To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) certifies a suite of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) to address specific aspects of the performance of X-ray powder diffraction instruments. This report describes SRM 1879b, the third generation of this powder diffraction SRM. SRM 1879b is intended for use in the preparation of calibration standards for the quantitative analyses of cristobalite by X-ray powder diffraction in accordance with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Analytical Method 7500, or equivalent. A unit of SRM 1879b consists of approximately 5 g of cristobalite powder bottled in an argon atmosphere. It is certified with respect to crystalline phase purity, or amorphous phase content, and lattice parameter. Neutron powder diffraction, both time-of-flight and constant wavelength, was used to certify the phase purity using SRM 676a as an internal standard. A NIST-built diffractometer, incorporating many advanced design features was used for certification measurements for lattice parameters.
Systems suitable for evaluating the nitrogen status of feeds for ruminants must consider (i) the requirements of the animal's tissues for nitrogenous substances, (ii) the amount and nature of the nitrogenous substances absorbed by the animal and (iii) the efficiency with which absorbed nitrogen is used for various body functions. Such systems must also include aspects of energy utilization because, in ruminants, both the tissue needs for nitrogen and the flow of protein to the intestines are affected by energy availability. Several systems which attempt to include all three considerations in more or less detail have recently been proposed (Burroughs, Nelson and Mertens, 1975; Satter and Roffler, 1975, 1977; Kaufmann, 1977; Jarrige, Journet and Vérité, 1978; Fox, Sniffen, Van Soest and Robinson, 1979; Agricultural Research Council (ARC), 1980; Chalupa, 1980).
Phased Array Feed (PAF) technology is the next major advancement in radio astronomy in terms of combining high sensitivity and large field of view. The Focal L-band Array for the Green Bank Telescope (FLAG) is one of the most sensitive PAFs developed so far. It consists of 19 dual-polarization elements mounted on a prime focus dewar resulting in seven beams on the sky. Its unprecedented system temperature of ~17 K will lead to a 3 fold increase in pulsar survey speeds as compared to contemporary single pixel feeds. Early science observations were conducted in a recently concluded commissioning phase of the FLAG where we clearly demonstrated its science capabilities. We observed a selection of normal and millisecond pulsars and detected giant pulses from PSR B1937+21.
This paper presents latest thinking from the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries’ Model Risk Working Party and follows on from their Phase I work, Model Risk: Daring to Open the Black Box. This is a more practical paper and presents the contributors’ experiences of model risk gained from a wide range of financial and non-financial organisations with suggestions for good practice and proven methods to reduce model risk. After a recap of the Phase I work, examples of model risk communication are given covering communication: to the Board; to the regulator; and to external stakeholders. We present a practical framework for model risk management and quantification with examples of the key actors, processes and cultural challenge. Lessons learned are then presented from other industries that make extensive use of models and include the weather forecasting, software and aerospace industries. Finally, a series of case studies in practical model risk management and mitigation are presented from the contributors’ own experiences covering primarily financial services.
Virkisjökull is a rapidly retreating outlet glacier draining the western flanks of Öræfajökull in SE Iceland. Since 2011 there have been continuous measurements of flow in the proglacial meltwater channel and regular campaigns to sample stable isotopes δ2H and δ18O from the river, ice, moraine springs and groundwater. The stable isotopes provide reliable end members for glacial ice and shallow groundwater. Analysis of data from 2011 to 2014 indicates that although ice and snowmelt dominate summer riverflow (mean 5.3–7.9 m3 s−1), significant flow is also observed in winter (mean 1.6–2.4 m3 s−1) due primarily to ongoing glacier icemelt. The stable isotope data demonstrate that the influence of groundwater discharge from moraines and the sandur aquifer increases during winter and forms a small (15–20%) consistent source of baseflow to the river. The similarity of hydrological response across seasons reflects a highly efficient glacial drainage system, which makes use of a series of permanent englacial channels within active and buried ice throughout the year. The study has shown that the development of an efficient year round drainage network within the lower part of the glacier has been coincident with the stagnation and subsequent rapid retreat of the glacier.
According to diathesis–stress models, personality traits, such as negative emotionality (NE) and positive emotionality (PE), may moderate the effects of stressors on the development of depression. However, relatively little empirical research has directly examined whether NE and PE act as diatheses in the presence of stressful life events, and no research has examined whether they moderate the effect of disaster exposure on depressive symptoms. Hurricane Sandy, the second costliest hurricane in US history, offers a unique opportunity to address these gaps.
A total of 318 women completed measures of NE and PE 5 years prior to Hurricane Sandy. They were also assessed for lifetime depressive disorders on two occasions, the latter occurring an average of 1 year before the hurricane. Approximately 8 weeks after the disaster (mean = 8.40, s.d. = 1.48 weeks), participants completed a hurricane stress exposure questionnaire and a measure of current depressive symptoms.
Adjusting for lifetime history of depressive disorders, higher levels of stress from Hurricane Sandy predicted elevated levels of depressive symptoms, but only in participants with high levels of NE or low levels of PE.
These findings support the role of personality in the development of depression and suggest that personality traits can be useful in identifying those most vulnerable to major stressors, including natural disasters.
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy remains common in many countries. Exposure to even low amounts of alcohol (i.e. ethanol) in pregnancy can lead to the heterogeneous fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), while heavy alcohol consumption can result in the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). FAS is characterized by cerebral dysfunction, growth restriction and craniofacial malformations. However, the effects of lower doses of alcohol during pregnancy, such as those that lead to FASD, are less well understood. In this article, we discuss the findings of recent studies performed in our laboratories on the effects of fetal alcohol exposure using sheep, in which we investigated the effects of late gestational alcohol exposure on the developing brain, arteries, kidneys, heart and lungs. Our studies indicate that alcohol exposure in late gestation can (1) affect cerebral white matter development and increase the risk of hemorrhage in the fetal brain, (2) cause left ventricular hypertrophy with evidence of altered cardiomyocyte maturation, (3) lead to a decrease in nephron number in the kidney, (4) cause altered arterial wall stiffness and endothelial and smooth muscle function and (5) result in altered surfactant protein mRNA expression, surfactant phospholipid composition and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in the lung. These findings suggest that fetal alcohol exposure in late gestation can affect multiple organs, potentially increasing the risk of disease and organ dysfunction in later life.
This review was undertaken for the Faculty and Institute of Actuaries as part of their programme to encourage research collaborations between health researchers and actuaries in order to understand better the factors influencing mortality and longevity. The authors presented their findings in a number of linked sessions at the Edinburgh conference (Joining Forces on Mortality and Longevity) in October 2009 and contributed to this overview. The purpose is to review evidence for the impact on adult mortality of characteristics of the individual's lifetime socioeconomic or psychosocial environment or phenotype at the behavioural; multi-system (e.g. cognitive and physical function); or body system level (e.g. vascular and metabolic traits) that may be common risk factors for a number of major causes of death. This review shows there is growing evidence from large studies and systematic reviews that these individual characteristics, measured in pre-adult as well as the adult life, are associated with later mortality risk. The relative contribution of lifetime environment, genetic factors and chance, whether these contributions change with age, and the underlying social and biological pathways are still to be clarified. This review identifies areas where further life course research is warranted.
The ferromagnetic bulk metallic glass (BMG) Nd60Fe30Al10system exhibits extremely large coercivities at low temperature and moderate coercivities near room temperature. The magnetic hardness, as best evidenced by the onset of magnetic irreversibility, was studied in bulk suction-cast and melt-spun alloys with the nominal composition Nd60Fe30Al10. Systematic x-ray diffraction studies of the degree of crystallinity performed as a function of position within the bulk suction-cast samples is found to correlate with the variation in the room-temperature magnetic hysteresis character. X-ray diffraction data clearly shows the presence of both crystallites and amorphous material on the samples' outmost surfaces; the amorphous phase content increases with distance into the cast sample. These results underscore the importance of solidification conditions and attendant nanophase selection, on the resultant magnetic properties of this class of alloys.
The spin polarization of Sb overlayers on the semi-Heusler alloy NiMnSb is investigated in terms of the Landau-Ginzburg approach. The half-metallic semi-Heusler alloy NiMnSb acts as a ferromagnetic perturbation and induces a spin polarization in the semimetallic Sb overlayer. Using a Gaussian approximation, the propagation of the spin perturbation in the overlayer is calculated. The results are compared with spin-polarized inverse photoemission spectroscopy (SPIPES) results and with recent spin-dependent envelope-function approximation (SDEFA) predictions. The Landau-Ginzburg parameters are both band-structure and temperature dependent, and it is argued that thermal spin excitations lead to an injection depth decreasing as 1//T law at high temperatures.
When two magnetic films are separated by a nonmagnetic film, pinholes in the nonmagnetic film can allow direct contact and, thereby, direct magnetic exchange coupling between the two magnetic films. We have studied this coupling by having one of the magnetic films pinned and leaving the other free to switch at low field. The pinning is accomplished with test structures based on exchange bias and synthetic antiferromagnetic layers. Since the pinning strength increases sharply at low temperatures but orange-peel coupling does not, low-temperature (77 K) measurements appear to identify whether an observed coupling arises primarily from magnetic coupling through pinholes or primarily from orange-peel roughness. Our measurements appear to indicate that the observed coupling arises primarily from magnetic coupling through pinholes for Cu films less than 2.1 nm thick and for Al2O3films less than 0.6 nm thick but primarily from roughness-induced (orange-peel) magnetostatic coupling for larger thicknesses.
Grain boundary voiding has been identified as a diffusional creep mechanism that produces failure of narrow Al-based metallizations during thermal aging. It is considered to be a reliability concern for sub-micron metallizations because the resulting failure rate has been observed to be strongly line width dependent. This paper presents a theoretical model for stress-induced grain boundary voiding. The proposed model is shown to account for the experimentally observed temperature and time dependence of thermal aging-induced line failure data reported in the literature.
On polished sodium trisilicate glass surfaces, a fairly distinct threshold in laser fluence is observed to commence ablative etching. An incubation or induction effect is also seen where a series of laser pulses is required to induce etching. In this paper we examine features of the charged particle emission over a broader range of fluences (in particular, at lower fluences) to identify those factors which control the onset of etching. Laser--free electron heating is proposed as a dominant mechanism.
Selective depositions of germanium thin films have been investigated in a cold-wall, lamp heated rapid thermal processor. Films were deposited at low pressures (1 Torr-8 Torr) using the thermal decomposition of germane. Selectivity was maintained throughout the temperature range investigated, 350°C-600°C. Growth rates as high as 800 Å/min were obtained at 425°C where deposition is controlled by the surface reactions, making germanium compatible with the throughput requirements of single wafer manufacturing. Three dimensional growth was seen at temperatures above 450°C resulting in a rough surface morphology. Smooth films were deposited below 450°C with the films characterized by two dimensional growth. In this work, germanium is considered as a potential material to fabricate MOS transistors with raised source and drain junctions (UPMOS). Kelvin structures were fabricated to study the effect of the intermediate germanium layer between aluminum and silicon on contact resistance. It is shown that contact resistivity is improved by approximately 17% using an Al/p-Ge/p+-Si structure. In this work, it is also shown that titanium germanide formation can be used as a means of reducing the resistivity of the Ge buffer layer.
A thick homoepitaxial CVD diamond film was grown on a large high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) Ha diamond to study the defects present in the CVD film. The HTHP diamond had dimensions of 6 mm x 6 mm x 0.44 mm. The thickness of the diamond was increased to 0.84 mm by microwave plasma CVD. X-ray topographs were taken before and after growth to compare the defects in CVD diamond to those in the HTHP diamond. Prior to growth the substrate was unstrained and the characteristic microstructure of stacking faults and dislocations was observed. There was also a surface relief, visible optically, on the substrate of lines along the  which are probably due to polishing. After deposition of the CVD film, the crystal was strained with the film in tension. The defect structure observed throughout the CVD film followed the surface relief of the substrate. Cathodoluminescence spectra indicate that the film contains nitrogen defect complexes which are not present in the substrate. Cathodoluminescence also indicates that there are more non-radiative recombination centers in the film than in the substrate. Electrical results from transient photoconductivity measurements indicate that while the mobilities of the film and the substrate are comparable, the lifetime is much shorter in the film, possibly reflecting the higher concentration of non-radiative recombination centers.
Laser annealed refractory metal gates and Ohmic contacts have been developed for GaAs FETs and HEMTs fabricated on MBE layers grown on laser desorbed substrates. Amorphous refractory metal silicide films were sputter deposited by a method in which the RF power to separate refractory metal and silicon targets were set at predetermined deposition ratesand the substrates were rotated with respect to the sputter targets receiving a 0.2 to 0.5 nm film on each pass. The gate resistance was reduced and Ohmic contacts formed by pulsed excimer laser annealing.
0.6 µm-wide lines of high Tc Y-Ba-Cu-O have been fabricated by direct laser writing on mirror-like thin films which were grown by laser deposition without post annealing. Laser ablation etching had no effect on the Tc and Jc until the lines were < 1µm wide. The 0.6 µm-wide strip showed some degradation of Tc and Jc. The critical current densities for these patterned lines were measured to be ∼5×106 A/cm2 at 50 K.