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To characterise the diet of First Nations in north-western Ontario, highlight
foods for a lifestyle intervention and develop a quantitative food-frequency
Cross-sectional survey using single 24 h dietary recalls.
Eight remote and semi-remote First Nations reserves in north-western
129 First Nations (Oji-Cree and Ojibway) men and women aged between 18 and 80
The greatest contributors to energy were breads, pasta dishes and chips
(contributing over 20 % to total energy intake). ‘Added
fats’ such as butter and margarine added to breads and vegetables
made up the single largest source of total fat intake (8·4 %).
The largest contributors to sugar were sugar itself, soda and other
sweetened beverages (contributing over 45 % combined). The mean number of
servings consumed of fruits, vegetables and dairy products were much lower
than recommended. The mean daily meat intake was more than twice that
recommended. A 119-item QFFQ was developed including seven bread items, five
soups or stews, 24 meat- or fish-based dishes, eight rice or pasta dishes,
nine fruits and 14 vegetables. Frequency of consumption was assessed by
eight categories ranging from ‘Never or less than one time in one
month’ to ‘two or more times a day’.
We were able to highlight foods for intervention to improve dietary intake
based on the major sources of energy, fat and sugar and the low consumption
of fruit and vegetable items. The QFFQ is being used to evaluate a diet and
lifestyle intervention in First Nations in north-western Ontario.
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