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In the collapsing phase of a molecular cloud, the molecular gas temperature is a key to understand the evolutionary process from a dense molecular cloud to stars. In order to know this, mapping observations in NH3 lines are required. Therefore, we made them based on the FUGIN (FOREST Unbiased Galactic plane Imaging survey with Nobeyama 45m telescope). The 6 maps were observed in NH3 (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) and H2O maser lines and obtained temperature maps; some show temperature gradient in a cloud. Additionally 72 cores were observed. These candidates were called as KAGONMA or KAG objects as abbreviation of KAgoshima Galactic Object survey with Nobeyama 45-M telescope in Ammonia lines. We show the results of two regions in W33 and discuss their astrophysical properties.
Our ALMA observations of HCO+ and HCN show such redshifted absorption toward an isolated core, BHR 71. Both lines show a similar redshifted absorption profile. We also found emissions of complex organic molecules (COMs) around 345 GHz from a compact region centered on the continuum source, which is barely resolved with a beam of 0″27, corresponding to ∼50 AU.
Systemic uptake of organic compounds from roots to leaves follows a Gaussian distribution in relation to the lipophilicity, as measured by the log Kow. Quantification of compound uptake with different lipophilicities, and applied as a seed treatment that diffuses through the seed coat into the embryo during imbibition, has not been reported. The aim of this investigation was to quantify the uptake of non-ionic compounds into seeds of soybean and corn. A series of fluorescent piperonyl amides were synthesized and a novel combinatorial pharmacodynamic technique was developed that provided a range of compounds from log Kow 0.02 to 5.7. Seeds were treated with a mixture of amides, imbibed and compounds chemically extracted and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography using a fluorescence detector. The maximum uptake efficiency of the applied amide mixture from whole soybean and corn seeds was 67% at log Kow 2.9, and 43% at log Kow 3.4, respectively. The critical partition coefficient for uptake for both species was <4.2 log Kow. Seeds were dissected and separated as soybean embryo and testa, and corn internal tissues (embryo + endosperm) or seed covering layers (pericarp + testa), and >75% of the amides were found in the soybean embryo or corn internal tissues compared with the covering layers at log Kow <4.2. The distribution of amides showed that the corn seed covering layer had similar hydrophilic/lipophilic properties as internal tissues, while soybean tissues had different hydrophilic/lipophilic properties. Collectively, the Gaussian uptake pattern for systemic uptake into plants was not found for either seed species.
Learning to read in any language requires learning to map among print, sound and meaning. Writing systems differ in a number of factors that influence both the ease and the rate with which reading skill can be acquired, as well as the eventual division of labor between phonological and semantic processes. Further, developmental reading disability manifests differently across writing systems, and may be related to different deficits in constitutive processes. Here we simulate some aspects of reading acquisition in Chinese and English using the same model for both writing systems. The contribution of semantic and phonological processing to literacy acquisition in the two languages is simulated, including specific effects of phonological and semantic deficits. Further, we demonstrate that similar patterns of performance are observed when the same model is trained on both Chinese and English as an “early bilingual”. The results are consistent with the view that reading skill is acquired by the application of statistical learning rules to mappings among print, sound and meaning, and that differences in the typical and disordered acquisition of reading skill between writing systems are driven by differences in the statistical patterns of the writing systems themselves, rather than differences in cognitive architecture of the learner.
This article considers the amount of economic capital that defined benefit (DB) pension schemes potentially need to cover the risks they are running. A real open scheme, the Universities Superannuation Scheme, is modelled and used to illustrate our results and, as expected, economic capital requirements are large. We discuss the appropriateness of these results and what they mean for the DB pension scheme industry and their sponsors. The article is particularly pertinent following the recent European Commission Green Paper on the future of European pensions systems, its call for advice on reviewing the Institutions for Occupational Retirement Provision Directive and the introduction of the Basel 2 and Solvency 2 risk-based regulatory regimes for banking and insurance, respectively.
This study investigates a pathway to nanoporous structures created by hydrogen and helium implantation in aluminum. Previous experiments for fusion applications have indicated that hydrogen and helium ion implantations are capable of producing bicontinuous nanoporous structures in a variety of metals. This study focuses specifically on implantations of hydrogen and helium ions at 25 keV in aluminum. The hydrogen and helium systems result in remarkably different nanostructures of aluminum at the surface. Scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam, and transmission electron microscopy show that both implantations result in porosity that persists approximately 200 nm deep. However, hydrogen implantations tend to produce larger and more irregular voids that preferentially reside at defects. Implantations of helium at a fluence of 1018 cm-2 produce much smaller porosity on the order of 10 nm that is regular and creates a bicontinuous structure in the porous region. The primary difference driving the formation of the contrasting structures is likely the relatively high mobility of hydrogen and the ability of hydrogen to form alanes that are capable of desorbing and etching Al (111) faces.
We investigate the band offsets and stability for Ni/Bi2Te3 and Co/Bi2Te3 interfaces by first principles calculations. It is found that the surface termination strongly affects the band offsets. Ni and Co are found to form Ohmic contacts to Bi2Te3. The interface formation energies for Co/Bi2Te3 interfaces are much lower than those of Ni/Bi2Te3 interfaces. Our calculations are consistent with the experimental data.
Pd-Fe alloys have attracted attention in PEM fuel cell research because they were found to be comparable to Pt electrocatalysts in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) kinetics at the cathode. In this study, the surface morphology of a Pd3Fe(111) single-crystal sample and oxygen reaction on the surface were investigated by low energy electron diffraction (LEED), low energy ion scattering (LEIS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. Strong segregation of Pd atoms was observed after annealing in UHV. Particularly, Pd single adatoms and dimers were found on the surface after high temperature annealing, which differs from most other well-studied binary alloy systems. Low free energy of Pd, strain relaxation, and interaction between Pd and Fe, are potentially responsible for the formation of this unusual surface. Adsorption of oxygen reversed the segregation trend and oxidized surface Fe. Ordered surface phases were observed after oxygen exposures at elevated temperatures. The reducing activity of Fe atoms in the alloy inhibited Pd oxidation, and weakened Pd-O interactions on Pd3Fe(111) are consistent with enhanced ORR kinetics.
Polymeric materials undergo rapid erosion when exposed to the harsh low-earth-orbit (LEO) environment. Coatings can reduce the erosion rate of polyimide Kapton from atomic oxygen (AO) attack. Specifically, we are investigating how thin Al coatings can protect Kapton. Protective Al layers with variations in layer thickness and growth conditions were deposited on Kapton H. The quality of these protective coatings were evaluated by mass loss measurement and compared to Kapton alone and the SiO2 coating, where dramatically decreased erosion rate was noted. To understand how these coatings protect Kapton as well as how the AO interacts with the coatings, we are investigating the microstructure of these coated materials by plane view and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. To understand the AO degradation mechanism, we attempted to correlate the mass loss with growth conditions and microstructures. We noted a slight improvement in erosion resistance of the Al coating due to the presence of the dendrimer, but a major improvement when the Al coating is deposited under ultrahigh vacuum conditions.
This paper describes the preparation of hybrid surfactant-templated thin films functionalized with rare-earth (Eu3+ and Tb3+) organic complexes. 2-D hexagonally ordered films are obtained by a one-pot synthesis process based on an acid-catalyzed approach. Ln3+ ions are coordinated to bis-silylated ligands that co-polymerize with TEOS, which enables one to incorporate the fluorescent centers within the silica framework. Luminescent properties of the organic-inorganic mesostructured films are discussed and compared to those of amorphous samples with similar composition.
In this paper, we present studies on the integration process of CVD Cu with low-k fluorinated amorphous carbon (a-F:C) in single level and multilevel damascene structure. A thin layer of adhesion promoter material, SiC:H, was utilized to enhance the adhesion and mechanical properties of the damascene stacking layers. The SiC:H layer could also serve as a barrier to contain fluorine atoms from diffusion. The improved a-F:C damascene stacking layers are able to sustain the process of CMP, heat treatment, patterning and plasma etching. The fabrication of single and multi-level damascene structures is proved to be feasible. Some of the electrical performance data evaluated on the Cu/a-F:C damascene structure will be also presented in this paper.
In this study, we examined the prevalence and nature of nonclinical panic attacks in 649 Australian youth and explored the relations between such attacks and measures of social support, stress, anxiety, depression, and fear. Full-blown attacks (attacks involving four or more symptoms with rapid onset) were reported by 104 of the youth (16%). Attacks were reported more frequently by girls than boys; however, age was unrelated to panic-attack status. Heightened levels of anxiety and fear, as well as stress in the family and lack of family support, were related to attack status. Path-analytic procedures supported a working model consisting of stress, social support, and emotional distress as related to panic status. Limitations of the self-report data on panic attacks and the other measures used in this study are acknowledged.
Highly (100)-textured thin film of metallic LaNiO3 (LNO) was grown on the Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by rf magnetron sputtering at ˜300°C, which was used as a bottom electrode to prepare highly (100)-textured ferroelectric films. Examples on the deposition of PbTiO3, (Pbl−xLax)TiO3, Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3, Pb[(Mg1/3Nb2/3)1−xTix]O3, and (Ba1−xSrx)TiO3 thin films by rf magnetron sputtering or sol-gel method are shown. A reduction of temperature for perovskite phase formation can be achieved, especially for those difficult to crystallize. The surface roughness of the ferroelectric films is also improved as compared to that of films deposited on conventional Pt electrode. Although the electrical properties of the ferroelectric films are affected by the out-diffusion of LNO when a higher temperature was used in the preparation of the films, under an appropriate processing condition, the highly (100)-textured films can have satisfactory electrical characteristics for application. Moreover, the polarization-fatigue property can be also improved by the use of LNO electrode.
Ruthenium oxide films were deposited on Al2O3 (0001) and (1102) substrates using reactive sputtering under two different target surface conditions. Films grown when the surface of the target was metallic ruthenium (metallic-target) showed a Ru: O ratio of 1: 2.0±0.05 as determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. At elevated deposition temperatures, these films aligned with the substrates as RuO2 (100) ║ A12O3 (0001) and RuO2 (101) ║ Al2O3(1102). Films deposited when the target surface was fully oxidized (oxidized-target) exhibited a Ru: O ratio of 1: 2.5±0.05 and displayed an oriented crystalline structure even at room temperature. The resistivity of the RuO2.5 films was 75 μΩ-cm and was independent of temperature between 5 and 300 K. Possible causes of this behavior are discussed.
Barium strontium titanate films were deposited onto silicon substrates using pulsed laser ablation deposition. The films were characterized using conventional and high resolution cross-sectional TEM. It was found that the grains were columnar with an average width of approximately 23 nm. An amorphous interfacial layer formed between the Si and BST in all cases. The interfacial layer thickness increased as the sample exposure to O2 increased. TiSi2 was also observed in all the films, although its location at the interface was not directly verified. There are no systematic effects of O2 overpressure on either the film thickness or film microstructure. However, the film which was fabricated with the greatest exposure to O2 may contain TixOy, and contains more equiaxed grains than the other samples. An interfacial layer was also observed at the Au-Pd/BST interface in a metal/ferroelectric/silicon capacitor. The significance of the results is the observation that BST may never come in direct contact with either capacitor electrode, which may explain why the fatigue behavior and electrical characteristics of ferroelectric capacitors depend so strongly on the interfaces.