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Previous studies have confirmed that miR-146a-5p overexpression suppresses neurogenesis, thereby enhancing depression-like behaviors. However, it remains unclear how miR-146a-5p dysregulation produces in vivo brain structural abnormalities in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
In this case–control study, we combined cortical morphology analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and miR-146a-5p quantification to investigate the neuropathological effect of miR-146a-5p on cortical thickness in MDD patients. Serum-derived exosomes that were considered to readily cross the blood-brain barrier and contain miR-146a-5p were isolated for miRNA quantification. Moreover, follow-up MRI scans were performed in the MDD patients after 6 weeks of antidepressant treatment to further validate the clinical relevance of the relationship between miR-146a-5p and brain structural abnormalities.
In total, 113 medication-free MDD patients and 107 matched healthy controls were included. Vertex-vise general linear model revealed miR-146a-5p-dependent cortical thinning in MDD patients compared with healthy individuals, i.e., overexpression of miR-146a-5p was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral lateral occipital cortices (LOCs), etc. Moreover, this relationship between baseline miR-146a-5p and cortical thinning was nonsignificant for all regions in the patients who had received antidepressant treatment, and higher baseline miR-146a-5p expression was found to be related to greater longitudinal cortical thickening in the left OFC and right LOC.
The findings of this study reveal a relationship between miR-146a-5p overexpression and cortical atrophy and thus may help specify the in vivo mediating effect of miR-146a-5p dysregulation on brain structural abnormalities in patients with MDD.
A pilot project has been proceeded to map
on the Galactic plane for radio recombination lines (RRLs) using the Five-hundred-metre Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST). The motivation is to verify the techniques and reliabilities for a large-scale Galactic plane RRL survey with FAST aiming to investigate the ionised environment in the Galaxy. The data shows that the bandpass of the FAST 19 beam L-band is severely affected by radio frequency interferences and standing wave ripples, which can hardly be corrected by traditional low order polynomials. In this paper, we investigate a series of penalised least square (PLS) based baseline correction methods for radio astronomical spectra that usually contain weak signals with high level of noise. Three promising penalised least squares based methods, AsLS, arPLS, and asPLS are evaluated. Adopting their advantages, a modified method named rrlPLS is developed to optimise the baseline fitting to our RRL spectra. To check their effectiveness, the four methods are tested by simulations and further verified using observed data sets. It turns out that the rrlPLS method, with optimised parameter
, reveals the most sensitive and reliable emission features in the RRL map. By injecting artificial line profiles into the real data cube, a further evaluation of profile distortion is conducted for rrlPLS. Comparing to simulated signals, the processed lines with low signal-to-noise ratio are less affected, of which the uncertainties are mainly caused by the rms noise. The rrlPLS method will be applied for baseline correction in future data processing pipeline of FAST RRL survey. Configured with proper parameters, the rrlPLS technique verified in this work may also be used for other spectroscopy projects.
To assess urban–rural disparities in the association between long-term exposure to high altitude and malnutrition among children under 5 years old.
A three-stage, stratified, cluster sampling was used to randomly select eligible individuals from July to October 2020. The data of participants, including demographic characteristics, altitude of residence, and nutritional status, were collected via questionnaire and physical examination.
Children under 5 years old in Tibet.
Totally, 1975 children under 5 years old were included in this study. We found that an additional 1000 m increase in altitude was associated with decreased Z-scores of height-for-age (β = –0·23, 95 % CI: –0·38, –0·08), Z-scores of weight-for-age (β = –0·24, 95 % CI: –0·39, –0·10). The OR for stunting and underweight were 2·03 (95 % CI: 1·51 to 2·73) and 2·04 (95 % CI: 1·38 to 3·02) per 1000 m increase in altitude, respectively; and OR increased rapidly at an altitude above 3500 m. The effects of long-term exposure to high altitudes on the prevalence of underweight in rural children were higher than that in urban children (P < 0·05).
High-altitude exposure is tightly associated with malnutrition among children under 5 years old. Improving children’s nutrition is urgently needed in areas above 3500 m, especially in rural ones.
The FAST Ultra-Deep Survey (FUDS) is a blind survey that aims for the direct detection of H i in galaxies at redshifts
. The survey uses the multibeam receiver on the Five-hundred-metre Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST) to map six regions, each of size
at high sensitivity (
) and high-frequency resolution (23 kHz). The survey will enable studies of the evolution of galaxies and their H i content with an eventual sample size of
. We present the science goals, observing strategy, the effects of radio frequency interference at the FAST site, our mitigation strategies and the methods for calibration, data reduction and imaging as applied to initial data. The observations and reductions for the first field, FUDS0, are completed, with around 128 H i galaxies detected in a preliminary analysis. Example spectra are given in this paper, including a comparison with data from the overlapping GAL2577 field of Arecibo Ultra-Deep Survey.
Based on the measurements conducted over the landfast sea ice in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica during the sea-ice growth season in 2016, various parameterization schemes in the high-resolution thermodynamic snow/ice model HIGHTSI are evaluated. The parameterization scheme of turbulent fluxes produces the largest errors compared with the parameterization schemes for other surface heat fluxes. However, the sea-ice thickness simulation is most sensitive to the differences in upward longwave radiation at the surface. In addition, the sea-ice thickness simulation during the growth season is highly sensitive to the oceanic heat flux, and a new oceanic heat flux parameterization scheme based on the bulk method is proposed. The new parameterization scheme is tested in a second year, and it significantly improves the model performance relative to the standard configuration when compared against observations. Finally, the seasonal variation in the heat budget and its influence on the sea-ice thickness variation are analyzed. The net shortwave radiation, sensible heat flux and conductive heat flux (the net longwave radiation and latent heat flux) are found to be the surface heat sources (heat sinks) during the growth season. The larger conductive heat flux and the smaller oceanic heat flux can intensify the growth of sea ice.
Prolonged parturition duration has been widely demonstrated to be a risk factor for incidence of stillbirth. This study evaluated the supply of dietary fibre on the parturition duration, gut microbiota and metabolome using sows as a model. A total of 40 Yorkshire sows were randomly given diet containing normal level of dietary fibre (NDF, 17·5 % dietary fibre) or high level of dietary fibre (HDF, 33·5 % dietary fibre). Faecal microbiota profiled with 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, SCFA and metabolome in the faeces and plasma around parturition were compared between the dietary groups. Correlation analysis was conducted to further explore the potential associations between specific bacterial taxa and metabolites. Results showed that HDF diet significantly improved the parturition process as presented by the shorter parturition duration. HDF diet increased the abundance of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes and multiple genera. Except for butyrate, SCFA levels in the faeces and plasma of sows at parturition were elevated in HDF group. The abundances of fifteen and twelve metabolites in the faeces and plasma, respectively, markedly differ between HDF and NDF sows. These metabolites are involved in energy metabolism and bacterial metabolism. Correlation analysis also showed associations between specific bacteria taxa and metabolites. Collectively, our study indicates that the improvement of parturition duration by high fibre intake in late gestation is associated with gut microbiota, production of SCFA and other metabolites, potentially serving for energy metabolism.
We report the demonstration of a mid-infrared (MIR) supercontinuum (SC) laser delivering a record-breaking average output power of more than 40 W with a long-wavelength edge up to 3.5 μm. The all-fiberized configuration was composed of a thulium-doped fiber amplifier system emitting a broadband spectrum covering 1.9–2.6 μm with pulse repetition rate of 3 MHz, and a short piece of germania fiber. A 41.9 W MIR SC with a whole spectrum of 1.9–3.5 μm was generated in a piece of 0.2-m-long germania fiber, with a power conversion efficiency of 71.4%. For an even shorter germania fiber (0.1 m), an SC with even higher output power of 44.9 W (corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 76.5%) was obtained, but the energy conversion toward the long-wavelength region was slightly limited. A continuous operation for 1 hour with output power of 32.6 W showed outstanding power stability (root mean square 0.17%) of the obtained SC laser. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, for the first time, this work demonstrates the feasibility of germania fiber on generating a 40-W level MIR SC with high efficiency and excellent power stability, paving the way to real applications requiring high power and high reliability of MIR SC lasers.
Sleep disturbance is an important factor in the pathophysiology and progression of psychiatric disorders, but whether it is a cause, or a downstream effect is still not clear.
To investigate causal relationships between three sleep-associated traits and seven psychiatric diseases, we used genetic variants related to insomnia, chronotype and sleep duration to perform a two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomisation analysis. Summary-level data on psychiatric disorders were extracted from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Effect estimates were obtained by using the inverse-variance-weighted (IVW), weights modified IVW, weighted-median methods, MR-Egger regression, MR pleiotropy residual sum and outlier (MR-PRESSO) test and Robust Adjusted Profile Score (RAPS).
The causal odds ratio (OR) estimate of genetically determined insomnia was 1.33 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22–1.45; p = 5.03 × 10−11) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 1.31 (95% CI 1.25–1.37; p = 6.88 × 10−31) for major depressive disorder (MDD) and 1.32 (95% CI 1.23–1.40; p = 1.42 × 10−16) for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There were suggestive inverse associations of morningness chronotype with risk of MDD and schizophrenia (SCZ). Genetically predicted sleep duration was also nominally associated with the risk of bipolar disorder (BD). Conversely, PTSD and MDD were associated with an increased risk of insomnia (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.03–1.10, p = 7.85 × 10−4 for PTSD; OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.14–1.64; p = 0.001 for MDD). A suggestive inverse association of ADHD and MDD with sleep duration was also observed.
Our findings provide evidence of potential causal relationships between sleep disturbance and psychiatric disorders. This suggests that abnormal sleep patterns may serve as markers for psychiatric disorders and offer opportunities for prevention and management in psychiatric disorders.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for rivaroxaban, C19H18ClN3O5S, are reported [a = 9.010(3) Å, b = 10.986(6) Å, c = 11.230(1) Å, α = 63.439(5)°, β = 74.355(4)°, γ = 78.133(3)°, unit-cell volume V = 952.87 Å3, Z = 2, ρcal = 1.519 g cm−3, and space group P1]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P1 space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
To explore the factors associated with the operative duration for paediatric tracheobronchial foreign body removal by rigid bronchoscopy, and to analyse the learning curve for mastery of the rigid bronchoscopy skill.
A retrospective study was performed of paediatric cases of tracheobronchial foreign body removal by rigid bronchoscopy in our department from January 2007 to July 2019. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to analyse the factors associated with the operative duration. In addition, the learning curves for two doctors were evaluated by curve-fitting regression analysis.
A total of 410 paediatric cases of tracheobronchial foreign body removal by rigid bronchoscopy were evaluated. The operative duration was significantly influenced by the skill of the doctor. The learning curves for both doctor A and doctor B demonstrated two typical phases: an initially rapidly changing learning phase followed by a steady consolidation phase.
The operative duration for paediatric tracheobronchial foreign body removal by rigid bronchoscopy was associated with the skill of the doctor. In order to fully master the rigid bronchoscopy technique, doctors should perform a minimum number of procedures to pass the learning phase and reach the consolidation phase.
Two new genera and six new species of trilobites are systematically documented herein: Sinagnostus mirabilis new genus new species, Yanpingia punctata n. gen. n. sp., Illaenus taoyuanensis n. sp., Panderia striolatus n. sp., Nileus yichongqiaoensis n. sp., and Paratiresias peculiaris n. sp. The materials were collected from the Darriwilian (late Middle Ordovician) strata in the Upper Yangtze Region, South China. Also provided is an emended diagnosis of the genus Paratiresias based on the new species Paratiresias peculiaris, which is the oldest known species of this genus with an extremely narrow (sag. and exsag.) preglabellar field. Those Chinese species previously referred to Nanillaenus are reassigned to Illaenus sensu lato. These trilobites add new data for the Darriwilian trilobite macroevolution and show highly endemic to South China and the faunal exchanges between South China and Tarim, Kazakhstan, Alborz, as well as Sibumasu and North China.
To investigate the intrinsic mechanism for mixing enhancement by variable-density (VD) behaviour, a canonical VD mixing extracted from a supersonic streamwise vortex protocol, a shock–bubble interaction (SBI), is numerically studied and compared with a counterpart of passive-scalar (PS) mixing. It is meaningful to observe that the maximum concentration decays much faster in a VD SBI than in a PS SBI regardless of the shock Mach number ($Ma=1.22 - 4$). The quasi-Lamb–Oseen-type velocity distribution in the PS SBI is found by analysing the azimuthal velocity that stretches the bubble. Meanwhile, for the VD SBI, an additional stretching enhanced by the secondary baroclinic vorticity (SBV) production contributes to the faster-mixing decay. The underlying mechanism of the SBV-enhanced stretching is further revealed through the density and velocity difference between the light shocked bubble and the heavy ambient air. By combining the SBV-accelerated stretching model and the initial shock compression, a novel mixing time estimation for VD SBI is theoretically proposed by solving the advection–diffusion equation under a deformation field of an axisymmetric vortex with the additional SBV-induced azimuthal velocity. Based on the mixing time model, a mixing enhancement number, defined by the ratio of VD and PS mixing time further, reveals the contribution from the VD effect, which implies a better control of the density distribution for mixing enhancement in a supersonic streamwise vortex.
Primitive lamprophyres in orogenic belts can provide crucial insights into the nature of the subcontinental lithosphere and the relevant deep crust–mantle interactions. This paper reports a suite of relatively primitive lamprophyre dykes from the North Qiangtang, central Tibetan Plateau. Zircon U–Pb ages of the lamprophyre dykes range from 214 Ma to 218 Ma, with a weighted mean age of 216 ± 1 Ma. Most of the lamprophyre samples are similar in geochemical compositions to typical primitive magmas (e.g. high MgO contents, Mg no. values and Cr, with low FeOt/MgO ratios), although they might have experienced a slightly low degree of olivine crystallization, and they show arc-like trace-element patterns and enriched Sr–Nd isotopic composition ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70538–0.70540, ϵNd(t) = −2.96 to −1.65). Those geochemical and isotopic variations indicate that the lamprophyre dykes originated from partial melting of a phlogopite- and spinel-bearing peridotite mantle modified by subduction-related aqueous fluids. Combining with the other regional studies, we propose that slab subduction might have occurred during Late Triassic time, and the rollback of the oceanic lithosphere induced the lamprophyre magmatism in the central Tibetan Plateau.
The article aims to estimate and forecast the transmissibility of shigellosis and explore the association of meteorological factors with shigellosis. The mathematical model named Susceptible–Exposed–Symptomatic/Asymptomatic–Recovered–Water/Food (SEIARW) was used to explore the feature of shigellosis transmission based on the data of Wuhan City, China, from 2005 to 2017. The study applied effective reproduction number (Reff) to estimate the transmissibility. Daily meteorological data from 2008 to 2017 were used to determine Spearman's correlation with reported new cases and Reff. The SEIARW model fit the data well (χ2 = 0.00046, p > 0.999). The simulation results showed that the reservoir-to-person transmission of the shigellosis route has been interrupted. The Reff would be reduced to a transmission threshold of 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82–1.19) in 2035. Reducing the infectious period to 11.25 days would also decrease the value of Reff to 0.99. There was a significant correlation between new cases of shigellosis and atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind speed and sun hours per day. The correlation coefficients, although statistically significant, were very low (<0.3). In Wuhan, China, the main transmission pattern of shigellosis is person-to-person. Meteorological factors, especially daily atmospheric pressure and temperature, may influence the epidemic of shigellosis.
Celestial navigation is an important means of maritime navigation; it can automatically achieve inertially referenced positioning and orientation after a long period of development. However, the impact of different accuracy of observations and the influence of nonstationary states, such as ship speed change and steering, are not taken into account in existing algorithms. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an adaptively robust maritime celestial navigation algorithm, in which each observation value is given an equivalent weight according to the robust estimation theory, and the dynamic balance between astronomical observation and prediction values of vessel motion is adjusted by applying the adaptive factor. With this system, compared with the frequently used least square method and extended Kalman filter algorithm, not only are the real-time and high-precision navigation parameters, such as position, course, and speed for the vessel, calculated simultaneously, but also the influence of abnormal observation and vessel motion status change could be well suppressed.
The present study aimed to explore the association between dietary patterns in abdominal obesity obtained by reduced-rank regression (RRR) with visceral fat index (VFI) as a dependent variable and dyslipidemia in rural adults in Henan, China. A total of 29538 people aged 18–79 were selected from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. RRR analysis was used to identify dietary patterns; logistic regression analysis and restricted cubic spline regression models were applied to analyze the association between dietary patterns in abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. VFI was used as a mediator to estimate the mediation effect. The dietary pattern in abdominal obesity was characterized by high carbohydrate and red meat intake and low consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, milk, etc. After full adjustment, the highest quartile of dietary pattern scores was significantly associated with an increased risk of dyslipidemia (OR: 1·33, 95 % CI 1·23–1·44, Ptrend < 0·001), there was a non-linear dose–response relationship between them (Poverall-association < 0·001, Pnon-lin-association = 0·022). The result was similar in dose-response between the dietary pattern scores and VFI. The indirect effect partially mediated by VFI was significant (OR: 1·07, 95 % CI 1·06–1·08). VIF explained approximately 53·3 % of odds of dyslipidemia related to the dietary pattern. Abdominal obesity dietary pattern scores positively affected VFI and dyslipidemia; there was a dose-response in both relationships. Dyslipidemia progression increased with higher abdominal obesity dietary pattern scores. In addition, VFI played a partial mediating role in relationship between abdominal obesity dietary pattern and dyslipidemia.
To explore the characteristics of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the squeaking silkmoths Rhodinia, a genus of wild silkmoths in the family Saturniidae of Lepidoptera, and reveal phylogenetic relationships, the mitogenome of Rhodinia fugax Butler was determined. This wild silkmoth spins a green cocoon that has potential significance in sericulture, and exhibits a unique feature that its larvae can squeak loudly when touched. The mitogenome of R. fugax is a circular molecule of 15,334 bp long and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and an A + T-rich region, consistent with previous observations of Saturniidae species. The 370-bp A + T-rich region of R. fugax contains no tandem repeat elements and harbors several features common to the Bombycidea insects, but microsatellite AT repeat sequence preceded by the ATTTA motif is not present. Mitogenome-based phylogenetic analysis shows that R. fugax belongs to Attacini, instead of Saturniini. This study presents the first mitogenome for Rhodinia genus.
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death caused by single pathogenic microorganism, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The study aims to explore the associations of microRNA (miRNA) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with pulmonary TB (PTB) risk. A population-based case−control study was conducted, and 168 newly diagnosed smear-positive PTB cases and 251 non-TB controls were recruited. SNPs located within miR-27a (rs895819), miR-423 (rs6505162), miR-196a-2 (rs11614913), miR-146a (rs2910164), miR-618 (rs2682818) were selected and MassARRAY® MALDI-TOF System was employed for genotyping. SPSS19.0 was adopted for statistical analysis, non-conditional logistic regression was performed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were computed to estimate the associations. Associations of haplotypes with PTB risk were performed with online tool. Rs895819 CT/CC genotype was associated with reduced PTB risk among female population (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.23–0.98), P = 0.045. Haplotypes (combined with rs895819, rs2682818, rs2910164, rs6505162 and rs11614913) TCCCT, TAGCC, CCCCC, CCGCT and TCGAT were associated with reduced PTB risk and the ORs were 0.67 (95% CI: 0.45–0.99), 0.49 (0.25–0.94), 0.34 (95% CI: 0.14–0.81), 0.22 (95% CI: 0.06–0.84) and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.07–0.79), respectively; while the haplotypes of TAGCT, CCCCT, CACCT and TCCAT were associated with increased PTB risk, and the ORs were 3.63 (95% CI: 1.54–8.55), 2.20 (95% CI: 1.00–4.86), 3.90 (95% CI: 1.47–10.36) and 2.95 (95% CI: 1.09–7.99), respectively. Rs895819 CT/CC genotype was associated with reduced female PTB risk and haplotype TCCCT, TAGCC, CCCCC, CCGCT and TCGAT were associated with reduced PTB risk, while TAGCT, CCCCT, CACCT and TCCAT were associated with increased risk.