shown that the 2017/18 influenza season was characterised by the co-circulation of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, A (H3N2) and B viruses (both Yamagata and Victoria lineage). From week 36 of 2017 to week 12 of 2018, ILI cases accounted for 5.58% of the total number of outpatient and emergency patient visits at the surveillance sites. Several amino acid substitutions were detected. Vaccination mismatch may be a potential reason for the high percentage of ILI. Furthermore, it is likely that multiple viral introductions played a role in the endemic co-circulation of influenza in Zhejiang, China. More detailed information regarding the molecular epidemiology of influenza should be included in long-term influenza surveillance.
Thermal perception is crucial for the fitness of marine invertebrates in intertidal and shallow waters. TRPA1 is a non-selective cation channel that belongs to the TRP family with pivotal roles in initiating signal transduction of thermal perception. We investigated expression patterns of SiTRPA1 in different tissues (tube feet, coelomocytes, gonads and gut) of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. SiTRPA1 expression patterns under acute and long-term temperature stimuli were investigated in tube feet of sea urchins. In the present study, the highest expression of SiTRPA1 was detected in tube feet of S. intermedius. The SiTRPA1 expression level in tube feet were significantly 235.7-fold, 450.0-fold and 3299.7-fold higher than those in the coelomocytes, gonads and gut (df = 3, F = 47.382, P < 0.001). Expression levels of SiTRPA1 in the other tissues (coelomocytes, gonads and gut) were not significantly different (df = 3, F = 47.382, P = 0.972). There was no significant difference of SiTRPA1 expression among all groups in the acute temperature increase experiment (df = 4, F = 0.25, P = 0.902). In the acute temperature decrease experiment, the expression of SiTRPA1 showed no significant difference among all groups (df = 4, F = 1.802, P = 0.205). With long-term exposure (6 weeks) to different temperatures, SiTRPA1 expression in the low temperature group (10°C) was significantly higher than those in the high temperature (20°C) and the control groups (15°C) (df = 2, F = 9.57, P = 0.014). There was no significant difference of SiTRPA1 expression between the high temperature (20°C) and the control temperature (15°C) groups (df = 2, F = 9.57, P = 0.808). These results indicate that SiTRPA1 expression significantly responds to long-term low temperature but not to acute temperature decrease. The present study provides new insights on the distribution and temporal expression of TRPA1 in marine invertebrates after acute and long-term temperature stimuli.
Mo, Zr, and Y with low diffusion coefficients in Al matrix were used to improve the high-temperature properties of the Al–5.8Cu–0.3Mn–0.2Mg alloy. The effects of these microalloying elements on the microstructures of the Al–5.8Cu–0.3Mn–0.2Mg alloy were investigated with the aid of optical microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The HRTEM images and selected area electron diffraction patterns indicated that L12-Al3(Zr, Y), Al3Zr, Al3Y, and Al12Mo could precipitate in the process of solid solution treatment after adding Mo, Zr, and Y. These Mo-, Zr-, and Y-containing precipitates were stable at high temperatures and could slow the coarsening rate of θ′ precipitates at high temperatures. The tensile strength of the Al–5.8Cu–0.3Mn–0.2Mg alloy modified by Mo, Zr, and Y microalloying elements was improved significantly at both room and high temperatures. The strengthening mechanisms were discussed in detail.
This paper studies the variability of both series and parallel systems comprised of heterogeneous (and dependent) components. Sufficient conditions are established for the star and dispersive orderings between the lifetimes of parallel [series] systems consisting of dependent components having multiple-outlier proportional hazard rates and Archimedean [Archimedean survival] copulas. We also prove that, without any restriction on the scale parameters, the lifetime of a parallel or series system with independent heterogeneous scaled components is larger than that with independent homogeneous scaled components in the sense of the convex transform order. These results generalize some corresponding ones in the literature to the case of dependent scenarios or general settings of components lifetime distributions.