Resistant starch (RS), a non-viscous dietary fibre, may have postprandial effects on appetite regulation and metabolism, although the exact effects and mechanisms are unknown. An acute randomised, single-blind crossover study, aimed to determine the effects of consumption of 48 g RS on appetite compared to energy and available carbohydrate-matched placebo. Twenty young healthy adult males consumed either 48 g RS or the placebo divided equally between two mixed meals on two separate occasions. Effects on appetite were assessed, using an ad libitum test meal and 24-h diet diaries for energy intake, and using visual analogue scales for subjective measures. Changes to postprandial glucose, insulin and C-peptide were also assessed. There was a significantly lower energy intake following the RS supplement compared to the placebo supplement at both the ad libitum test meal (5241 (sem 313) v. 5606 (sem 345) kJ, P = 0·033) and over the 24 h (12 603 (sem 519) v. 13 949 (sem 755) kJ, P = 0·044). However, there was no associated effect on subjective appetite measures. Postprandial plasma glucose concentrations were not significantly different between supplements, but there was a significantly lower postprandial insulin response following the RS supplement (P = 0·029). The corresponding C-peptide concentrations were not significantly different, although the ratio of C-peptide to insulin was higher following the RS supplement compared to placebo (P = 0·059). These results suggest that consumption of 48 g RS, over a 24-h period, may be useful in the management of the metabolic syndrome and appetite. Further studies are required to determine the exact mechanisms.