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Adult onset tic disorders are usually secondary in origin. We report a case of adult onset tic disorder following carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication with typical magnetic resonance imaging features.
A 36-year-old woman developed temporarily suppressible patterned movements on her face, neck, and shoulder associated with sensory discomfort after CO poisoning. Magnetic resonance images showed bilateral symmetric cavitary changes in the globus pallidus. Clonazepam relieved much of her symptoms.
Our patient developed a mono-symptomatic tic disorder following CO intoxication. This further supports that altered outflow signals from the basal ganglia, especially the globus pallidus, may contribute to the development of tic disorders.
There are two case reports of patients who had proximal myotonic myopathy (PROMM) / myotonic dystrophy (DM) Type 1 and parkinsonism. The combination of myotonic myopathy and parkinsonism is so rare that it may appear to be just a coincidence. However, previous neuropathological examinations of patients who had myotonic dystrophy showed that there were intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in the nigra and striatum, which raises the possibility that myotonic myopathy may be associated with parkinsonism. In this report we describe a patient with PROMM and a clinically definite parkinsonism to highlight this possibility.
A 65-year-old man developed proximal muscle weakness, myotonia and atrophy around the age of 55 and was diagnosed as having PROMM at the age of 62. Needle electromyography and muscle biopsy supported the diagnosis. A gene study of the DM Type 1 showed a normal CTG repeat length. At age 63, he developed rest tremor, bradykinesia, hypomimia, stooped posture, and gait disturbance. The postural instability worsened rapidly. The tremor and rigidity were much worse in his right side, where myotonia was more severe. Levodopa therapy was only partially effective.
This is a case report of a patient with PROMM that shows an association with a rapidly progressive form of parkinsonism. We suggest that this may be a novel form of a neurodegenerative disorder, which we name ‘Parkinsonism- Myotonic Myopathy-Complex’.
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