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Bilingualism is thought to confer advantages in executive functioning, thereby contributing to cognitive reserve and a later age of dementia symptom onset. While the relation between bilingualism and age of onset has been explored in Alzheimer's dementia, there are few studies examining bilingualism as a contributor to cognitive reserve in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In line with previous findings, we hypothesized that bilinguals with behavioral variant FTD would be older at symptom onset compared to monolinguals, but that no such effect would be found in patients with nonfluent/agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia (PPA) or semantic variant PPA. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found no significant difference in age at symptom onset between monolingual and bilingual speakers within any of the FTD variants, and there were no notable differences on neuropsychological measures. Overall, our results do not support a protective effect of bilingualism in patients with FTD-spectrum disease in a U.S. based cohort.
Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is a well-established first-line intervention for anxiety-related disorders, including specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder/agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Several neural predictors of CBT outcome for anxiety-related disorders have been proposed, but previous results are inconsistent.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating whole-brain predictors of CBT outcome in anxiety-related disorders (17 studies, n = 442).
Across different tasks, we observed that brain response in a network of regions involved in salience and interoception processing, encompassing fronto-insular (the right inferior frontal gyrus-anterior insular cortex) and fronto-limbic (the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex-dorsal anterior cingulate cortex) cortices was strongly associated with a positive CBT outcome.
Our results suggest that there are robust neural predictors of CBT outcome in anxiety-related disorders that may eventually lead (probably in combination with other data) to develop personalized approaches for the treatment of these mental disorders.
Although executive and other cognitive deficits have been found in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), whether these have brain functional correlates has been little studied. This study aimed to examine patterns of task-related activation and de-activation during the performance of a working memory task in patients with the disorder.
Sixty-seven DSM-IV BPD patients and 67 healthy controls underwent fMRI during the performance of the n-back task. Linear models were used to obtain maps of within-group activations and areas of differential activation between the groups.
On corrected whole-brain analysis, there were no activation differences between the BPD patients and the healthy controls during the main 2-back v. baseline contrast, but reduced activation was seen in the precentral cortex bilaterally and the left inferior parietal cortex in the 2-back v. 1-back contrast. The patients showed failure of de-activation affecting the medial frontal cortex and the precuneus, plus in other areas. The changes did not appear to be attributable to previous history of depression, which was present in nearly half the sample.
In this study, there was some, though limited, evidence for lateral frontal hypoactivation in BPD during the performance of an executive task. BPD also appears to be associated with failure of de-activation in key regions of the default mode network.
Sensitive survey techniques (SSTs) are frequently used to study sensitive behaviors. However, existing strategies for employing SSTs lead to highly variable prevalence estimates and do not permit analysts to address the question of whether the use of an SST is actually necessary. The current article presents a survey questioning strategy and corresponding statistical framework that fills this gap. By jointly analyzing survey responses generated by an SST (the crosswise model) along with direct responses about the sensitive behavior, the article's framework addresses the question of whether the use of an SST is required to study a given sensitive behavior, provides an efficient estimate of the prevalence of the sensitive behavior, and, in its extended form, efficiently estimates how individual characteristics relate to the likelihood of engaging in the behavior. The utility of the approach is demonstrated through an examination of gender differences in proclivities towards corruption in Costa Rica.
Tactical skills in sport are the basis for current models of invasion team sports instruction, and relate to other psychological variables that exert a mediating influence on people’s normal physical activity. This study aimed to validate the Spanish adaptation of the Tactical Skills Inventory for Sports by Elferink-Gemser, Visscher, Richart, and Lemmink (2004) and verify its factorial invariance. The sample included 540 participants 12.89 ± 1.73 years of age (10 to 17 years old; 333 males and 207 females). The adaptation and translation of the original questionnaire followed the methodological steps established by the International Test Commission. Then two measurement models with the original questionnaire’s four-factor structure were compared. Confirmatory analyses were conducted using the software AMOS 21 and maximum likelihood estimation. Results indicated a four-factor structure (positioning and deciding, knowing about ball actions, knowing about others, acting in changing situations) was viable and showed goodness of fit to the data, with adequate indices of reliability (α between .72 and .86) and validity (GFI = .955; RMSEA = .044; CFI = .974), and strong evidence of stability in the factor structure. Moreover, factorial invariance was observed between participants who do and do not practice team sports, with practitioners scoring higher than non-practitioners on all factors (p < .001; effect sizes between .97 and 1.08).
The Web search has special characteristics against the desktop search when realized from mobile devices. To establish an improvement within this paradigm, an option is to take into account the context from which the search is developed. To conceptualize the mobile context, we propose the use of ontologies, which will include the device characteristics, environmental conditions and user preferences, among other term conceptualizations. This context definition would be used to determinate the behavior of a word recommendation when searching from mobile devices. As an essential process of creating this context ontology, we have made a real user's evaluation of the ontology terms by means of a survey. This paper shows a brief introduction to the project and focuses mainly on the results obtained in this concept's evaluation.
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