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Dinosaur body fossil material is rare in Scotland, previously known almost exclusively from the Great Estuarine Group on the Isle of Skye. We report the first unequivocal dinosaur fossil from the Isle of Eigg, belonging to a Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) taxon of uncertain affinity. The limb bone NMS G.2020.10.1 is incomplete, but through a combination of anatomical comparison and osteohistology, we determine it most likely represents a stegosaur fibula. The overall proportions and cross-sectional geometry are similar to the fibulae of thyreophorans. Examination of the bone microstructure reveals a high degree of remodelling and randomly distributed longitudinal canals in the remaining primary cortical bone. This contrasts with the histological signal expected of theropod or sauropod limb bones, but is consistent with previous studies of thyreophorans, specifically stegosaurs. Previous dinosaur material from Skye and broadly contemporaneous sites in England belongs to this group, including Loricatosaurus and Sarcolestes and a number of indeterminate stegosaur specimens. Theropods such as Megalosaurus and sauropods such as Cetiosaurus are also known from these localities. Although we find strong evidence for a stegosaur affinity, diagnostic features are not observed on NMS G.2020.10.1, preventing us from referring it to any known genera. The presence of this large-bodied stegosaur on Eigg adds a significant new datapoint for dinosaur distribution in the Middle Jurassic of Scotland.
There is limited knowledge of how individuals reflect on their involuntary admission.
To investigate, at one year after an involuntary admission,
(i) peoples perception of the necessity of their involuntary admission
(ii) the enduring impact on the relationship with their family, consultant psychiatrist and employment prospects
(iii) readmission rates to hospital and risk factors for readmission.
People that were admitted involuntarily over a 15 month period were re-interviewed at one year following discharge.
Sixty eight people were re-interviewed at one year and this resulted in a follow-up rate of 84%. Prior to discharge, 72% of people reported that their involuntary admission had been necessary however this reduced to 60% after one year. Over one third of people changed their views and the majority of these patients reflected negatively towards their involuntary admission.
One quarter of people continued to experience a negative impact on the relationship with a family member and their consultant psychiatrist one year after an involuntary admission, while 13% reported a positive impact. A similar proportion perceived that it had negative consequences in their employment.
Within one year, 43% of all patients involuntarily admitted in the study period were readmitted to hospital and half of these admissions were involuntary. Involuntary readmission was associated with a sealing over recovery style.
Peoples’ perception of the necessity of their involuntary admissions changes significantly over time. Involuntary admissions can have a lasting negative impact on the relationship with family members and treating consultant psychiatrist.
The use of physical coercion and involuntary admission is one of the most controversial practices in medicine, it is now understood that perceived coercion is multidimensional and is associated with procedural justice and perceived pressures, and not simply related to the legal status of the patient.
We sought to determine the rate of physical coercion used and the perceived pressures and procedural justice experienced by the person at the time of involuntary admission and whether this influenced future engagement with the mental health services.
Over a 15 month period, people admitted involuntarily were interviewed prior to discharge and at one year follow-up.
81 people participated in the study and 81% were interviewed at one year follow-up. At the time of involuntary admission, over half of people experienced at least one form of physical coercion and it was found that the level of procedural justice experienced was unrelated to the use of physical coercive measures. A total of 20% of participants intended not to voluntarily engage with the mental health services upon discharge and they were more likely to have experienced lower levels of procedural justice at the time of admission. At one year following discharge, 65% of participants were adherent with outpatient appointments and 18% had been readmitted involuntarily. The level of procedural justice experienced at admission did not predict future engagement with services.
This study demonstrates that the use of physical coercive measures is a separate entity from procedural justice and perceived pressures.
Individuals with schizophrenia who participated in a psychosocial and educative rehabilitation programme showed a 46% improvement in quality of life in the absence of any significant change in symptom severity. In contrast, there was no significant change in quality of life for individuals who continued with supportive rehabilitation. Our preliminary findings highlight the ‘quality of life’ benefits of psychosocial and educative rehabilitation for individuals with schizophrenia who are clinically stable and living in the community.
This study investigated the attitudes of medical students towards psychiatry, both as a subject on the medical curriculum and as a career choice. Three separate questionnaires previously validated on medical student populations were administered prior to and immediately following an 8-week clinical training programme. The results indicate that the perception of psychiatry was positive prior to clerkship and became even more so on completion of training. On completion of the clerkship, there was a rise in the proportion of students who indicated that they might choose a career in psychiatry. Attitudes toward psychiatry correlated positively with the psychiatry examination results. Those that intended to specialise in psychiatry achieved significantly higher examination scores in the psychiatry examination.
There have been previous suggestions in the literature of a link between schizophrenia and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) or its associated syndromes. In this article, we describe two cases of schizophrenía and two cases of delusional disorder occurring in patients with RP. We explore possible reasons for an association between RP and schizophrenia including shared genetic predisposition, sensory deprivation, coarse brain disease and retinoid dysregulation. Awareness of an association may help to direct future research into the aetiology of these disorders, especially in the areas of neurochemistry and medical genetics.
Although genetic and environmental factors operating before or around the time of birth have been demonstrated to be relevant to the aetiology of the major psychoses, a seasonal variation in the rates of admission of such patients has long been recognised. Few studies have compared first and readmissions. This study examined for seasonal variation of admission in the major psychoses, and compared diagnostic categories by admission status. Patients admitted to Irish psychiatric inpatient facilities between 1989 and 1994 with an ICD-9/10 diagnosis of schizophrenia or affective disorder were identified from the National Psychiatric Inpatient Reporting System (NPIRS). The data were analysed using a hierarchical log linear model, the chi-square test, a Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) type statistic, and the method of Walter and Elwood. The hierarchical log linear model demonstrated significant interactions between the month of admission and admission order (change in scaled deviance 28.77, df = 11, P < 0.003). Both first admissions with mania, and readmissions with bipolar affective disorder exhibited significant seasonality. In contrast, only first admissions with schizophrenia showed significant seasonal effects. Although first admissions with mania and readmissions with bipolar disorder both show seasonality, seasonal influences appear to be more relevant to onset of schizophrenia than subsequent relapse.
Subjective reports of dysphoric responses to neuroleptic medication are common in clinical practice. However, cognitive and affective side effects of neuroleptic medications are difficult to differentiate from the symptoms of schizophrenia. We sought to elucidate the relative contribution of extrapyramidal side effects and symptomatology to dysphoric response.
Fifty clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia attending a rehabilitation centre were assessed for extrapyramidal side effects and symptomatology before completing the drug attitude inventory (DAI).
Presence of extrapyramidal side effects, found in 28 patients (Z = −1.99, p = 0.05), and severity of negative symptoms (r = −0.47, p = 0.001) were independently associated with dysphoric response, explaining a significant proportion of the variance (R = 0.53, R2 = 25.2%, F = 9.27, df = 2, p = 0.0004).
Patients who report a dysphoric response which they associate with neuroleptic medications have more extrapyramidal side effects and more severe negative symptoms. While these responses may be part of the negative symptoms of the illness or due to other factors such as depression, we raise the possibility that they may be clinically indistinguishable from, and be a subjective measure of, the so-called ‘neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome’.
Having a diagnosis of schizophrenia is a risk factor for involuntary admission to psychiatric inpatient care, but we have a limited understanding of why some patients and not others require involuntary admission. We aimed to identify the predictors of involuntary admission in first episode schizophrenia. We used validated instruments to assess clinical and socio-demographic variables in all patients (n = 78) with first episode schizophrenia from a defined geographical area admitted to a Dublin psychiatric hospital over a 4-year period. Involuntary patients (n = 17) could not be distinguished from voluntary patients (n = 61) on the basis of age, gender, living status, marital status, drug abuse or duration of untreated psychosis. Neither positive nor negative symptoms were useful predictors of admission status. Lack of insight was a strong predictor of involuntary status.