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Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds.
We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes.
In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47–0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10−8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10−6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10−11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10−7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10−16).
AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.
Repetitive deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) is efficacious for treatment resistant major depressive disorder (TRD) with the H1 coil by stimulating the prefrontal cortex, left more than right, at high frequency. Theoretically, the efficacy of dTMS could be optimized by simultaneously stimulating the right and left lateral prefrontal cortices (PFC) with different frequencies. This study tested the efficacy of a novel dual-channel dTMS stimulator with dual dTMS coils, in patients with TRD.
This study recruited forty-seven outpatients diagnosed with TRD, age 18-65, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21) score ≥25. Each patient received 20 open label treatment sessions, five days a week for 4 consecutive weeks. Treatments were administered with the dual-channel stimulator (Brainsway Multiway dTMS device) using two channels: a. 10 Hz over the left PFC. b. 1 Hz over the right PFC. Primary and secondary efficacy outcome measures were the change in HDRS-21 score and response/remission rates at week 5, respectively.
The HDRS-21 score decreased from an average of 25.94 to 14.69 (P<0.001). Thirty-six patients completed four weeks of treatment. Of them, seventeen (47%) responded (HDRS-21 score decrease of ≥ 50% from their initial score) and eight (22%) remitted (HDRS-21 score of < 10 at the end of the study).
This open study shows promising results for multichannel simultaneous dTMS treatment of TRD using the Brainsway Multiway Device. Further randomized controlled studies are necessary to aid the high number of patients with TRD.
The developmental course of daily functioning prior to first psychosis-onset remains poorly understood. This study explored age-related periods of change in social and role functioning. The longitudinal study included youth (aged 12–23, mean follow-up years = 1.19) at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis (converters [CHR-C], n = 83; nonconverters [CHR-NC], n = 275) and a healthy control group (n = 164). Mixed-model analyses were performed to determine age-related differences in social and role functioning. We limited our analyses to functioning before psychosis conversion; thus, data of CHR-C participants gathered after psychosis onset were excluded. In controls, social and role functioning improved over time. From at least age 12, functioning in CHR was poorer than in controls, and this lag persisted over time. Between ages 15 and 18, social functioning in CHR-C stagnated and diverged from that of CHR-NC, who continued to improve (p = .001). Subsequently, CHR-C lagged behind in improvement between ages 21 and 23, further distinguishing them from CHR-NC (p < .001). A similar period of stagnation was apparent for role functioning, but to a lesser extent (p = .007). The results remained consistent when we accounted for the time to conversion. Our findings suggest that CHR-C start lagging behind CHR-NC in social and role functioning in adolescence, followed by a period of further stagnation in adulthood.