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The use of antipsychotics (APS) is essential. Despite their great efficacy, some of them are associated with an increase in prolactin levels that can lead to hormonal changes needing to be identified and managed [1,2,3]. Hormonal changes use to have clinical implications including hypogonadism, infertility and sexual dysfunction
To evaluate possible hormonal alterations and some clinical implications produced by hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) derived from the use of some antipsychotic compounds.
A complete fasting blood test was performed on a sample of 113 subjects (69 men and 44 women). 54% (n = 61) showed a normal prolactin level and 46% (n = 52) showed hyperprolactinaemia ( >50ng / ml). On the global sample, 39.8% (n = 45) was treated with some hyperprolactinemic drug , mostly risperidone and paliperidone.
Some differences were found depending on the gender of the subjects. A highly significant inverse relationship between the values of prolactin and testosterone was found in males (p=0.020, r=-0.285). In females, increased prolactin level was significantly related to decreased cortisol values.
Antipsychotic-related Hyperprolactinaemia ( mainly risperidone and paliperidone) is related with a decrease in testosterone levels in males and with an increase in cortisol levels in females.
Psychiatric illnesses are related with a reduced life expectancy and an increase of mortality rates (around 60%) mainly associated with cardiovascular diseases . The high prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and tobacco use among these patients undoubtelly predispose to the impairment in physical health and mortaility increase. Regular physical activity in the general population is associated with a decrease in cardiovascular risk but litle is know about iss influence in some chronic and severe mental disorders like schizophrenia .
To quantify the physical activity performed by a sample of subjects with psychosis, borth males and female, compared to a control group.
A sample composed of 141 patients with schizoprenia was compared to 103 healthy subjects as a control group. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Form (IPAQ) scale was applied to all participants. The time (minutes) of physical activity performed in a week (METs) was collected by each participant .
The differences in the total physical activity Mets for the patients with schizophrenia were highly significant (p = 0.001), showing a lower degree of physical activity compared to the control group. A higher and significant percentage of sedentary lifestyle among the psychiatric group (64.5%), compared to 35.5% in the control group was found.
The group of pateints with Schizophrenia showed a significant higher sedentary lifestile including less physical activity. This finding could be highly related with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and deterioration of the physical health.
Nowdays there are different strategies for the treatment of smoking cessation. The treatment include drugs such as varenicline, which acts as a high-affinity partial agonist for the alpha-4 beta-2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype (nACh). We report a case of a suicidal behaviour in a 39 year-old woman with no previous history of mental illness, who was brought to the emergency department after intentional intoxication with benzodiazepines. The patient was on 10th day of treatment with varenicline.
To present a case of sucidal behavior that developed in a 39 year-old woman after starting varenicline. Review of literature and total number of cases reported in the european database of suspected adverse drug reactions (EudraVigilance).
We carried out a literature review in Pubmed electing those articles focused on mental disorders in those patients that have been taking varenicline. Review number of cases suicidal behavior reported by the European database of suspected adverse drug reactions.
A 39-year-old female was brought to the emergency department after voluntary ingestion of Lorazepam 1mg (40 tablets) in a sucide attempt. The family reported the starting of thoughts of suicide after 1 week of treatment. No previous history of mental disorders. The patient reported low mood and drowsiness in the last 5 days not linked to any cause. After 5 days of discontinuation these mood symptoms and sucidal behavior remited.
Varenicline is associated with different neuropsychiatric sypmtoms. In patients with or without history of mental disorders we should warn about the symptoms for discontinuation of the treatment.
Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a disease occurring when antibodies produced by the body’s own immune system attack NMDA receptors in the brain. Their functions are critical for judgement, perception of reality, human interaction, the formation and retrieval of memory, and the control of autonomic functions. The objective of treatment is to reduce the levels of antibodies in the blood and spinal fluid. Treatments include corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis in addition to other immunomodulators, such as cyclophosphamide or rituximab.
To present a case of a 64 year-old patient who came to the emergency service of our hospital with long-standing anxiety, irritability, recurrent amnestic failures, visual hallucinations and recent-onset episodes of aggressiveness with his family. He required admission to the psychiatry department and was finally diagnosed with autoimmune anti-NMDA encephalitis by detecting antibodies in blood and CSF.
Clinical case presentation and literature review of cases, focusing on psychotic symptoms.
A 65-year-old patient who was being studied by neurology and psychiatry departments for cognitive impairment and psychotic symptoms was admitted to Neurology after a positive lumbar puncture result for NMDA antibodies.During admission, the patient continued with a significant behavioral alteration that gradually remitted with the use of Quetiapine, corticosteroids and rituximab.
NMDA-encephalitis has a highly variable clinical presentation, which can lead to confusion with infectious etiology or psychiatric disorders, making the diagnosis difficult, which is only possible by detecting anti-NMDA antibodies in CSF. Recognition of the disease and coordination between services is essential for early diagnosis and treatment.
Alcohol-based hand sanitizers containing ethanol or isopropanol are being used in order to prevent person-to-person transmission during the COVID-19. Early signs and symptoms of this ingestion include nausea, vomiting, headache, abdominal pain, blurred vision, loss of coordination, and decreased level of consciousness. After hand sanitizer ingestion we have to suspect about methanol poisoning, monitoring the start of anion-gap metabolic acidosis, seizures, and blindness is essential. Treatment includes supportive care, acidosis correction, and the administration of an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor. In servere cases hemodialysis may be required.
To present a case of an 29-year-old woman who was taken to the emergency department after voluntary ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizer in a suicide attempt. To describe the most common side effects of hand sanitizer ingestion and the literature review.
Clinical case presentation and literature review of similar cases.
A 29-year-old woman, with diagnosis of borderline personality disorder and previous suicide attempts was taken to the emergency department after 3 hours of voluntary ingestion of an unknown quantity of alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Initial laboratory findings showed laboratory a blood methanol concentration of 66 mg/dL, with an anion gap of 30 mEq/L, arterial blood pH of 7.2, serum bicarbonate concentration of 12 mEq/L. Patient complained of abdominal pain and nervoussness.
Most common signs and symptoms of alcohol-based hand sanitizer ingestion include nausea, vomiting, headache, abdominal pain, blurred vision, loss of coordination, and decreased level of consciousness. Treatment includes supportive care, acidosis correction, the administration of an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor and sometimes may be required.
Clinical pathways (CPWs) are tools used to guide evidence-based healthcare. They translate clinical practice guideline recommendations into clinical processes of care within the characteristics of a healthcare institution. There are few studies about the impact of CPW in the field of Psychosis in terms of adequacy to their recommendations and clinical outcomes.
PSYCHSTAGE project has been designed to study the adjustment of psychosis clinical care to a CPW based in a Clinical Practice Guideline according to a clinical staging model in a network of psychiatric services covering 580.000 inhabitants in a University Hospital in Madrid.
Retrospective and observational study in a sample of 1780 subjects 18 years old or above, diagnosed with schizophrenia and other psychosis. Socio-demographic and clinical variables were collected from clinical records, including ICG, GAF and DAS at the time they were included in the study. Clinical stage was established according to McGorry model at the same time. CPW was analysed in 1,391 subjects with 15,254 care events using a Process mining method. Process discovery, process checking and process enhancement analysis have been used.
Patients were grouped according the clinical stage. 9,2% were in stage 2; 18,5% in 3a; 47% in 3b; 22,1% in 3c and 4,1% in 4. A different CPW is represented for each clinical stage in routine practice. Then, every pathway is compared with the recommendations in the established Psychosis CPW.
Process mining can be a useful tool for the study of CPW in the field of psychosis
Skin and subcutaneus tissue disorders are common type of adverse drug reactions reported with a wide variety of both typical and atypical antipsychotics. Aripiprazole is a quinolinone antipsychotic that is a partial agonist at the D2 and 5-HT1A receptors and antagonist at the 5-HT2A receptors. We report a case of rosacea that developed after starting aripiprazole in a patient with schizophrenia and which remitted after the drug was stopped.
To present a case of rosacea that developed in a schizophrenic patient after starting aripiprazole. Review of literature and search for the total number of cases reported in the european database of suspected adverse drug reactions (EudraVigilance).
We carried out a literature review in Pubmed electing those articles focused on skin ad subcutaneous skin disorders in those patients that have been taking aripiprazole. Review number of cases of skin reactions reported by the European database of suspected adverse drug reactions.
A 43-year-old man previously diagnosed with schizophrenia with low adherence to different treatments. He came to our service seeking for help in order to decrease delusions with a treatment with minimun adverse reactions. We started aripirazole 10 mg every day and, after 7 days appeared signs of rosacea in his face. After discontinuation of aripiprazol, after 5 days, rosacea remitted.
Rosacea in our case posibly point aripiprazole as the agent that produced the skin reaction. After stopping the treatment the signs disapeared. Awareness of skins manifestations produced by aripiprazole is essential to prevents worse skin reactions.
The giant gypsum crystals of Naica cave have fascinated scientists since their discovery in 2000. Human activity has changed the microclimate inside the cave, making scientists wonder about the potential environmental impact on the crystals. Over the last 9 years, we have studied approximately 70 samples. This paper reports on the detailed chemical–structural characterization of the impurities present at the surface of these crystals and the experimental simulations of their potential deterioration patterns. Selected samples were studied by petrography, optical and electronic microscopy, and laboratory X-ray diffraction. 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, X-ray μ-fluorescence, and X-ray μ-absorption near-edge structure were used to identify the impurities and their associated phases. These impurities were deposited during the latest stage of the gypsum crystal formation and have afterward evolved with the natural high humidity. The simulations of the behavior of the crystals in microclimatic chambers produced crystal dissolution by 1–4% weight fraction under high CO2 concentration and permanent fog, and gypsum phase dehydration under air and CO2 gaseous environment. Our work suggests that most surface impurities are of natural origin; the most significant anthropogenic damage on the crystals is the extraction of water from the caves.
The first descriptions of schizophrenia emphasized attention problems patients with schizophrenia have but recent results evidence that other psychotic disorders share them.
We compared the performance in sustained and selective attention between psychotic patients (P), their healthy first degree relatives (R) and healthy volunteers (C) to prove whether these alterations could be an endophenotype of vulnerability to psychosis. We also compared the performance of schizophrenic patients (SZP) and that of patients with other functional psychoses (OP) in order to prove whether these alterations are specific of any psychotic disorder.
Seventy-six P, 70 R and 39 C were included in the study. A selective attention index, comprising TMT A and B and Stroop Test, and a sustained attention index comprising the Continuous Performance Test were calculated. We conducted an univariant general linear model to compare three group performances in these indexes, with age, sex and years of education as a covariables.
We found significant differences between the indexes when we compared P, R and C. No differences in performance were found between SZP and OP. Our data showed that sustained and selective attention alterations could be a vulnerability factor to psychotic disorders in general, but they were not specific of schizophrenia.
New psychopharmacology provides a better tolerability profile and drug adherence, which should be accompanied by lower relapse rate, incomings and improvement in psychosocial functioning of patients.
1. To describe sociodemographic, clinical and psychometric properties of a sample of psychotic patients admitted to the Acute Unit. 2. Assessing the functionality of psychotic patients requiring hospitalization.
Sample:patients admitted to the Psychiatric Hospital Unit of the Hospital San Juan de Alicante (August 1 to 31, 2013), with admission diagnosis of psychotic decompensation (F20). Register of sociodemographic and clinical dates, PANSS, CGI and PSP. Statistical analysis using SPSS.
N=19. 94%=male, 84.2%=single, 68.4%=family support.37%=schizophrenia, 52.7%=brief reactive psychosis, 10.5%=schizophreniform disorder. 9.7% first psychotic episodes. 52.6%=toxic consumption. Mean scores:PSP = 50.89, CGI= 4.42, PANSS=89.89. Significant relationship between the support and PSP(35=not, 53=yes, p<0.015). Direct relationship between PANSS and CGI (p< 0.0001, 0.89R).
Although toxics, poor adherence or the long course of the disease are associated with unfavorable scores on scales of function and psychopathology, our results donnot meet it. We attribute the negative results to low sample size and heterogeneity of the group of patients included in the study. Maybe factors such as family support, employment and intellectual level have a greater role. We consider it appropriate to continue the study in the future, standardizing clinical groups and expanding the sample size in order to obtain results with greater statistical significance.
Liture describes many references to neuropsychiatric disorders in dementia. Executive functions have been widely studied in primary degenerative dementia: working memory, inhibition, mental flexibility, fluency, organization, abstraction and appropriate social behavior.
Alzheimer's disease, bvFTD and DLB are the most prevalent and studied.
Transversal descriptive-analysis of neurobehavioral disorders and social behavior in a clinical sample.
Descriptive study. Random selection of cases (patients seen in consultation Behavior Unit Memorial Hospital San Vicente del Raspeig with dementia criteria of Alzheimer's disease, bvFTD and DLB without probable vascular component) and controls (healthy, age 50 years without neurological or psychiatric pathology associated). 1 June 30, 2013. Informed consent is obtained and collected sociodemographic data, clinical (diagnosis, GDS, treatment) and psychometric (MMSE, NPI-Q, Social Norms Questionnaire). Registration Excel database and statistical analysis with SPSS.
N = 40, controls = 10, AD = 15, DFTvc = 6, DCL = 9. No significant demographic differences in dementia group. DFTvc: SNQ lower score, greater executive involvement. atypical antipsychotics, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are the most commonly used drugs for behavioral disorders
Our clinical sample obtained similar results to those described in the literature. Prospective follow-up study in mild cognitive impairment would be needed to provide better knowledge and clinical practice.
A psichiatric emergency is a situation where disorders of thought, mood or behavior are so disruptive that require immediate assistance.
To analyze clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, predictors of hospitalization, and poli-attendance in patients attended in a reference area psychiatric emergency service.
All assistances from 01.12.2011 to 31.01.12 were recorded in a database. Patient poly-attendance was defined by two or more assistances during the study period. Logistic regression analysis was performed to find out hospitalization and poli-attendance predictors.
N = 219. 50.68% male, 49.32% female; 86.75% between 20-64 years. 45.62% finished primary studies. 80.82% owned social support network. 80.73% unemployed. 71.89% voluntary assistances. 58.97% already tracked by mental health, 24.66% first contact. Reason care: anxiety (24.20%), behavioral disorders (22.57%), suicide (20.55%) and psychosis (12.79%). Final diagnoses: psychosis (24.20%), anxiety (15.48%), depression (10.05%), drugs abuse (9.13%), personality disorders (17.35%), mental retardation (8.22%), social issues (16.89%).26.94% were poly-attendance, assisted by: organic mental disorder (OR= 21,10, IC95%), personality disorders (OR=4,313, IC95%), mental retardation (OR=5,545, IC95%), social issues (OR=2,94, IC95%). 24.20% of the patients hospitalized. Factors associated to risk: age range 15-20 (OR 12.10, IC95%); psychosis (OR = 51.03, IC 95%), depression (OR = 14.61, IC95%), bipolar disorder (OR=20,38, IC 95%).
Minor diseases, social issues or stables axis II disorders accomplished most attendances. Hospitalitation was associated with severe mental illness and lower age.Poly-attendance is not associated with axis I patology, but it is with axis II and IV disorders.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death. It is often committed out of despair, the cause of which is attributed to a mental disorder, alcoholism, drug abuse or stress factors such as financial difficulties or troubles with interpersonal relationships. In the 20th century it is possible that more people have died from suicide than in the two great wars ocurred in the same century. The World Health Organization estimates that it is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide.
This study aimed to describe the situation of different regions of central Portugal with regard to suicidal behavior in the general population, comparing different data from coastal and inland regions. The intention was also to compare these realities with nacional and european standards.
The authors present a retrospective study of over 8000 forensic autopsies performed between 2006 and 2010 in the portuguese regions of Aveiro, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Covilhã, Figueira da Foz, Leiria, Viseu and Tomar, of which around 15% were related to suicide. Several variables were characterized in order to establish the profile and circumstances of suicide in these regions.
As the portuguese legislation predicts a forensic exam in cases of violent death, the continuous raise of the number of autopsies from suicides means that this trend shows an alarming increase. Data collected from forensic post mortem exams may prove essential to understand this phenomenon, which is a source of economical and social impoverishment.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing the one's own death and it can be explored by different studies using different methodologies, one of which is the statistical analysis of suicide, recognized by World Health Organization as very useful in research to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon.
Research data from statistical analysis collected from various countries shows that there are gender-by-culture differences in rates of suicide completion and it has been reported that biological, social and psychological factors affect suicidal behavior differently in men and women.
Several variables were characterized by the authors not only to establish the gender differences in suicide completion in the central Portugal but also to compare this reality with nacional and european patterns.
The authors present a retrospective study of forensic autopsies performed between 2006 and 2010 in the central portuguese regions of Aveiro, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Covilhã, Figueira da Foz, Guarda, Leiria, Viseu and Tomar. Among 8148 forensic autopsies 15% (N=1248) were due to suicide and data collected from these forensic post mortem exams helped to establish the profile and circumstances of suicide in men and women.
Health care professionals must consider gender differences in treating patients who are at risk for suicide, although this field clearly deserves more research attention to generate information that can guide clinical practice and prevention strategies.
Schizoprenia has been associated with decreased oxidative defences which may imply lipid peroxidation and consequent damage of neuronal membranes and myelin sheaths. Recently, animal models have shown changes of the oxidative balance caused by cigarrete smoke exposure at prenatal stages. Thus, we study the impact of tobacco over adult schizophrenia patients.
Study the oxidative role of tobacco in adults diagnosed of schizophrenia.
Analyze Isoprostanes (IPs) urine concentrations in patients compared with healthy controls.
We recruited a sample of 29 patients and 25 controls (descriptive data summarized below).
F or X2 values
IPs urine concentrations were measured in conjunction with creatinine levels (to normalize the rate of excretion of other analytes). We also evaluated the values of IPs in relation to cigarrete smoke.
There is a smoking by diagnosis interaction on IPs (p = 0.01). IPs values ??were statistically different between smokers and nonsmokers for the 54 participants (p = 0.02). Nonsmokers mean values were lower (2.80 ± 1.55) than in smokers (4.16 ± 2.41). There were significant differences in IPs concentrations of the smoker patients compared with the respective nonsmokers (p = 0.01). By contrast this was not observed in controls.
We suggest that adult schizophrenia individuals may have increased vulnerability to exogenous pro-oxidative agents such as cigarette smoking.
Recent studies suggest that aripiprazole (ARP) shows a better profile in terms of mental state and extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in psychosis. However, other studies consider that a combination of atypical antipsychotics (AAP) may also be an option for some refractory patients. We present a case of a schizoaffective disorder, manic type (SAFM) (F25.0, ICD-10 criteria) that improved in terms of EPS adverse effects after switching from long-term fluphenazine (LTF) to Long-acting injectable aripiprazole (LAIA) but showed relapse symptoms.
We present a clinical case of SAFM that improved clinically in our outpatient clinic after 1 month of bi-therapy with low doses of oral risperidone and standard dose of LAIA. We study oral AAP-LAIA drug combination utility in this clinical setting.
To study “oral AAP-LAIA combo” benefits in refractory SAFM cases.
Our patient is a 68-year-old female diagnosed of SAFM clinically stable with a combination of lithium and LTF. She presented severe cogwheel stiffness in the upper limbs and postural tremor. We switched from long-term fluphenazine to LAIA and 4 weeks later, she showed discrete cogwheel stiffness but also persecutory delusions and dysphoria.
We maintained LAIA (400 mg/28 days) and lithium (800 mg/day) doses and added-on risperidone 1 mg/day. She presented clinical relapse 1 month later. She kept her better EPS tolerance as she only had discrete cogwheel in upper limbs only by using attention distraction techniques.
Oral risperidone-LAIA drug combination appears as an effective and well-tolerated treatment in refractory SAFM cases.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) is a strength-based and a social constructivist approach that assumes that individuals have the ability to develop creative solutions that enhance their lives to develop a new self, modify worldviews, and implement behaviour changes.
To develop a quantitative research to determine which clinical variables and process variables are measured using the technique of judges and determine its statistical association with the outcome at termination of therapy and follow-up, using the videos of SFBT psychotherapy sessions, and a follow-up call.
To identify variables associated with outcome at termination and follow-up and to evaluate the success applying SFBT.
Sample was composed by 74 cases.
Criteria of inclusion
A telephone number available to make the follow follow-up call and at least 6 months since termination (6 months to 39 months, mean 15.6 months). Three questionnaire were used, The First-Session Rating Questionnaire, The Last-Session Ration Questionnaire and The Follow-up Questionnaire.
Goals were reached 88% of the cases, patients said that complaint was totally resolved were 17% and 26% when the dropouts were excluded, and that complaint was partially resolved were 76% and 65% when the dropouts were excluded. According to the judges, the successful at termination was the 86%, and the successful at follow-up was 67% according to the Follow-Up Questionnaire. No variables were statistically associated to the successful at termination or the follow-up.
SFBT reaches the “minimum efficacy permitted” according to the general consensus of experts. Clinical of process variables was not associated to success.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Recent studies suggest that Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) could be regarded as an affective disorder within the Bipolar Affective Disorder (BP) spectrum. This is supported by evidence suggesting a clinical/neurobiological overlap between these two disorders. The Temperament and Character Inventory Revised (TCI-R) may help differentiate between the two disorders and orientate the clinical approach, considering the evidence of the medium-term temporal stability of TCI-R in a clinical population.
We present a clinical case diagnosed with BD which underwent testing using TCI-R. TCI-R orientated towards a secondary diagnosis of BPD and the case further received a course of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) which led to clinical improvement. We therefore study the usefulness of TCI-R in this clinical setting.
To study whether TCI-R may help differentiate between BD and BPD in mood stabilized patients.
Our patient is a 52-year-old married male diagnosed with BD. Considering his clinical features of impulsivity/instability of behaviors and pathological interpersonal relationships, patient was started on individual DBT (fortnightly, 4 months). Psychotropic treatment (paroxetine 30 mg/day, lithium 1000 mg/day, aripiprazole 15 mg/day) was not modified.
TCI-R scores: harm avoidance (100%), novelty seeking (53%), reward dependence (20%), persistence (18%), self-directedness (1%), cooperativeness (2%) and self-transcendence (48%). After 4 months of therapy, the patient improved in distress tolerance, acceptance, behavioral activation and assertiveness.
TCI-R is an inventory for personality traits in which character scores differ markedly between PD and non-PD patients. It is a useful tool in BPD patients orientating the clinician in the differential diagnosis and the treatment approach.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In DSM-V, catatonia is individualized as a disease of its own. The priority is to look first for organic causes like intoxication. We present a clinical case diagnosed with intellectual disability (ID) and catatonia.
To study a case of catatonia which underwent testing using Bush-Francis Catatonia rating scale (BFCRS) prior/after clinical intervention. We therefore study catatonia's etiology in ID population.
To study the etiology of catatonia (and its clinical complications) in ID.
Our patient is 48-year-old female with DI. Considering her clinical features of catatonia (using BFCRS) and clinical examination (fever and hypoxia), the case orientated towards a secondary diagnosis. Work-up tests revealed pneumonia in the lower lobe of the right lung (chest radiography showed opacities and blood tests showed Leuokocytosis with a left shift). The case further received a course oral levofloxacin (500 mg/day) and haloperidol was stopped. Valproic acid was also added to a dose of 600 mg/day, which led to clinical improvement. Remaining psychotropic treatment (duloxetine 60 mg/day, lorazepam 15 mg/day, diazepam 35 mg/day) was not modified.
After 1 month, the patient improved according to BFCSR score.
We presented a case of presence of catatonia in other psychiatric conditions and undiagnosed general medical conditions. Haloperidol is contraindicated those circumstances and it may have worsened her clinical state (it should be used cautiously in DI). Other medications (gabaergic drugs) should be considered in such settings and rare causes related to hypoxia cannot be ruled out (Table 1).
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus linked to mucosal and cutaneous carcinogenesis. More than 200 different HPV types exist. We carried out a transversal study to investigate the prevalence of HPV types in two regions of Mexico. A total of 724 genital and non-genital samples from women (F) and men (M) were studied; 241 (33%) from North-Eastern (NE) and 483 (66%) from South-Central (SC) Mexico. The overall prevalence was 87%. In genital lesions from females, the NE group showed a prevalence of HPV types 16 (37%), 6 (13%), 59 (6%), 11, 18 and 66 (5.4% each); and the SC group showed types 6 (17%), 16 (15%), 11 (14.5%), 18 (12%) and 53 (6%). In the genital lesions from males, NE group showed types 16 (38%), 6 (21%), 11 (13%) and 59 plus 31 (7.5%) and the SC group showed types 6 (25%), 11 (22%), 18 (17%) and 16 (11.5%). When the two regions were compared, a higher prevalence of low-risk HPV 6 and 11 was found in the SC region and of high-risk HPV 59, 31 and 66 (the latter can also be present in benign lesions) in the NE region. Our findings complement efforts to understand HPV demographics as a prerequisite to guide and assess the impact of preventive interventions.