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Organismal metabolic rates reflect the interaction of environmental and physiological factors. Thus, calcifying organisms that record growth history can provide insight into both the ancient environments in which they lived and their own physiology and life history. However, interpreting them requires understanding which environmental factors have the greatest influence on growth rate and the extent to which evolutionary history constrains growth rates across lineages. We integrated satellite measurements of sea-surface temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration with a database of growth coefficients, body sizes, and life spans for 692 populations of living marine bivalves in 195 species, set within the context of a new maximum-likelihood phylogeny of bivalves. We find that environmental predictors overall explain only a small proportion of variation in growth coefficient across all species; temperature is a better predictor of growth coefficient than food supply, and growth coefficient is somewhat more variable at higher summer temperatures. Growth coefficients exhibit moderate phylogenetic signal, and taxonomic membership is a stronger predictor of growth coefficient than any environmental predictor, but phylogenetic inertia cannot fully explain the disjunction between our findings and the extensive body of work demonstrating strong environmental control on growth rates within taxa. Accounting for evolutionary history is critical when considering shells as historical archives. The weak relationship between variation in food supply and variation in growth coefficient in our data set is inconsistent with the hypothesis that the increase in mean body size through the Phanerozoic was driven by increasing productivity enabling faster growth rates.
Due to the differences in the neurophysiology and cranial development of infants and children, the anesthetist's approach to the pediatric neurosurgical patient cannot simply be modelled on that for adults. Infants and children undergoing anesthesia for neurosurgical procedures therefore present unique challenges for the anesthetist. Essentials of Pediatric Neuroanesthesia is a practical guide to best practice in managing the perioperative care of pediatric neurosurgical patients, providing comprehensive information on the techniques to administer anesthesia and sedation to this vulnerable patient group. The chapters, written by leading experts, highlight clinical pearls as well as key recommended references, providing rapid access to vital information in the care of the pediatric neurosurgical patient. It is the first book of its kind to be dedicated solely to neuroanesthesia for pediatric patients, making it an essential read for both experienced and trainee pediatric anesthetists and neuroanesthetists.
Ethical principles of beneficence and nonmaleficence require that physicians strive to improve medical knowledge to improve patients' lives and avoid harmful or ineffective treatments. Publication serves critical processes in promoting the integrity and efficacy of the medical profession, and thereby in promoting patient wellbeing. Publication is a critical part of academic medicine, and sets scholarly work apart from the practice of medicine. Plagiarism violates ethical principles of nonmaleficence and justice. Authors have ethical obligations to be truthful regarding credit for the work and outcomes of research. Fabrication and falsification of data, plagiarism, misleading assignment of authorship and redundant publications all are detrimental to the mission of medical publication. Peer reviewers have obligations to be competent, fair, and balanced, and free of conflicts of interest in reviewing medical manuscripts. Journal editors have parallel responsibilities to assure accuracy in the medical literature.