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The way an individual handles the experience of psychosis, the so-called ‘recovery style’, has been shown to substantially affect long-term outcomes. The Recovery Style Questionnaire (RSQ) measures this psychological dimension. The aim of this study was to provide a validation of the German version of the RSQ and to raise awareness for recovery-oriented approaches.
The RSQ was translated into German according to the guidelines of the WHO and patients were administered this questionnaire and measures of internalised stigma, psychotic symptoms, illness concept, empowerment, self-esteem and quality of life. Descriptive statistics were demonstrated to characterise the sample. Reliability was assessed in different forms: internal consistency, test–retest reliability and split-half reliability. Items were evaluated with descriptive data and item-total correlations. Convergent and discriminant validity were shown, and a confirmatory factor analysis was performed. In order to ameliorate the model, a post hoc model modification was done.
The sample consisted of 138 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (mean age: 35.7 years; 53.6% men; mean duration of illness: 20.6 years) with a mean RSQ overall percentage of 66.12 (s.d. ± 17.43%), mainly representing the categories ‘mixed picture’ and ‘tends towards integration’. The reliability of the RSQ was acceptable with a Cronbach's α of 0.741 and a test–retest coefficient of 0.502. Item-total correlations were not acceptable for 27 of 39 items. Moderate evidence for convergent validity of the RSQ was found. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the 13-factor model with 39 items originally proposed was partially poorly replicated in the present sample (χ2 ratio to degrees of freedom (χ2/df) of 1.732, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) of 0.585, Normed Fit Index (NFI) of 0.414, Tucker–Lewis Index (TLI) of 0.508, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) of 0.095). The RSQ was modified based on item-total correlations and path coefficients of the single items. The confirmatory factor analysis of the resulting one-factor model with 11 items showed adequate fit to the data (χ2/df of 1.562, CFI of 0.936, NFI of 0.847, TLI of 0.910, RMSEA of 0.083) and demonstrated good model fit.
Despite partially insufficient psychometric data of the original RSQ, the concept of recovery style is beneficial to psychiatric research and clinical practice. The underlying idea is valuable, and the questionnaire needs further development. Therefore, a short version of the RSQ is proposed.
Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is a safe and effective alternative to prolonged inpatient stays for patients requiring long-term intravenous antimicrobials, but antimicrobial-associated adverse events remain a significant challenge. Thus, we sought to measure the association between choice of antimicrobial agent (vancomycin vs daptomycin) and incidence of adverse drug events (ADEs).
Patients receiving OPAT treatment with vancomycin or daptomycin for skin and soft-tissue infections, bone and joint infections, endocarditis, and bacteremia or endovascular infections during the period from July 1, 2013, through September 30, 2016, were included. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from the medical record. Logistic regression was used to compare ADEs requiring a change in or early discontinuation of therapy, hospital readmission, and emergency room visits between groups. Time from OPAT enrollment to ADE was compared using the log-rank test.
In total, 417 patients were included: 312 (74·8%) received vancomycin and 105 (25·2%) received daptomycin. After adjusting for age, Charlson comorbidity index, location of OPAT treatment, receipt of combination therapy with either β-lactam or fluoroquinolone, renal function, and availability of safety labs, patients receiving vancomycin had significantly higher incidence of ADEs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3·71; 95% CI, 1·64–8·40). ADEs occurred later in the treatment course for patients treated with daptomycin (P<·01). Rates of readmission and emergency room visits were similar.
In the OPAT setting, vancomycin use was associated with higher incidence of ADEs than daptomycin use. This finding is an important policy consideration for programs aiming to optimize outcomes and minimize cost. Careful selection of gram-positive agents for prolonged treatment is necessary to limit toxicity.
Well-being is important for people with severe mental illness, such as psychosis. So far, no clear concept of well-being exists for this client group. A recent systematic review and narrative synthesis developed a static framework of well-being components. The present study aims to validate the static framework and to illuminate the processes by which well-being is experienced by people with psychosis.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 service users with psychosis exploring their experience of well-being. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data employing techniques taken from grounded theory to enhance the rigour of the analysis. Respondent validation was undertaken with 13 of the 23 participants.
Three superordinate categories of well-being were identified: current sense of self; transition to enhanced sense of self and enhanced sense of self. In the dynamic process of improving well-being the current sense of self undergoes a transition to an enhanced sense of self. The four factors influencing the transition are consistent with the static framework of well-being, hence validating the static framework. In addition, we identified three determinants of current sense of self and seven indicators of enhanced sense of self, which represent the achievement of improved well-being.
This study provides an empirically defensible framework for understanding well-being in terms of determinants, influences and indicators. The influences are targets for interventions to improve well-being, and the indicators are outcome domains to assess the effectiveness of services in supporting well-being.
Insight, positive and negative symptoms, hope, depression and self-stigma are relevant variables in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. So far, research on their mutual influences has been patchy. This study simultaneously tests the associations between these variables.
A total of 284 people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were assessed using the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Integrative Hope Scale, Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale. Path analysis was applied to test the hypothesized relationships between the variables.
Model support was excellent. Strong and mutual causal influences were confirmed between hope, depression and self-stigma. The model supported the assumption that insight diminishes hope and increases depression and self-stigma. While negative symptoms directly affected these three variables, reducing hope and increasing depression and self-stigma, positive symptoms did not. However, positive symptoms diminished self-stigma on a pathway via insight.
This study provides a comprehensive synopsis of the relationships between six variables relevant for schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Research implications include the need to investigate determinants of consequences of insight, and the sequence of influences exerted by positive and negative symptoms. Clinical implications include the importance of interventions against self-stigma and of taking a contextualized approach to insight.
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