We analysed the spatio-temporal sequence of events concerning the morphology, physiology and ecology of the gut of piglets during the 2 weeks following weaning, in order to provide a limited number of variables that could be relevant markers of the gut post-weaning changes. An experiment was conducted on sixty piglets fasted for 2 d, then administered a weaning diet with a moderate or a high content of wheat using controlled gastric feeding, and slaughtered at different time-points post-weaning. Sixty-nine variables were analysed by principal component analysis. The results showed that the temporal changes induced in the gut by weaning can be divided into two periods: an acute period happening immediately after weaning, followed after day 5 by a more progressive adaptative and maturational phase. The main factors of this adaptation were the refeeding process and the time, while the diet per se had little influence. The villus length, lactase activity, macromolecule fluxes across the jejunum and the plasma cholecystokinin were proposed as markers of the acute phase. The mass of the jejunum, the weight of the pancreas, the content of stomach, the trypsin activity and the theophylline-induced secretion in jejunum were related to the re-feeding. Markers proposed to follow the gut maturation were the maltase activity, the glucose absorption and the basal resistance in the ileum, the lactobacilli and enterococci in the colon, and the pH of colonic and caecal contents. These markers might be helpful to design suitable diets to limit post-weaning gut disorders in pigs.