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The Virginia School's economics of natural equals makes consent critical for policy. Democracy is understood as government by discussion, not majority rule. The claim of efficiency unsupported by consent, as common in orthodox economics, appeals to social hierarchy. Politics becomes an act of exchange among equals where the economist is only entitled to offer advice to citizens, not to dictators. The foundation of natural equality and consent explains the common themes of James Buchanan and John Rawls as well as Ronald Coase and the Fabian socialists. What orthodox economics treats as efficient racial discrimination violates the fair chance entitlement to which people consent in a market economy. The importance of replication stressed by Gordon Tullock, developing themes from Karl Popper, is another expression of natural equality since the foresight of replication induces care into research. The publication of previously unpublished correspondence and documentation allows the reader to judge recent controversy.
The lesser date moth (LDM) Batrachedra amydraula is a significant pest of date palm fruits. Previously, detection and monitoring of the pest was inaccurate due to high costs of sampling with lifting machines. We report a practical system for detection and monitoring of LDM based on pheromone traps and relevant models. Dose–response experiments with LDM pheromone traps indicated a 1 mg lure is optimal for monitoring. Delta traps with adhesive covering their entire inner surface gave the highest captures while trap colour was unimportant. Sampling pheromone traps throughout the night indicated male flight began at 1:00–2:00 and reached a peak 2 h before sunrise. Monitoring traps exposed all year long in Israel revealed three generations with different abundance. Trapping transects in a date plantation indicated interference from a monitoring trap became minimal at distances >27 m away. Inter-trap distances closer than this may lower efficiency of monitoring and mass trapping in control programs. Our estimate of the circular effective attraction radius (EARc) of a 1 mg delta trap for LDM (3.43 m) shows this bait is among the most attractive compared with baits for other insects. We developed encounter-rate equations with the pheromone trap EARc to model the interplay between population levels, trap density and captures that are useful for detection of invasive LDM and its control by mass trapping. The integrated methodologies are applicable to many pest species.
Late Neogene Sirius Group strata from Tillite Spur and Quartz Hills in the Reedy Glacier area, Antarctica, demonstrate the variability in Sirius Group facies and contrasts Sirius Group strata deposited at high and low paleo-elevation, respectively. The Tillite Spur and Quartz Hills Formations (Pliocene) are formally defined here.The Tillite Spur Formation type section crops out on the edge of the Wisconsin Plateau overlooking Tillite Spur. It comprises 32m of alternating coarse gray conglomerate and muddy olive-brown diamictites. The Quartz Hills Formation type section crops out above the western margin of Reedy Glacier in a pre-existing cirque towards the southern end of the Quartz Hills. It comprises c.100m of alternating massive diamictites and rhythmically interbedded sandstone and laminated mudstones which were deposited close to sea level and subsequently rapidly uplifted (>500 m Myr−1) to their present elevation at c. 1500 m. Three orders of paleoclimatic variability are recorded in the Sirius Group strata from Reedy Valley: (1) recycled marine microfloras in glacial diamictites indicate intervals of marine incursion into the Antarctic cratonic interior co-occurring with reductions in the East Antarctic ice sheet; (2) an advancing and retreating paleo-Reedy Glacier deposited a glacial/interglacial sequence alternating on a 10-100 kyr scale; 3) Centimeter and millimeter stratification in strata of the Quartz Hills Formation record annual kyr scale variability.
The orthodox view of economic policy holds that public deliberation sets the goals or ends, and then experts select the means to implement these goals. This assumes that experts are no more than trustworthy servants of the public interest. David M. Levy and Sandra J. Peart examine the historical record to consider cases in which experts were trusted with disastrous results, such as eugenics, the regulatory use of security ratings, and central economic planning. This history suggests that experts have not only the public interest but also their own interests to consider. The authors then recover and extend an alternative view of economic policy that subjects experts' proposals to further discussion, resulting in transparency and ensuring that the public obtains the best insights of experts in economics while avoiding pitfalls such as expert bias.