To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Specialized early intervention (EI) following a first episode of psychosis (FEP) are effective at reducing negative symptoms, although its trajectory warrants systematic assessment. However, findings are equivocal as to whether extended gains are made post 2 years of EI and whether there is additional benefit of extending EI for an additional 3 years.
Data on 178 FEP patients, from a randomized controlled trial of a 3-year extension of EI service v. transfer to regular care following 2 years of EI service, were used for this report. Repeated measures analysis of variance were conducted separately for the initial 2 years of treatment in an EI service, and for the 3-year post-randomization to examine trajectories of negative symptoms over the two periods in the two arms of the study.
There were significant improvements in total negative symptoms over the first 2 years of EI F(4.612, 797.905) = 25.263, p < 0.001 and in domains of ‘expressivity’ and ‘motivation’. In the following 3 years, there were further significant improvements in negative symptoms F(4.318, 759.908) = 4.182, p = 0.002 with no difference between groups F(4.318, 759.908) = 1.073, p = 0.371. Changes in negative symptoms over the extension period were driven by expressivity F(4.01, 674.73) = 7.19, p < 0.01, but not motivation F(6.58, 1112.18) = 0.95, p = 0.46.
Negative symptoms improve significantly over the first 2 years of EI. Subsequent amelioration was largely the result of expressivity. Motivation deficits remained stable. Extended EI offered no advantage over regular care post-randomization.
Negative symptoms observed in patients with psychotic disorders undermine quality of life and functioning. Antipsychotic medications have a limited impact. Psychological and psychosocial interventions, with medication, are recommended. However, evidence for the effectiveness of specific non-biological interventions warrants detailed examination.
To conduct a meta-analytic and systematic review of the literature on the effectiveness of non-biological treatments for negative symptoms in psychotic disorders.
We searched for randomised controlled studies of psychological and psychosocial interventions in psychotic disorders that reported outcome on negative symptoms. Standardised mean differences (SMDs) in values of negative symptoms at the end of treatment were calculated across study domains as the main outcome measure.
A total of 95 studies met our criteria and 72 had complete quantitative data. Compared with treatment as usual cognitive–behavioural therapy (pooled SMD −0.34, 95% CI −0.55 to −0.12), skills-based training (pooled SMD −0.44, 95% CI −0.77 to −0.10), exercise (pooled SMD −0.36, 95% CI −0.71 to −0.01), and music treatments (pooled SMD −0.58, 95% CI −0.82 to −0.33) provide significant benefit. Integrated treatment models are effective for early psychosis (SMD −0.38, 95% CI −0.53 to −0.22) as long as the patients remain in treatment. Overall quality of evidence was moderate with a high level of heterogeneity.
Specific psychological and psychosocial interventions have utility in ameliorating negative symptoms in psychosis and should be included in the treatment of negative symptoms. However, more effective treatments for negative symptoms need to be developed.
A sample of 206 Canadian psychiatrists who routinely treat patients with psychotic disorders were randomly surveyed regarding their knowledge and practice in relation to persistent negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Large majorities reported observing a high prevalence of persistent negative symptoms that do not respond to available treatments (83%), have a profound impact on functional outcomes (96.5%) and contribute to family burden. Almost half the sample (43%) recognised the importance of formally assessing persistent symptoms and nearly a third (30%) indicated that this was a part of their usual practice. These survey results correspond with recent consensus and highlight the importance and challenge of treating persistent negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.