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Our understanding of ice algal responses to the recent changes in Arctic sea ice is impeded by limited field observations. In the present study, environmental characteristics of the landfast sea-ice zone as well as primary production and macromolecular composition of ice algae and phytoplankton were studied in the Kitikmeot Sea near Cambridge Bay in spring 2017. Averaged total chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration was within the lower range reported previously for the same region, while daily carbon uptake rates of bottom-ice algae were significantly lower in this study than previously reported for the Arctic. Based on various indicators, the region's low nutrient concentrations appear to limit carbon uptake rates and associated accumulation of bottom-ice algal biomass. Furthermore, the lipids-dominant biochemical composition of bottom-ice algae suggests strong nutrient limitation relative to the distinctly different carbohydrates-dominant composition of phytoplankton. Together, the results confirm strong nitrate limitation of the local marine system.
Insight and treatment adherence in serious mental illness, namely psychotic disorders, are well recognized as strong predictors of prognosis; several psychometric instruments have been developed for their evaluation.
Objectives and aims
To analyze the relation between self and hetero-evaluated insight and treatment attitudes in a clinical sample of psychiatric patients, besides assessing it's clinical correlates and relevance.
60 patients with serious mental illness (schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with psychotic features) were assessed using the Portuguese versions of the ‘Insight Scale' (IS), ‘Medication Adherence Rating Scale’ (MARS) and ‘Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire’ (ITAQ). General psychopathology and functioning scales were also applied, such as the BPRS, BDI-II and FAST. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical variables were also obtained. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS version 19.
Self-reported insight using the IS was not correlated with the insight subscale of the ITAQ, a hetero-evaluation instrument. Similarly, we found no correlation regarding attitudes to treatment when comparing self-report (MARS) and hetero- evaluation (treatment attitudes subscale of the ITAQ). Nonetheless, patients with a history of medication non-compliance and worse clinical outcomes had significantly lower (p< .05) scores in hetero-evaluation measures of insight and treatment attitudes (ITAQ), yet exhibited no differences in the self-evaluation measures of those dimensions.
Discussion and conclusions
Insight and treatment attitudes assessments can be valuable in clinical practice, contributing to decisions in both in- and outpatient settings involving treatment planning and level of monitoring. Clinician-rated instruments are probably more reliable, with clearer prognostic relevance.
To investigate in non-depressed perinatal women, whichBeck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Postpartum Postpartum DepressionScreening Scale (PDSS) scores and proportions of symptomatic items significantlydiffer through the perinatal period.
273 women were assessed with the Diagnostic Interviewfor Genetic Studies, BDI-II and the PDSS at the third trimester of pregnancy/T0(mean age =29.42±7.159 years; mean weeks gestation=32.6±3.61),three/T1, six/T2 and twelve/T3 months postpartum.
Significantlyhigher scores in T0 than in T1/T2/T3 and in T1 than in T2/T3 were found for: Total PDSS, Sleeping-Eating Disturbances, Emotional Liability, Total BDI-II andits dimension Somatic-Anxiety. Only T0 and T1/T2 didnot significantly differ in Anxiety/Insecurity, Mental Confusion, and Loss of Self. In Guilty/Shame only T1 was significantly higher than T3. Suicidalthoughts were significantly higher in T0 than T1 and lower in T1 than T2/T3.
Theproportions of symptomatic items systematically and significantly decreased fromT0 to T3 in changes of sleep, loss of interest in sex, feeling overwhelmed. Significantlyhigher symptomatic proportions in T0 than in all post-partum moments were foundfor: loss of energy, irritability, fatigue, changes in appetite, crying, indecisiveness and worthlessness (these last three also higher in T1 than inT3). Agitation was significantly higherin T1 than in T0. All the cognitive-affective symptoms from BDI-II and PDSSdid not differ.
From pregnancy to the twelfth month postpartum the depressivesymptomatology, particularly somatic-affective symptoms, significantlydecreased. However even for the women who are not clinically depressed, theperinatal period requires considerable psychological adjustment.
Factors associated with postpartum/PPT anxiety have been insufficiently investigated.
To identify correlates of PPT anxiety.
201 3-months postpartum women completed the Portuguese versions of Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS), Beck Depression Inventory/BDI-II, Profile of Mood States, Difficult Infant Temperament Questionnaire/DITQ, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and questions on sociodemographic variables, Lifetime history of insomnia/LTHD, Lifetime history of depressive symptomatology/LTHDS, Current insomnia, Health perception/HP, Stress perception/SP, Perceived social support/PSS, Quality of life/QOL, Health problem/complication postpartum, Sensibility to hormonal fluctuations, Type of delivery and Type of feeding. Postpartum anxiety was measured with the Anxiety/Insecurity (AI) subscale of the PDSS.
AI significantly correlated with LTHDS (rS=.32), LHI (rS=.18), Current insomnia (rS=.32), BDI-II (r=.76), SP (rS=.38), PSS (rS=.25), Perceived QOL (rS=.37), Health perception (rS=.29), Health problem in the postpartum (rS=.26), Negative Affect/NA (r=.66), Positive Affect/PA (r=.58), Conditional Acceptance/CA (r=.29) and DIT (r=.38) (all p< .01). Mean comparisons revealed that women with vs. without LHDS, with vs. without LTHI, good sleepers vs. with insomnia syndrome, high vs. low SP, low vs. high PSS, bad/very bad vs. good/very good QOL, bad/very bad vs. good/very good HP, high (< M+1DP) vs. low (>M-1DP) DIT, CA, NA and low vs. high PA had significantly higher mean scores in AI (all p< .01). Linear regression model composed of all correlated variables explained 53.7% of AI variance and showed that NA, PA and DIT are significant (p< .05) predictors of AI.
Our findings are in accordance with previous research and contribute to the progress on this topic.
Postpartum depressive symptomatology is highly prevalent and has negative impact in the entire family.
To identify correlates of postpartum depressive symptomatology.
201 3-months postpartum women completed the Portuguese versions of Postpartum Depression Screening Scale/PDSS, Profile of Mood States, Difficult Infant Temperament Questionnaire/DITQ, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and questions on sociodemographic variables (marital status, work status, educational level, parity), Lifetime history of insomnia/LTHD, Lifetime history of depressive symptomatology /LTHDS, Current insomnia, Sleep needs, Health perception/HP, Stress perception/SP, Perceived social support/PSS, Quality of life/QOL, Health problem/complication postpartum, Sensibility to hormonal fluctuations, Type of delivery and Type of feeding.
Total PDSS significantly correlated with LTHDS (rs=.35), LHI (rs=.22), Current insomnia (rs=.37), SP (rs=39), PSS (rs=.25), Perceived QOL (rs=.31), Health perception (rs=.28), Health problem or complication in the postpartum (rs=.16), Negative Affect/NA (r=.59), Positive Affect/PA (r=-.67), Conditional Acceptance/CA(r=.29) and DIT (r=.40) (all p< .01). Mean comparisons revealed that women with vs. without LHDS, with vs. without LTHI, good sleepers vs. with insomnia syndrome, high vs. low SP, bad/very bad vs. good/very good QOL, bad/very bad vs. good very good HP, high (< M+1DP) vs. low (>M-1DP) DIT, CA, NA and low vs. high PA had significantly higher mean scores in AI (all p< .01). Linear regression model composed of all correlated variables explained 53.9% of depressive symptomatology variance and showed that NA, PA, DIT and HP are significant (p< .05) predictors of AI.
These results are in line with previous findings and contribute to the progress on this topic.
The appropriate regulation of thoughts and emotions decreases the likelihood of pathogenic activation of stress response (Gross, 2007). Stress is closely related to impaired sleep incross-sectional studies (Akerstedt, 2006) and can elicit profound and lasting effects on sleep (Hall et al., 2004).
To analyze the associations between perceived stress, cognitive coping strategies and sleep difficulties.
549 students (80.1% females) from two Portuguese Universities filled in the Portuguese version of Perceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS, Cohen et al., 1983; Amaral et al., 2014), Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ, Garnefski et al., 2001; Castro et al., 2013) and three questions were used to access sleep difficulties (initiating sleep, sleep maintenance, and early morning awakening).
In the present sample the prevalence for difficulty initiating sleep was 29,8%, of maintaining sleep was 27,9% and of early morning awakening was 30,9%. Considering stress, cognitive coping strategies and sleep, consistent and strongest positive correlations were observed between Perceived Stress and Rumination (from r=.263 to r=.486; p<.01), Catastrophizing (from r=.263 to r=.391; p<.01) and negatively correlated with Positive reappraisal and planning (from r=-.109; p<.05 to r=-.346; p<.01). The correlations between perceived stress and difficulties in initiating and maintaining sleep were from r=.249 to r=.356(p<.01). Strongest correlations were observed between Rumination, Self-blame and Catastrophizing and difficulties in initiating and maintaining sleep (fromr=.152 to r=.258; p<.01).
Rumination, Self-blame and Catastrophizing were the cognitive coping strategies consistently associated with perceived stress and difficulties in initiating and maintaining sleep.
Watkins and Moulds (2005) adapted the Positive Beliefs aboutRumination Scale (PBRS; Papageorgiou and Wells, 2001) to reduce confounds with mood states. The items keep the meaningthat recurrent thinking about feelings would be helpful, but direct mentions ofrumination, depression and negative mood or events were omitted.
To investigate thepsychometric properties of the PBRS-Adapted Portuguese version.
Acommunity sample of 552 university students (425 girls; 80.3%; mean age=19.72±1.147) answered the Portuguesepreliminary version of the PBRS-A, and the validated Portuguese versions ofother self-reported questionnaires: Perseverative ThinkingQuestionnaire/PTQ-15; Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire/RNT-10; The Metacognitions Questionnaire-30/MCQ-30;Profile of Mood States/POMS. To study the temporal stability, 242 (207girls; 85.5%) respondents answered the MCQ-30 again after approximately six weeks.
The PBRS-A Cronbach alpha was 'very good” (a=.80). All the itemscontribute to the internal consistency. The test-retest correlation coefficientwas high, positive and significant (.64; p< .001); there was not significantdifference between test and re-test scores [25.89±5.384 vs. 24.64±5.444, t (218)=4.014,p=.114]. Following Kaiser and Cattel Scree Plot criteria, only one factor wasextracted, meaning that the scale is unidimensional.
PBRS-Asignificantly, positively and moderately correlated with RNT-10, PTQ-15, MCQ-30and all their dimensions (all r>.35;p<.01) as well as with all the negative mood states from POMS (all r@.20; p<.01).
The Portuguese version of PBRS-Ahas good reliability and validity. As a transdiagnostic measure, it could be veryuseful to assess individuals with several emotional disorders, both in clinicaland research contexts.
The Children Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT; Maloney et al. 1988) is a well-established 26-item scale designed to measure a wide range of problematic eating attitudes and behaviours among children and adolescents.
To analyse ChEAT reliability and validity in a Portuguese adolescent girls sample.
565 high-school girls (mean age 15.76 ± 1.571; mean BMI 20.42 ± 2.745) answered the Portuguese versions of ChEAT and of the Contour Drawing Figure Rating Scale (CDFRS; Thompson & Gray, 1995). to study the temporal stability 124 girls answered the ChEAT again after approximately six weeks.
Cronbach's alpha was of .76. the test-retest Pearson correlation was of 0.61. A four factors structure (explained variance=44.06%) was selected: Factor (F) 1 Fear of Getting Fat, F2 Restrictive and Purging Behaviours, F3 Food Preoccupation, F4 Social Pressure to Eat. the body satisfaction as assessed through CDFRS was negatively correlated with the total ChEAT (-.35), F1 (-.47) and F2 (-.23) (all p > .001); and positively correlated with F4 (.26, p < .001). Significant mean differences (all p < .01) were found between the three CDFRS groups (Group -1 Want to be thinner; Group 0 Satisfied; Group 1 Want to be fatter) in all eating behaviour dimension scores, except for F3; total ChEAT, F1 and F2 mean scores between groups significantly decreased through the body satisfaction groups -1, 0 and 1 and significantly increased for F4.
The Portuguese ChEAT psychometric characteristics are good. Factorial structure is in accordance with the original. It could be very useful to clinical and epidemiological purposes.
Suicidality has a multifactorial determination and is clinically under-diagnosed. Self-reported poor health, negative affect and sleep difficulties are associated with psychological distress, including suicidality.
To analyze the association between lifetime SRH, sleep difficulties, negative affect (NA) and suicidal ideation in pregnancy (T0) and post-partum (T1) and if they are predictors of suicidal ideation.
397 pregnant women completed the Portuguese version of POMS, PDSS and a set of items evaluating SRH, and sleep difficulties in the last trimester of pregnancy an three months of post-partum.
In pregnancy, suicidal ideation was significantly associated with lifetime SRH (p < .05), NA (p < .01) and difficulties of initiating sleep (DIS) (p < .01). In post-partum, suicidal ideation was also associated with DIS (p < .01), NA (p < .01), but not with SRH. In pregnancy, the predictors of the probability of having or not suicidal ideation are both SRH and DIS. In postpartum the suicidal ideation predictor was only DIS. However when NA was introduced in the regression model, NA was the only predictor of suicide ideation in both pregnacy and postpartum.
Difficulties of initiating sleep should be considered an indicator of suicidal ideation during the perinatal period. However NA might explain this association.
Postpartum depression (PPD) can occur through all the perinatal period and it is a public health problem. Positive and negative affect (at pregnancy and previous postpartum moments) are protective and risk factors for PPD. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) factor structure at pregnancy and three months postpartum has already been explored.
to explore the POMS factor structure at six and 12 months postpartum.
336 women (mean age=30,3; SD = 4,09; range=19-42 years) and 276 women (mean age=30,5; SD=3,99; range=19-41 years), respectively, filled in the Profile of Mood States (POMS), at six and 12 months postpartum.
A principal components analysis revealed, at six months postpartum, three components that explained 54,12% of the total variance: F1 Depression-Hostility (21 items; 39,5% explained variance/EV); F2 Anxiety-Anger/fatigue (14 items; 10,1% EV) and F3 Vigor-Activity (12 items; 4,8% EV); at 12 months postpartum, revealed also three components, that explained 46,16% of the variance: F1. Anxiety-anger/fatigue (13 items; explained 30,4% of the variance); F2. Depression-Hostility (6 items; 11,2% VE); F3. Vigor-Activity (14 items; 2,9% EV). At both postpartum moments, F1 and F2 can be summed to calculate Negative Affect (Cronbach Alpha, α=0,968 at six months and α=0,948 at 12 months). F3 corresponds to Positive Affect (α=0,863; α=0,875, respectively, at six months and 12 months).
The POMS factor structure at six and 12 months is robust, meaningful and can now be used to explore different aspects of the postpartum experience, at these postpartum moments.
It has been shown that perfectionism constitutes a risk factor both for insomnia and postpartum depression.
To analyse the relationship between perfectionism, depressive symptoms and insomnia in the postpartum.
201 3-months postpartum women (M=12.27 ± .91 weeks postpartum) completed the Portuguese versions of Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) and Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS). Three MPS dimensions derived by factorial analysis with data from this sample were used: Self-Oriented Perfectionism/SOP, Social Prescribed Perfectionism-Conditional Acceptance/SPP-CA and SPP-Others Highs Standards/OHS. Women also answered 5 questions about sleep, considering the previous month, based on which three insomnia groups were formed: Good Sleepers/GS (women without insomnia symptoms or daytime impairment); Insomnia Symptoms Group (women with at least one insomnia symptom but no daytime impairment); Insomnia Syndrome Group/ISG (women with at least one insomnia symptom and sleep related daytime impairment).
Insomnia and PDSS were correlated (r = .39, pr < .01). SOP was not correlated with insomnia neither with PDSS total score. SPP-CA was significantly correlated with insomnia and with PDSS (rr > .25, pr < .01). SPP-OHS was only significantly correlated with insomnia (r = .14, pr < .05). SPP-CA mean scores were significantly higher in ISG than in GS (23.45 ± 3.032 vs. 18.98 ± 8.81, p = 002). Considering insomnia as a quantitative variable, linear regression showed that SPP-CA (β = .20, p = .005) and PDSS (β = .17, p = .021) were both significant predictors of insomnia, explaining 8.7% of variance (pr < .001). The mediation analysis revealed that SPP-CA partially mediated the relationship between PDSS and insomnia (IC 95% .008-.005).
SPP-C is a relevant correlate of postpartum insomnia.
Knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the relationship between perfectionism and eating behaviors in overweight/obese women is very scarce.
To investigate the relationship between perfectionism, eating behaviors and affect in overweight women.
The Portuguese validated versions of the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire/EDEQ, the Multidimensional Perfectionism Questionnaire and the Profile of Mood States were administered to an outpatient sample of 276 women (Mean age = 43.85 ± 11.89; Mean BMI = 32.82 ± 5.43) attending a weight loss treatment in a public hospital.
Correlations between Social Prescribed Perfectionism/SPP and EDEQ total (T) and its dimensional scores (Weigh and Shape Concern and Dissatisfaction/WSCD, Eating Concern/EC, Restraint) were all moderate (r > .30) and significant (p > .001). Self-Oriented Perfectionism/SOP was also significantly correlated with EDEQ-T, WSCI and Restraint (r = .20). Positive affect/PA was negatively correlated and Negative affect/NA was positively correlated with all EDEQ dimensions (r > .25; p > .001). SPP, but not SOP, was significantly correlated with PA (r = −.27) and NA (r = .34). Participants with high (>M+SD) vs. low (< MSD) SOP and SPP had significantly higher means in EDEQ-T, WSCI, EC and Restraint (all p < .001). Linear regression showed that SPP, PA and NA were predictors of EDEQ-T and WSCI; SPP and NA were predictors of EC; NA was the unique predictor of Restraint (all p < .001). Controlling for NA/PA, SPP still being a significant predictor of all EDEQ, WSCD and EC, accounting for significant increments of variance (4.4%, 2.9% and 4.3%, respectively; p < .001).
As in studies with other type of samples, SPP is related to disordered eating in overweight women.
In comparison with postnatal depressive symptoms, few studies considered antenatal depressive symptoms risk factors/correlates.
In a multidimensional work our aim was to explore the associations/predictive role of lifetime and current pregnancy variables for antenatal depressive symptoms.
Two hundred and thirty six women (M = 30.5; SD =4.02; variation = 19-41), at the third pregnancy trimester were interviewed with the DIGS/OPCRIT (to make lifetime/current depression diagnoses) and answered a booklet about sociodemographic variables, lifetime/current insomnia, current stress perception, perception of being an anxious person, gynecological variables, past health perception and pregnancy health problems, among others. They filled in the Profile of Mood States to assess anxious symptoms, Negative and Positive affect and the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) to assess antenatal depressive symptoms at pregnancy. Women with a depression diagnosis (DSM-IV/ICD-10, n =5) and on sleep medication at pregnancy were excluded from the analyses.
We found significant associations between antenatal depressive symptoms (PDSS total score), current job situation, perception of being an anxious person, lifetime history of depression (DSM-IV/ICD-10), past health perception, health problems at current pregnancy, stress perception at pregnancy, lifetime and current insomnia, anxious symptoms at pregnancy, Negative and Positive affect. In an hierarquical multiple regression past health perception, negative affect, positive affect and current insomnia were significant predictors of antenatal depressive symptoms.
Past health perception, negative affect (anxious and depressive symptoms) and insomnia at current pregnancy seem to be risk factors/correlates for the outcome. Positive affect seems to work as a protective correlate.
In Portugal there are no national epidemiologic registers on the prevalence/incidence of suicidal ideation and attempts. Although there is no evidence that suicide is higher in University students than in other people of the same age, it is a cause of premature death.
To analyze the prevalence and characteristics of suicidality in university students
549 University students (80.1% females) filled in a booklet of questionnaires that included the Suicidal Behaviour Section of the Diagnostic Interview of Genetic Studies (Azevedo et al, 1993; Nurnberger et al., 1994), which was slight modified.
0.4% reported lifetime poor psychological health and 1.3% reported lifetime hospitalizations due to emotional/behavioural problems. Lifetime thoughts of death, lifetime active suicidal ideation, and lifetime suicidal attempts were described by 20.4%, 11.9% and by 2.3% of the students, respectively. Regarding the more severe lifetime suicide attempt (N=15) the method used was predominantly self-poisoning (medication) (9/13), 40% (6/15) were hospitalized after this attempt, 53.3% (8/15) reported death wishes when the act was performed, and 60% (9/15) considered that death could be the consequence of the act. During last month suicidal ideation occurred in 1.9% of the students. During the last two weeks suicidal ideation without planning was found in 2.2% and 0.2% refereed they are going to attempt suicide if they will have an opportunity.
In university students recent, frequent and severe suicide ideation might occur. Results highlighted the need for suicidality prevention/early intervention and that Health University Care Services should screen systematically suicidal ideation.
The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDEQ; Fairburn & Beglin, 1994) is a widely used measure composed of 28 items derived from the EDE Interview. The questionnaire has been considered an adequate measure of eating related psychopathology, including with overweight samples. EDEQ also assesses frequencies of eating disordered behaviors in terms of the number of episodes in the past four weeks (6 items not contributing to scores).
To investigate reliability and factorial structure of the EDEQ in a large sample of Portuguese overweight women.
The EDEQ was administered to an outpatient sample of 276 women (Mean age = 43.85 ± 11.89; Mean BMI = 32.82 Kg/m2 ± 5.43) attending a weight loss treatment consultation in a public medical center.
The EDEQ Cronbach a was .88. All items contributed to the internal consistency. A three factors structure (variance explained = 50.37%) was selected: Factor (F) 1 “Weight and shape concern/dissatisfaction” (a = .91); F2 “Eating concern” (a = .71) and F3 “Restraint” (a = .63). The mean total score was 2.36 (± 1.07). The regular occurrence of overeating episodes, selfinduced vomiting, laxative misuse and excessive exercise was reported by 10%, 1.5%, 4.1%, and 8.9% of participants, respectively.
The EDEQ Portuguese version showed adequate psychometric properties in a sample of overweight women. Its factorial structure, mean scores and specific eating disorder behaviors frequencies are in accordance with other studies with obese participants. The EDEQ Portuguese version could be very useful to clinical and epidemiological purposes in a broad range of eating disturbances.
(1) to identify the proportion of families that have at least one first degree relative (FDR) with major unipolar depression (MUD), across bipolar (BP) and schizophrenic (SC) multiplex families;
(2) to assess if there are significant demographic/clinic differences between these two groups.
The sample included 120 families with at least one first or second degree proband relatives diagnosed with BP or SC disorders. We selected BP and SC probands’ families that had at least one FDR with MUD, according to DSM-III-R. All families have been evaluated with Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies and selected according to the diagnostic definitions of DSM-III-R, based on the Operational Criteria Checklist. T-tests and chi-square tests used to analyze demographic and clinical differences between the two groups.
Out of the 60 BP families, 38.3% had at least one FDR with MUD; depressed relatives were predominantly female (68.7%) - sisters (35.5%), mothers (29%), daughters (3.2%). The average age of onset and length of illness was 35 and 15 years, respectively. Out of 60 SC families, 31.6% had at least one FDR with MUD; the majority of depressed relatives were females (81.8%) - sisters (42.9%), mothers (38%) daughters (4.8%). The average age of onset and length of illness was 30 and 19 years, respectively. There was no significant statistical differences between BP and SC families.
These results may support the thesis of a common genetic vulnerability to MUD, and the continuum viewpoint of affective and psychotic disorders.
Immigration involves significant changes in the psychosocial context, due to losses, relationship breakdowns, lack of social support, not feeling at home, novelty, discrimination, resettlement demands (occupation, language). These life stressors might lead to psychological distress, including depression.
To explore if there are differences in the prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms in immigrant and Portuguese women during the perinatal period.
The sample comprises 397 women. 348 (87.7%) of them were Portuguese and the remaining 49 (12.4%) were born in other Countries (5.8% Other/European, 3.8% African, 2.8% South America). They were both interviewed at the last trimester of pregnancy (T0) and at 3 months postpartum (T1), using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, which allows CID-10 and DSM-IV diagnoses of depression. Both at T0 and T1, they also completed the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) to evaluate depressive symptoms.
Immigrants compared with Portuguese women did not differ in respect to a CID-10/DSM-IV depression diagnosis and in respect to PDSS total scores at T0 and T1. Being immigrant is associated with higher levels of passive suicidal ideation (death seem the only way out of this nightmare) (rs=.116, p<.05), feelings of loneliness (rs=.118, p<.05) and being overwhelmed by anguished (rs=.134, p<.01) at pregnancy and with feelings of being inadequate as a mother (rs=.128, p<.05) at the postpartum.
Being immigrant might contribute to higher levels of depressive symptoms during the perinatal period, including suicidal ideation. These findings have clinical implications, while working with immigrants.
The Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ; Allison et al, 2008) is the only validated instrument to assess the Night Eating Syndrome. It is composed of 14 Likert items and it enables to rule out for sleep-related eating disorder.
To investigate the psychometric properties of the NEQ and to investigate its pattern of correlation with related variables in a sample of Portuguese overweight women.
The NEQ and the other self-report validated instruments to assess disordered eating, insomnia, daytime sleepiness, depressive symptoms and affect were administered to an outpatient sample of 276 women (Mean age=43.85±11.88; Mean BMI=32.82Kg/m2±5.43) attending a weight loss treatment consultation in a public hospital.
The NEQ Coronach a was .60. A four factors structure (variance explained=57.62%) was selected: Factor (F)1 “Nocturnal ingestions” (α=.81); F2 “Evening hiperfagia” (α=.57); F3 “Mood/Sleep” (α=.42) and F4 “Morning anorexia” (α=.24). From the 23 participants (8.6%) who snacks when get up in the middle of the night, 6 (26.1%) had “not at all/a little” awareness of their eating; 3 (13.0%) had “none at all/a little” control over their eating while up at the night. NEQ total score significantly (p< .01) correlated with disordered eating behaviors (r=.28), insomnia (.50), daytime sleepiness (.27), depressive symptoms (.40), negative affect (.39) and positive affect (-.16).
The Portuguese version of NEQ presents reasonable internal consistency. The factorial structure overlaps with the original almost completely. The pattern of correlations with relevant variables was as expected. The NEQ could be very useful to clinical and epidemiological purposes.
A perceived difficult infant temperament has been associated to mothers depressive mood (Beck, 1996; McGrath et al., 2008).
To identify infant difficult temperament dimensions associated to mothers psychological distress.
103 mothers (M= 31.9 years, SD=4.10; 68% married, 71.7% primiparae) filled in the difficult infant temperament questionnaire (DITQ; Macedo et al., 2011), two items of the Brief infant sleep questionnaire (number of infant night wakings, duration of infants wakefulness during the night; Sadeh, 2004), the Beck depression inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck et al., 1996; Coelho et al., 2002) and the Postpartum depression screening scale (PDSS; Beck and Gable, 2000; Pereira et al., 2010) when their babies were 3 months of age. DITQ factor analysis with varimax rotation and reliability analyses suggested 2 temperament dimensions: emotional difficulties (irritable baby, cries excessively, difficult to calm down), F1; sleeping problems (baby who has sleeping problems, gives bad nights, has difficulties falling asleep), F2.
DITQ-F1, DITQ-F2 and infants number of night wakings were positively and significantly associated with BDIII/ PDSS total scores. Infants eating problems were not associated with BDI-II or PDSS values. Controlling for mothers severe depressive mood, regression analysis revealed that DITQ F2 was the variable that explained BDI-II total score (R2=.081; p=.011). PDSS total score was predicted by DITQ F2 (R2=.050; p=.030) and number of infant night wakings (R2=.074; p=.010).
Infants sleeping problems and infants number of night wakings contribute to mothers psychological distress in postpartum.