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Field studies were conducted in 2016 and 2017 at Clinton, NC, to quantify the effects of season-long interference of large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.] and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) on ‘AG6536’ soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Weed density treatments consisted of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 plants m−2 for A. palmeri and 0, 1, 2, 4, and 16 plants m−2 for D. sanguinalis with (interspecific interference) and without (intraspecific interference) soybean to determine the impacts on weed biomass, soybean biomass, and seed yield. Biomass per square meter increased with increasing weed density for both weed species with and without soybean present. Biomass per square meter of D. sanguinalis was 617% and 37% greater when grown without soybean than with soybean, for 1 and 16 plants m−2 respectively. Biomass per square meter of A. palmeri was 272% and 115% greater when grown without soybean than with soybean for 1 and 8 plants m−2, respectively. Biomass per plant for D. sanguinalis and A. palmeri grown without soybean was greatest at the 1 plant m−2 density. Biomass per plant of D. sanguinalis plants across measured densities was 33% to 83% greater when grown without soybean compared with biomass per plant when soybean was present for 1 and 16 plants m−2, respectively. Similarly, biomass per plant for A. palmeri was 56% to 74% greater when grown without soybean for 1 and 8 plants m−2, respectively. Biomass per plant of either weed species was not affected by weed density when grown with soybean due to interspecific competition with soybean. Yield loss for soybean grown with A. palmeri ranged from 14% to 37% for densities of 1 to 8 plants m−2, respectively, with a maximum yield loss estimate of 49%. Similarly, predicted loss for soybean grown with D. sanguinalis was 0 % to 37% for densities of 1 to 16 m−2 with a maximum yield loss estimate of 50%. Soybean biomass was not affected by weed species or density. Results from these studies indicate that A. palmeri is more competitive than D. sanguinalis at lower densities, but that similar yield loss can occur when densities greater than 4 plants m−2 of either weed are present.
We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
Field studies were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in Clinton, NC, to determine the interspecific and intraspecific interference of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) or large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.] in ‘Covington’ sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.]. Amaranthus palmeri and D. sanguinalis were established 1 d after sweetpotato transplanting and maintained season-long at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 0, 1, 2, 4, 16 plants m−1 of row in the presence and absence of sweetpotato, respectively. Predicted yield loss for sweetpotato was 35% to 76% for D. sanguinalis at 1 to 16 plants m−1 of row and 50% to 79% for A. palmeri at 1 to 8 plants m−1 of row. Weed dry biomass per meter of row increased linearly with increasing weed density. Individual dry biomass of A. palmeri and D. sanguinalis was not affected by weed density when grown in the presence of sweetpotato. When grown without sweetpotato, individual weed dry biomass decreased 71% and 62% from 1 to 4 plants m−1 row for A. palmeri and D. sanguinalis, respectively. Individual weed dry biomass was not affected above 4 plants m−1 row to the highest densities of 8 and 16 plants m−1 row for A. palmeri and D. sanguinalis, respectively.
The experiments reported in this research paper aimed to track the microbiological load of milk throughout a low-heat skim milk powder (SMP) manufacturing process, from farm bulk tanks to final powder, during mid- and late-lactation (spring and winter, respectively). In the milk powder processing plant studied, low-heat SMP was produced using only the milk supplied by the farms involved in this study. Samples of milk were collected from farm bulk tanks (mid-lactation: 67 farms; late-lactation: 150 farms), collection tankers (CTs), whole milk silo (WMS), skim milk silo (SMS), cream silo (CS) and final SMP. During mid-lactation, the raw milk produced on-farm and transported by the CTs had better microbiological quality than the late-lactation raw milk (e.g., total bacterial count (TBC): 3.60 ± 0.55 and 4.37 ± 0.62 log 10 cfu/ml, respectively). After pasteurisation, reductions in TBC, psychrotrophic (PBC) and proteolytic (PROT) bacterial counts were of lower magnitude in late-lactation than in mid-lactation milk, while thermoduric (LPC—laboratory pasteurisation count) and thermophilic (THERM) bacterial counts were not reduced in both periods. The microbiological quality of the SMP produced was better when using mid-lactation than late-lactation milk (e.g., TBC: 2.36 ± 0.09 and 3.55 ± 0.13 cfu/g, respectively), as mid-lactation raw milk had better quality than late-lactation milk. The bacterial counts of some CTs and of the WMS samples were higher than the upper confidence limit predicted using the bacterial counts measured in the farm milk samples, indicating that the transport conditions or cleaning protocols could have influenced the microbiological load. Therefore, during the different production seasons, appropriate cow management and hygiene practices (on-farm and within the factory) are necessary to control the numbers of different bacterial groups in milk, as those can influence the effectiveness of thermal treatments and consequently affect final product quality.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection can lead to reproductive morbidity in women. Animal models suggest that protection against CT is mediated through the cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), produced by CD4+ T-cells, which clears CT through intracellular tryptophan depletion. In humans, correlates of protection remain to be elucidated, which hinders chlamydia vaccine development. Natural clearance of CT infection (e.g., clearance before antibiotics) may be an immunological correlate of protection, evidenced by (1) CT clearance without antibiotics; and (2) a 4-fold reduced risk of CT reinfection within 6 months. We have identified women with and without natural clearance of CT infection. By comparing these two groups of women, the role of IFN-γ-mediated natural clearance of CT infection will be investigated. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Through collaboration with a cohort study of CT-infected women, we have access to stored specimens from women who naturally cleared CT or had persisting CT infection. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), we will assess whether natural clearance of CT infection is associated with IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T-cells by stimulating PBMC ex vivo with CT antigens using intracellular cytokine staining. We will also use cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) and untargeted High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry to assess for tryptophan-dependent and -independent metabolic pathways associated with natural clearance of CT infection. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS:: To date, IFN-γ has been measured in 10 women who did not clear CT infection, demonstrating that <20% of these women produced significant levels of IFN-γ. Women who naturally cleared CT have yet to be studied. Untargeted HPLC-MS has been performed on 6 women (3 who cleared matched to 3 with persisting CT infection). To date, 11 pathways that are significantly associated with natural clearance have been identified. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The outcome of natural clearance of CT infection is distinct from women with persisting chlamydia. These studies may inform whether IFN-γ, produced by CD4+ T-cells, or tryptophan-dependent or -independent metabolic pathways are associated with natural clearance, which may advance chlamydia vaccine development.
Disability-related education is essential for disaster responders and critical care transporters to ensure positive patient outcomes. This pilot study evaluated the effect of an online educational intervention on disaster responders and critical care transporters’ knowledge of and feelings of self-efficacy about caring for individuals with developmental disabilities.
A 1-group, pretest-posttest, quasi-experimental design was used. A convenience sample of 33 disaster responders and critical care transporters participated.
Of the 33 participants, only 24% had received prior education on this topic, and 88% stated that such education would be beneficial to their care of patients. Nineteen participants completed both the pretest and posttest, and overall performance on knowledge items improved from 66% correct to 81% correct. Self-efficacy for caring for developmentally disabled individuals improved, with all 10 items showing a statistically significant improvement.
Online education is recommended to improve the knowledge and self-efficacy of disaster responders and critical care transporters who care for this vulnerable population after disasters and emergencies. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;Page 1 of 5)
Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai] grafting is commonly used for management of diseases caused by soilborne pathogens; however, little research exists describing the effect of grafting on the weed-competitive ability of watermelon. Field experiments determined the response in yield, fruit number, and fruit quality of grafted and nongrafted watermelon exposed to increasing densities of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson). Grafting treatments included ‘Exclamation’ triploid (seedless) watermelon grafted on two interspecific hybrid squash rootstocks ‘Carnivor’ and ‘Kazako’, with nongrafted Exclamation as the control. Weed treatments included A. palmeri at densities of 1, 2, 3, and 4 A. palmeri plants per watermelon planting hole (0.76-m row) and a weed-free control. Increasing A. palmeri densities caused significant reductions (P <0.05) in marketable watermelon yield and marketable fruit number. Watermelon yield reduction was described by a rectangular hyperbola model, and 4 A. palmeri plants planting hole−1 reduced marketable yield 41%, 38%, and 65% for Exclamation, Carnivor, and Kazako, respectively. Neither grafting treatment nor A. palmeri density had a biologically meaningful effect on soluble solids content or on the incidence of hollow heart in watermelon fruit. Amaranthus palmeri seed and biomass production was similar across weed population densities, but seed number per female A. palmeri decreased according to a two-parameter exponential decay equation. Thus, increasing weed population densities resulted in increased intraspecific competition among A. palmeri plants. While grafting may offer benefits for disease resistance, no benefits regarding weed-competitive ability were observed, and a consistent yield penalty was associated with grafting, even in weed-free treatments.
Field experiments determined the critical period for weed control (CPWC) in grafted and nongrafted watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.) Matsum. & Nakai] grown in plasticulture. Transplant types included ‘Exclamation’ seedless watermelon as the nongrafted control as well as Exclamation grafted onto two interspecific hybrid squash (ISH) rootstocks, ‘Carnivor’ and ‘Kazako’. To simulate weed emergence throughout the season, establishment treatments (EST) consisted of two seedlings each of common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.), large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.], and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) transplanted in a 15 by 15 cm square centered on watermelon plants at 0, 2, 3, 4, and 6 wk after watermelon transplanting (WATr) and remained until the final watermelon harvest at 11 WATr. To simulate weed control at different times in the season, removal treatments (REM) consisted of two seedlings of the same weed species transplanted in a 15 by 15 cm square centered on watermelon plants on the same day of watermelon transplanting and allowed to remain until 2, 3, 4, 6, and 11 WATr, at which time they were removed. Season-long weedy and weed-free controls were included for both EST and REM studies in both years. For all transplant types, aboveground biomass of weeds decreased as weed establishment was delayed and increased as weed removal was delayed. The predicted CPWC for nongrafted Exclamation and Carnivor required only a single weed removal between 2.3 and 2.5 WATr and 1.9 and 2.6 WATr, respectively, while predicted CPWC for Kazako rootstock occurred from 0.3 to 2.6 WATr. Our study results suggest that weed control for this mixed population of weeds would be similar between nongrafted Exclamation and Exclamation grafted onto Carnivor. But the observed CPWC of Exclamation grafted onto Kazako suggests that CPWC may vary with specific rootstock–scion combinations.
Field studies were conducted to determine watermelon tolerance and yield response when treated with bicyclopyrone preplant (PREPLANT), POST, and POST-directed (POST-DIR). Treatments consisted of two rates of bicyclopyrone (37.5 and 50 g ai ha–1), fomesafen (175 g ai ha–1), S-metolachlor (802 g ai ha–1), and a nontreated check. Preplant treatments were applied to formed beds 1 d prior to transplanting and included bicyclopyrone (37.5 and 50 g ha–1) and fomesafen (175 g ha–1), and new polyethylene mulch was subsequently laid above treated beds. POST and POST-DIR treatments were applied 14 ± 1 d after watermelon transplanting and included bicyclopyrone (37.5 and 50 g ha–1) POST and POST-DIR, and S-metolachlor (802 g ai ha–1) POST-DIR. POST-DIR treatments were applied to row middles, ensuring that no herbicide contacted watermelon vines or polyethylene mulch. At 2 wk after transplanting (WAT), 15% foliar bleaching was observed in watermelon treated with bicyclopyrone (50 g ha–1) PRE. At 3 WAT, bicyclopyrone (37.5 and 50 g ha–1) POST caused 16% and 17% foliar bleaching and 8% and 9% crop stunting, respectively. At 4 WAT, initial injury had subsided and bicyclopyrone (37.5 and 50 g ha–1) POST caused 4% and 4% foliar bleaching and 4% and 8% crop stunting, respectively. No symptoms of bleaching or stunting were observed at 6- and 8-WAT ratings. Watermelon total yield, marketable yield, total fruit number, marketable fruit number, and average fruit size were unaffected by herbicide treatments. Therefore, registration of bicyclopyrone (37.5 and 50 g ha–1) PREPLANT, POST, and POST-DIR would offer watermelon producers a safe herbicide option and a novel mode of action for weed management.
BACKGROUND: IGTS is a rare phenomenon of paradoxical germ cell tumor (GCT) growth during or following treatment despite normalization of tumor markers. We sought to evaluate the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of IGTS in patients in 21 North-American and Australian institutions. METHODS: Patients with IGTS diagnosed from 2000-2017 were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 739 GCT diagnoses, IGTS was identified in 33 patients (4.5%). IGTS occurred in 9/191 (4.7%) mixed-malignant GCTs, 4/22 (18.2%) immature teratomas (ITs), 3/472 (0.6%) germinomas/germinomas with mature teratoma, and in 17 secreting non-biopsied tumours. Median age at GCT diagnosis was 10.9 years (range 1.8-19.4). Male gender (84%) and pineal location (88%) predominated. Of 27 patients with elevated markers, median serum AFP and Beta-HCG were 70 ng/mL (range 9.2-932) and 44 IU/L (range 4.2-493), respectively. IGTS occurred at a median time of 2 months (range 0.5-32) from diagnosis, during chemotherapy in 85%, radiation in 3%, and after treatment completion in 12%. Surgical resection was attempted in all, leading to gross total resection in 76%. Most patients (79%) resumed GCT chemotherapy/radiation after surgery. At a median follow-up of 5.3 years (range 0.3-12), all but 2 patients are alive (1 succumbed to progressive disease, 1 to malignant transformation of GCT). CONCLUSION: IGTS occurred in less than 5% of patients with GCT and most commonly after initiation of chemotherapy. IGTS was more common in patients with IT-only on biopsy than with mixed-malignant GCT. Surgical resection is a principal treatment modality. Survival outcomes for patients who developed IGTS are favourable.
We determine sufficient criteria for the prime spectrum of an ambiskew polynomial algebra R over an algebraically closed field 𝕂 to be akin to those of two of the principal examples of such an algebra, namely the universal enveloping algebra U(sl2) (in characteristic 0) and its quantization Uq(sl2) (when q is not a root of unity). More precisely, we determine sufficient criteria for the prime spectrum of R to consist of 0, the ideals (z − λ)R for some central element z of R and all λ ∈ 𝕂, and, for some positive integer d and each positive integer m, d height two prime ideals P for which R/P has Goldie rank m.
This paper summarises developments in understanding sea level change during the Quaternary in Scotland since the publication of the Quaternary of Scotland Geological Conservation Review volume in 1993. We present a review of progress in methodology, particularly in the study of sediments in isolation basins and estuaries as well as in techniques in the field and laboratory, which have together disclosed greater detail in the record of relative sea level (RSL) change than was available in 1993. However, progress in determining the record of RSL change varies in different areas. Studies of sediments and stratigraphy offshore on the continental shelf have increased greatly, but the record of RSL change there remains patchy. Studies onshore have resulted in improvements in the knowledge of rock shorelines, including the processes by which they are formed, but much remains to be understood. Studies of Late Devensian and Holocene RSLs around present coasts have improved knowledge of both the extent and age range of the evidence. The record of RSL change on the W and NW coasts has disclosed a much longer dated RSL record than was available before 1993, possibly with evidence of Meltwater Pulse 1A, while studies in estuaries on the E and SW coasts have disclosed widespread and consistent fluctuations in Holocene RSLs. Evidence for the meltwater pulse associated with the Early Holocene discharge of Lakes Agassiz–Ojibway in N America has been found on both E and W coasts. The effects of the impact of storminess, in particular in cliff-top storm deposits, have been widely identified. Further information on the Holocene Storegga Slide tsunami has enabled a better understanding of the event, but evidence for other tsunami events on Scottish coasts remains uncertain. Methodological developments have led to new reconstructions of RSL change for the last 2000 years, utilising state-of-the-art GIA models and alongside coastal biostratigraphy to determine trends to compare with modern tide gauge and documentary evidence. Developments in GIA modelling have provided valuable information on patterns of land uplift during and following deglaciation. The studies undertaken raise a number of research questions which will require addressing in future work.
Meeting the societal demand for food, bioproducts and water under climate change is likely to greatly challenge the maize-soybean agriculture of the Midwest USA, which is a globally significant resource. New agricultural systems are needed that can meet this challenge. Innovations in water management engineering and cropping system diversification may provide a way forward, enabling transformation to highly multifunctional agricultural watersheds that expand both agricultural production and water-related services to society, and which provide scalable units of climate adaptation in agriculture and water systems. Implementation and refinement of such watersheds require corresponding social innovation to create supportive social systems, in economic, political and cultural terms. A range of emerging social innovations can drive the emergence of highly multifunctional agricultural watersheds, by enabling robust cooperation, resource exchange and coordinated innovation across multiple societal sectors and scales. We highlight relevant innovations and opportunities for their exploratory implementation and refinement in the Midwest.
Workfare increases requirements on welfare claimants: a major shift in UK social welfare policy post-1980s. Political, academic and cultural debates surround the ethical basis, and practical operations, of workfare schemes. Moreover, the UK government has claimed that workfare provides value for money in an age of austerity, ‘help and support’ for the long-term unemployed, and ‘incentives’ for increased claimant job-seeking. This article presents results gathered from sociological research into the UK's ‘Work Programme’ workfare scheme in order to contextualise these debates and contribute to wider academic and social policy workfare analyses. It finds a complex picture: a largely pointless scheme, resented by many participants, but providing a basic social service for some others.
Grafted plants are a combination of two different interspecific or intraspecific scion and rootstock. Determination of herbicidal selectivity of the grafted plant is critical given their increased use in vegetable production. Differential absorption, translocation, and metabolism play an important role in herbicide selectivity of plant species because these processes affect the herbicide amount delivered to the site of action. Therefore, experiments were conducted to determine absorption, translocation, and metabolism of halosulfuron in grafted and non-grafted tomato and eggplant. Transplant type included non-grafted tomato cultivar Amelia, non-grafted eggplant cultivar Santana, Amelia scion grafted onto Maxifort tomato rootstock (A-Maxifort) and Santana scion grafted onto Maxifort rootstock (S-Maxifort). Plants were treated POST with commercially formulated halosulfuron at 39 g ai ha-1 followed by 14C-halosulfuron under controlled laboratory conditions. Amount of 14C-halosufuron was quantified in leaf wash, treated leaf, scion shoot, rootstock shoot, and root at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 h after treatment (HAT) using liquid scintillation spectrometry. No differences were observed between transplant types with regard to absorption and translocation of 14C-halosulfuron. Absorption of 14C-halosulfuron increased with time, reaching 10 and 74% of applied at 6 and 96 HAT, respectively. Translocation of 14C-halosulfuron was limited to the treated leaf, which reached maximum (66% of applied) at 96 HAT, whereas minimal (<4% of applied) translocation occurred in scion shoot, rootstock shoot, and root. Tomato plants metabolized halosulfuron faster compared to eggplant regardless of grafting. Of the total amount of 14C-halosulfuron absorbed into the plant, 9 to 14% remained in the form of the parent compound in tomato compared with 25 to 26% in eggplant at 48 HAT. These results indicate that grafting did not affect absorption, translocation, and metabolism of POST halosulfuron in tomato and eggplant.
Many snow models have been developed for various applications such as hydrology, global atmospheric circulation models and avalanche forecasting. The degree of complexity of these models is highly variable, ranging from simple index methods to multi-layer models that simulate snow-cover stratigraphy and texture. In the framework of the Snow Model Intercomparison Project (SnowMIP), 23 models were compared using observed meteorological parameters from two mountainous alpine sites. The analysis here focuses on validation of snow energy-budget simulations. Albedo and snow surface temperature observations allow identification of the more realistic simulations and quantification of errors for two components of the energy budget: the net short- and longwave radiation. In particular, the different albedo parameterizations are evaluated for different snowpack states (in winter and spring). Analysis of results during the melting period allows an investigation of the different ways of partitioning the energy fluxes and reveals the complex feedbacks which occur when simulating the snow energy budget. Particular attention is paid to the impact of model complexity on the energy-budget components. The model complexity has a major role for the net longwave radiation calculation, whereas the albedo parameterization is the most significant factor explaining the accuracy of the net shortwave radiation simulation.
Palmer amaranth is the most economically damaging glyphosate-resistant (GR) weed in the southern United States. An understanding of the basic biology, including relative growth and competitiveness of GR and glyphosate-susceptible (GS) Palmer amaranth phenotypes from a segregating population collected from the same geographical location, may yield information helpful in the management of resistant populations. A segregating population of Palmer amaranth collected in North Carolina during 2010 was used as a plant source for both GR and GS traits. Research was conducted in the greenhouse to compare the following: level of resistance and shikimate accumulation in GR and GS phenotypes following glyphosate application; interference from GR and GS phenotypes on early-season vegetative growth of corn, cotton, and peanut; effect of various durations of imposed drought stress on GR and GS phenotypes; and response of GR and GS phenotypes to POST-applied herbicides. The GR50 (glyphosate rate providing 50% reduction in shoot dry biomass) was 17 times greater with the GR phenotype compared with the GS phenotype. Shikimate accumulated in both GR and GS phenotypes following glyphosate application, but greater concentrations were found in GS plants. The GR and GS phenotypes responded similarly when subjected to drought stress; grown with corn, cotton, and peanut; or treated with 2,4-D, atrazine, dicamba, fomesafen, glufosinate, paraquat, tembotrione, and thifensulfuron. These results indicate that in the absence of glyphosate selection pressure, resistance to glyphosate does not influence the growth and competitiveness of GR and GS Palmer amaranth phenotypes collected from the same geographical location.
Tomato grafting is practiced worldwide as an innovative approach to manage stress from drought, waterlogging, insects, and diseases. Metribuzin is a commonly used herbicide in tomato but has potential to cause injury after application if plants are under stress. The influence of metribuzin on grafted tomato under drought-stress has not been studied. Greenhouse experiments were conducted in Raleigh, NC to determine the tolerance of drought-stressed grafted and non-grafted tomato to metribuzin. The tomato cultivar ‘Amelia’ was used as the scion in grafted tomato, and for the non-grafted control. Two hybrid tomato ‘Beaufort’ and ‘Maxifort’ were used as rootstocks for grafted plants. Drought-stress treatments included: no drought-stress; 3 d of drought-stress before metribuzin application with no drought-stress after application (3 d DSB); and 3 d of drought-stress before metribuzin application with 3 d of drought-stress after application (3 d DSBA). Metribuzin was applied at 550 g ai ha−1. No difference in injury from metribuzin was observed in grafted and non-grafted plants. However, at 7 and 14 d after metribuzin treatment (DMT), less injury was observed on tomato in the 3 d DSBA treatment (5 and 2% injury, respectively) than on plants in the 3 d DSB treatment (15 and 8% injury, respectively) or those that were never drought-stressed (18 and 11% injury, respectively). Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance measured prior to metribuzin application were reduced similarly in grafted and non-grafted tomato subjected to drought-stress. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of grafted and non-grafted tomato at 7 DMT was not different among drought-stress treatments or metribuzin treatments. Grafted and non-grafted tomato plants under drought-stress exhibit similar tolerance to metribuzin. The risk of metribuzin injury to grafted tomato under drought-stress is similar to non-grafted tomato.
Driving in persons with dementia poses risks that must be counterbalanced with the importance of the care for autonomy and mobility. Physicians often find substantial challenges in the assessment and reporting of driving safety for persons with dementia. This paper describes a driving in dementia decision tool (DD-DT) developed to aid physicians in deciding when to report older drivers with either mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment to local transportation administrators.
A multi-faceted, computerized decision support tool was developed, using a systematic literature and guideline review, expert opinion from an earlier Delphi study, as well as qualitative interviews and focus groups with physicians, caregivers of former drivers with dementia, and transportation administrators. The tool integrates inputs from the physician-user about the patient's clinical and driving history as well as cognitive findings, and it produces a recommendation for reporting to transportation administrators. This recommendation is translated into a customized reporting form for the transportation authority, if applicable, and additional resources are provided for the patient and caregiver.
An innovative approach was needed to develop the DD-DT. The literature and guideline review confirmed the algorithm derived from the earlier Delphi study, and barriers identified in the qualitative research were incorporated into the design of the tool.