To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with a nano chitosan–zinc complex (CP–Zn, 100 mg/kg Zn) could alleviate weaning stress in piglets challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 by improving growth performance and intestinal antioxidant capacity. The in vivo effects of CP–Zn on growth performance variables (including gastrointestinal digestion and absorption functions and the levels of key proteins related to muscle growth) and the antioxidant capacity of the small intestine (SI) were evaluated in seventy-two weaned piglets. The porcine jejunal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 was used to further investigate the antioxidant mechanism of CP–Zn in vitro. The results showed that CP–Zn supplementation increased the jejunal villus height and decreased the diarrhoea rate in weaned piglets. CP–Zn supplementation also improved growth performance (average daily gain and average daily feed intake), increased the activity of carbohydrate digestion-related enzymes (amylase, maltase, sucrase and lactase) and the mRNA expression levels of nutrient transporters (Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1, glucose transporter type 2, peptide transporter 1 and excitatory amino acid carrier 1) in the jejunum and up-regulated the expression levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway-related proteins (insulin receptor substrate 1, phospho-mTOR and phospho-p70S6K) in muscle. In addition, CP–Zn supplementation increased glutathione content, enhanced total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) activity, and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the jejunum. Furthermore, CP–Zn decreased the content of MDA and reactive oxygen species, enhanced the activity of T-SOD and GSH-px and up-regulated the expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway-related proteins (Nrf2, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 and haeme oxygenase 1) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IPEC-J2 cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that CP–Zn supplementation can improve growth performance and the antioxidant capacity of the SI in piglets, thus alleviating weaning stress.
The state of class consciousness of working-class children in China has received scant attention in the scholarly literature. This study examines the class consciousness of rural migrant children as they are about to join their migrant parents and become “China's new workers.” Qualitative investigations were conducted in two primary schools in Beijing. Focus group and individual interviews were held with 87 fifth- and sixth-grade migrant children in the two case schools and 324 valid student questionnaires were collected. The findings reveal that migrant children are aware of the unequal class relationships suffered by migrant workers; however, their interpretations of class-based injustices exhibit false consciousness, shadowed by individualism, meritocracy and the duality of images. Family and school may play vital roles in shaping migrant children's class consciousness.
To investigate risk factors and psychological stress of health care workers (HCWs) with COVID-19 in a non-frontline clinical department.
Data of 2 source patients and all HCWs with infection risk were obtained in a department in Wuhan from January to February 2020. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate psychological stress of COVID-19 on HCWs.
The overall infection rate was 4.8% in HCWs. 10 of 25 HCWs who contacted with 2 source patients were diagnosed with confirmed COVID-19 (8/10) and suspected COVID-19 (2/10). Other 2 HCWs were transmitted by other patients or colleagues. Close care behaviours included physical examination (6/12), life nursing (4/12), ward rounds (4/12), endoscopic examination (2/12). Contacts fluctuated from 1 to 24 times and each contact was short (8.1 min ± 5.6 min). HCWs wore surgical masks (11/12), gloves (7/12), and isolation clothing (3/12) when providing medical care. Most HCWs experienced a mild course with 2 asymptomatic infections, taking 9.8 days and 20.9 days to obtain viral shedding and clinical cure, respectively. Psychological stress included worry (58.3%), anxiety (83.3%), depression (58.3%), and insomnia (58.3%).
Close contact with COVID-19 patients and insufficient protection were key risk factors. Precaution measures and psychological support on COVID-19 is urgently required for HCWs.
We determined the effects of a combination of C18 unsaturated fatty acids (C18-UFAs) consisting of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids on milk lipogenesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). By orthogonal experiments to determine cellular triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation, a combination of 200 μmol/l C18 : 1, 50 μmol/l C18 : 2, and 2 μmol/l C18 : 3 was selected as C18-UFAs combination treatment, and culture in medium containing fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin was used as the control. The expression of genes related to milk lipid synthesis and intracellular FA composition was measured. The results showed that cytosolic TAG formation was higher under C18-UFAs treatment than under control treatment. The mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-α (ACACA), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) did not differ between treatments. The abundance of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1) was higher, whereas that of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF-1) was lower after C18-UFAs treatment compared to control treatment. The C16 : 0 and SFA content was decreased following C18-UFAs treatment compared to control treatment, while the cis-9 C18 : 1 and UFA content was increased. In conclusion, C18-UFAs could stimulate triglyceride accumulation, increase the cellular UFA concentration, and regulate lipogenic genes in BMECs.
With the development of evidence-based interventions for treatment of priority mental health conditions in humanitarian settings, it is important to establish the cost-effectiveness of such interventions to enable their scale-up.
To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Problem Management Plus (PM+) intervention compared with enhanced usual care (EUC) for common mental disorders in primary healthcare in Peshawar, Pakistan. Trial registration ACTRN12614001235695 (anzctr.org.au).
We randomly allocated 346 participants to either PM+ (n = 172) or EUC (n = 174). Effectiveness was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at 3 months post-intervention. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed as incremental costs (measured in Pakistani rupees, PKR) per unit change in anxiety, depression and functioning scores.
The total cost of delivering PM+ per participant was estimated at PKR 16 967 (US$163.14) using an international trainer and supervisor, and PKR 3645 (US$35.04) employing a local trainer. The mean cost per unit score improvement in anxiety and depression symptoms on the HADS was PKR 2957 (95% CI 2262–4029) (US$28) with an international trainer/supervisor and PKR 588 (95% CI 434–820) (US$6) with a local trainer/supervisor. The mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) to successfully treat a case of depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) using an international supervisor was PKR 53 770 (95% CI 39 394–77 399) (US$517), compared with PKR 10 705 (95% CI 7731–15 627) (US$102.93) using a local supervisor.
The PM+ intervention was more effective but also more costly than EUC in reducing symptoms of anxiety, depression and improving functioning in adults impaired by psychological distress in a post-conflict setting of Pakistan.
Sustainable and green energy sources are in high demand to meet the current human energy needs and environmental requirements. Hydrogen energy, with the highest energy density and zero carbon emission, is considered a potential solution. Hydrogen is primarily produced by splitting water. Rationally designed electrocatalysts are required to promote the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Organic polymer matrices provide new opportunities for electrocatalytic water splitting due to their special physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability. This article explains the role of organic polymers in electrocatalytic water decomposition from three aspects: ion-conductive polymers, conjugated conductive polymers, and carbon materials derived from organic polymers. We hope that this article will provide more rational ideas and promote the design of organic polymers for water-splitting electrocatalysis, and furnish more technical insights for the future of water electrolysis.
How do corporate bond mutual funds manage liquidity to meet investor redemptions? We show that during tranquil market conditions, these funds tend to reduce liquid asset holdings to meet redemptions, temporarily increasing relative exposures to illiquid asset classes. When aggregate uncertainty rises, however, they tend to scale down their liquid and illiquid assets proportionally to preserve portfolio liquidity. This fund-level dynamic management of liquidity appears to affect the broad financial market: Redemptions from the corporate bond fund sector lead to more corporate bond selling during high-uncertainty periods, which generates price pressures and predicts strong return reversals.
Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and albumin bovine serum (BSA) have profound application in the detection and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. In the present study, the effects and mechanism of PEG and BSA modification on the cytotoxicity of QDs have been explored. It was found that the diameter of the as-prepared QDs, PEG@QDs, BSA@QDs is 3–5 nm, 4–5 nm, and 4–6 nm, respectively. With increase of the treatment time from 0 to 24 h, the HCC cell viability treated with QDs, PEG@QDs, and BSA@QDs obviously decreases, showing a certain time-dependent manner. When the concentration of several nanomaterials is increased from 10 to 90 nM, the cell viability decreases accordingly, exhibiting a certain concentration-dependent manner. Under the same concentration change conditions, the reactive oxygen species contents of cells treated by QDs, PEG@QDs, and BSA@QDs also rise from 7.9 × 103, 6.7 × 103, and 4.7 × 103 to 13.2 × 103, 14.3 × 103, and 12.3 × 103, respectively. In these processes, superoxide dismutase does not play a major role. This study provides strong foundation and useful guidance for QD applications in the diagnosis and treatment of HCC.
Influenza is a major human respiratory pathogen. Due to the high levels of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Zhejiang, China, the control and prevention of influenza was challenging during the 2017–2018 season. To identify the clinical spectrum of illness related to influenza and characterise the circulating influenza virus strains during this period, the characteristics of ILI were studied. Viral sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to investigate the virus types, substitutions at the amino acid level and phylogenetic relationships between sequences. This study has shown that the 2017/18 influenza season was characterised by the co-circulation of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, A (H3N2) and B viruses (both Yamagata and Victoria lineage). From week 36 of 2017 to week 12 of 2018, ILI cases accounted for 5.58% of the total number of outpatient and emergency patient visits at the surveillance sites. Several amino acid substitutions were detected. Vaccination mismatch may be a potential reason for the high percentage of ILI. Furthermore, it is likely that multiple viral introductions played a role in the endemic co-circulation of influenza in Zhejiang, China. More detailed information regarding the molecular epidemiology of influenza should be included in long-term influenza surveillance.
) contravariant symmetric matrix valued valuations on convex polytopes in
are completely classified without any continuity assumptions. The general Lutwak–Yang–Zhang matrix is shown to be essentially the unique such valuation.
The present study investigated the association between dietary patterns and hypertension applying the Chinese Dietary Balance Index-07 (DBI-07).
A cross-sectional study on adult nutrition and chronic disease in Inner Mongolia. Dietary data were collected using 24 h recall over three consecutive days and weighing method. Dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Generalized linear models and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between DBI-07 and dietary patterns, and between dietary patterns and hypertension.
Inner Mongolia (n 1861).
A representative sample of adults aged ≥18 years in Inner Mongolia.
Four major dietary patterns were identified: ‘high protein’, ‘traditional northern’, ‘modern’ and ‘condiments’. Generalized linear models showed higher factor scores in the ‘high protein’ pattern were associated with lower DBI-07 (βLBS = −1·993, βHBS = −0·206, βDQD = −2·199; all P < 0·001); the opposite in the ‘condiments’ pattern (βLBS = 0·967, βHBS = 0·751, βDQD = 1·718; all P < 0·001). OR for hypertension in the highest quartile of the ‘high protein’ pattern compared with the lowest was 0·374 (95 % CI 0·244, 0·573; Ptrend < 0·001) in males. OR for hypertension in the ‘condiments’ pattern was 1·663 (95 % CI 1·113, 2·483; Ptrend < 0·001) in males, 1·788 (95 % CI 1·155, 2·766; Ptrend < 0·001) in females.
Our findings suggested a higher-quality dietary pattern evaluated by DBI-07 was related to decreased risk for hypertension, whereas a lower-quality dietary pattern was related to increased risk for hypertension in Inner Mongolia.
The microbiota–gut–brain axis, especially the microbial tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis and metabolism pathway (MiTBamp), may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, studies on the MiTBamp in MDD are lacking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gut microbiota composition and the MiTBamp in MDD patients.
We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 26 MDD patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs). In addition to the microbiota community and the MiTBamp analyses, we also built a classification based on the Random Forests (RF) and Boruta algorithm to identify the gut microbiota as biomarkers for MDD.
The Bacteroidetes abundance was strongly reduced whereas that of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the MDD patients compared with the abundance in the HCs. Most noteworthy, the MDD patients had increased levels of Bifidobacterium, which is commonly used as a probiotic. Four Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologies (KOs) (K01817, K11358, K01626, K01667) abundances in the MiTBamp were significantly lower in the MDD group. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between the K01626 abundance and the HAMD scores in the MDD group. Finally, RF classification at the genus level can achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.890.
The present findings enabled a better understanding of the changes in gut microbiota and the related Trp pathway in MDD. Alterations of the gut microbiota may have the potential as biomarkers for distinguishing MDD patients form HCs.
Malnutrition and acute kidney injury (AKI) are common complications in hospitalised patients, and both increase mortality; however, the relationship between them is unknown. This is a retrospective propensity score matching study enrolling 46 549 inpatients, aimed to investigate the association between Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) and AKI and to assess the ability of NRS-2002 and AKI in predicting prognosis. In total, 37 190 (80 %) and 9359 (20 %) patients had NRS-2002 scores <3 and ≥3, respectively. Patients with NRS-2002 scores ≥3 had longer lengths of stay (12·6 (sd 7·8) v. 10·4 (sd 6·2) d, P < 0·05), higher mortality rates (9·6 v. 2·5 %, P < 0·05) and higher incidence of AKI (28 v. 16 %, P < 0·05) than patients with normal nutritional status. The NRS-2002 showed a strong association with AKI, that is, the risk of AKI changed in parallel with the score of the NRS-2002. In short- and long-term survival, patients with a lower NRS-2002 score or who did not have AKI achieved a significantly lower risk of mortality than those with a high NRS-2002 score or AKI. Univariate Cox regression analyses indicated that both the NRS-2002 and AKI were strongly related to long-term survival (AUC 0·79 and 0·71) and that the combination of the two showed better accuracy (AUC 0·80) than the individual variables. In conclusion, malnutrition can increase the risk of AKI and both AKI and malnutrition can worsen the prognosis that the undernourished patients who develop AKI yield far worse prognosis than patients with normal nutritional status.
Weed invasion is a prevailing problem in modestly managed lawns. Less attention has been given to the exploration of the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under different invasion pressures from lawn weeds. We conducted a four-season investigation into a Zoysia tenuifolia Willd. ex Thiele (native turfgrass)–threeflower beggarweed [Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC.] (invasive weed) co-occurring lawn. The root mycorrhizal colonizations of the two plants, the soil AM fungal communities and the spore densities under five different coverage levels of D. triflorum were investigated. Desmodium triflorum showed significantly higher root hyphal and vesicular colonizations than those of Z. tenuifolia, while the root colonizations of both species varied significantly among seasons. The increased coverage of D. triflorum resulted in the following effects: (1) the spore density initially correlated with mycorrhizal colonizations of Z. tenuifolia but gradually correlated with those of D. triflorum. (2) Correlations among soil properties, spore densities, and mycorrhizal colonizations were more pronounced in the higher coverage levels. (3) Soil AMF community compositions and relative abundances of AMF operational taxonomic units changed markedly in response to the increased invasion pressure. The results provide strong evidence that D. triflorum possessed a more intense AMF infection than Z. tenuifolia, thus giving rise to the altered host contributions to sporulation, soil AMF communities, relations of soil properties, spore densities, and root colonizations of the two plants, all of which are pivotal for the successful invasion of D. triflorum in lawns.
Durable antibacterial PAN/Ag NPs nanofiber membrane was prepared by electrospinning. In this study, Ag NPs were composed by applying polyvinyl pyrrolidone as a dispersant and sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as a reductant. The composite nanofiber films and silver nanoparticles were characterized and tested by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) and thermogravimetric analysis test. The specific surface area of PAN/Ag NPs (1%) and PAN/Ag NPs (3%) nanofiber membrane were about 25.00 m2/g calculated by the BET equation. It can be seen that the pore sizes of PAN, PAN/Ag NPs (1%), and PAN/Ag NPs (3%) nanofiber membranes were mainly distributed between 30 and 40 nm. The maximum removal rate of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0 was about 94%, 89%, and 82%, respectively, indicating it has a good filtering effect. The results also demonstrated that this membrane has bacterial reduction of over 99.9% for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. In addition, the thermal stability of the fiber membrane with Ag NPs has no clear difference when compared to pure PAN nanofiber membrane and also has better moisture conductivity, indicating it is a potential candidate applied in biopharmaceutical antiseptic protection products.
Direct determination of barrier height (ΦBH) value between Ir and single crystal (001) hydrogen-terminated diamond with lightly boron doped has been performed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique. 70 nm Ir islands were formed on hydrogen-terminated diamond surface using anodic aluminum oxide. The ΦBH value for Ir/hydrogen-terminated diamond was −0.43 ± 0.14 eV, indicating that Ir was a suitable metal for ohmic contact with hydrogen-terminated diamond. The band diagram of Ir/hydrogen-terminated diamond was obtained. The experimental ΦBH was compared with the theoretical ΦBH in this work.
Dyeing wastewater has caused serious environmental problems nowadays. In this work, nickel–phosphorus plating–titanium dioxide (Ni-P-TiO2) electroless plating polyimide (PI) fabric was fabricated as an excellent visible light response composite. First, polyaniline (PANI) was in situ polymerized on the surface of the PI fabric. Second, PANI reduced palladium ions to be active seeds for initiating electroless plating of Ni-P-TiO2 layer. Finally, the Ni-P-TiO2/PANI/PI fabric with all-in-one structure was prepared, which can effectively overcome the drawbacks of poor loading fastness and insensitivity to visible light response. It was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degrading reactive blue 19, methylene blue, and reactive red (M-3BE) under visible light irradiation. The results show that the degradation rates of the all three dyes were over 91% with robust cycle stability for repeated 5 cycles of use. The possible photocatalytic degradation mechanism of fabrics was also proposed based on free radical and hole removal experiments.
We prove some congruences on sums involving fourth powers of central q-binomial coefficients. As a conclusion, we confirm the following supercongruence observed by Long [Pacific J. Math. 249 (2011), 405–418]: