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Prototypes are a common feature of many product design and development endeavours. An ever widening range of prototyping options are available to designers and engineers. May particular options be superior to others, or more appropriate for particular endeavours? This paper reviews current literature on the nature of what constitutes a prototype and the benefits they offer to the discipline. They principally facilitate communication, aid learning, help gain and provide feedback, inform decision making and generally provide superior design outcomes. In order to determine if any particular manner of prototype is preferable for achieving these benefits a comparative study of some of the contemporary prototyping methods is subsequently conducted: A 3D printed prototype (physical prototype), a CAD prototype (represented using a computer monitor), an augmented reality prototype (represented using a tablet device) and a virtual reality prototype (represented using a stereo projector and polarised glasses). The results indicate that while all provide benefits, overall the physical prototype performs best and the augmented reality prototype performs most poorly.
The rationale for undertaking this study was to investigate how characteristics of population health relate to and impact disaster risk, resilience, vulnerability, impact, and recovery. The multi-disciplinary environment that contextualizes disaster practice can influence determinants of health. Robust health determinants, or lack thereof, may influence the outcomes of disaster events affecting an individual or a community.
To investigate how the social determinants of health inform community perceptions of disaster risk.
Community perception of disaster risk in reference to the social determinants of health was assessed in this study. Individual interviews with participants from a community were conducted, all of whom were permanent community residents. Thematic analysis was conducted using narrative inquiry to gather firsthand insights on their perceptions of how characteristics of population health relate to and impact an individual’s disaster risk.
Analysis demonstrated commonality between interviewees in perceptions of the influence of the social determinants of health on individual disaster risk by determinant type. Interviewees sensed a strong correlation between low community connection and disaster risk vulnerability. Specific populations thought to have low community connection were perceived to be socially isolated, resulting in low knowledge or awareness of the surrounding disaster risks, or how to prepare and respond to disasters. In addition, they had reduced access to communication and support in time of need.
The importance of a strong social community connection was a feature of this research. Further research on how health determinants can enable disaster risk awareness and disaster risk communication is warranted.
This study profiles climate change as an emerging disaster risk in Oceania. The rationale for undertaking this study was to investigate climate change and disaster risk in Oceania. The role of this analysis is to examine what evidence exists to support decision-making and profile the nature, type, and potential human and economic impact of climate change and disaster risk in Oceania.
To evaluate perceptions of climate change and disaster risk in the Oceania region.
Thirty individual interviews with participants from 9 different countries were conducted. All of the participants were engaged in disaster management in the Oceania region as researchers, practitioners in emergency management, disaster health care and policy managers, or academics. Data collection was conducted between April and November 2017. Thematic analysis was conducted using narrative inquiry to gather first-hand insights on their perceptions of current and emerging threats and propose improvements in risk management practice to capture, monitor, and control disaster risk.
Interviewees who viewed climate change as a risk or hazard described a breadth of impacts. Hazards identified included climate variability and climate-related disasters, climate issues in island areas and loss of land mass, trans-nation migration, and increased transportation risk due to rising sea levels. These emerging risks are reflective of both the geographical location of countries in Oceania, where land mass due to rising oceans has been previously reported and climate change-driven migration of island populations.
Climate change was perceived as a significant contemporary and future risk, and as an influencing factor on other risks in the Oceania region.
It is now well recognised that contractual purposes play an important role in the construction of contracts. The methods by which purposes are taken into account have not, however, been systematically explored. This paper considers three central issues in the purposive construction of contracts: first, the reasons contractual purposes are relevant to the interpretation of express terms and the identification of implied terms; secondly, the way in which contractual purposes are identified and distinguished from individual party interests; and, thirdly, the different ways in which contractual purposes inform the processes of interpretation and implication. It is argued that reference to contractual purposes can both raise and resolve interpretive choices, and that purposive construction plays a significant and under-recognised role in the identification of implied terms.
The emergence of callous unemotional (CU) traits, and associated externalizing behaviors, is believed to reflect underlying dysfunction in the amygdala. Studies of adults with CU traits or psychopathy have linked characteristic patterns of amygdala dysfunction to reduced amygdala volume, but studies in youths have not thus far found evidence of similar amygdala volume reductions. The current study examined the association between CU traits and amygdala volume by modeling CU traits and externalizing behavior as independent continuous variables, and explored the relative contributions of callous, uncaring, and unemotional traits.
CU traits and externalizing behavior problems were assessed in 148 youths using the Inventory of Callous Unemotional Traits (ICU) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). For a subset of participants (n = 93), high-resolution T1-weighted images were collected and volume estimates for the amygdala were extracted.
Analyses revealed that CU traits were associated with increased externalizing behaviors and decreased bilateral amygdala volume. These results were driven by the callous and uncaring sub-factors of CU traits, with unemotional traits unrelated to either externalizing behaviors or amygdala volume. Results persisted after accounting for covariation between CU traits and externalizing behaviors. Bootstrap mediation analyses indicated that CU traits mediated the relationship between reduced amygdala volume and externalizing severity.
These findings provide evidence that callous-uncaring traits account for reduced amygdala volume among youths with conduct problems. These findings provide a framework for further investigation of abnormal amygdala development as a key causal pathway for the development of callous-uncaring traits and conduct problems.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit quality and yield are highly dependent on adequate uptake of nutrients. Potassium, magnesium and calcium are essential elements that influence fruit quality traits such as colour, uniformity of ripening, hollow fruit, fruit shape, firmness and acidity. Sodium is not an essential element for tomato and can detrimentally compete with the absorption of potassium and calcium. Daily intakes of potassium, magnesium and calcium in human diets are typically below healthful levels, while sodium intake is often excessive. The objective of this study was to compare 52 diverse commercially important varieties of tomato for concentrations of potassium, magnesium, calcium and sodium in fruits. The tomatoes were produced in replicated plots in Geneva, NY in 2010 and 2011. Multiple fruits per plot were harvested vine-ripe, homogenized and assayed for cations. Analysis of variance showed significant differences among the 52 varieties for all four traits, i.e. cation concentrations (df = 51, P < 0.0001–0.0034) and no significant differences between years for any trait (df = 1, P = 0.3432–0.6770). Factor analysis showed a strong interrelationship between potassium and magnesium that was independent of calcium and sodium. Potassium and magnesium were highly significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.64, P < 0.0001). No other correlations between pairs of traits were observed. Results supported a genetic basis for potassium, magnesium, calcium and sodium concentrations that was consistent across environments (i.e. years). Results can contribute to the development of cultivars with favourable cation profiles in terms of human health and fruit quality.
Discovery of strongly-lensed gravitational wave (GW) sources will unveil binary compact objects at higher redshifts and lower intrinsic luminosities than is possible without lensing. Such systems will yield unprecedented constraints on the mass distribution in galaxy clusters, measurements of the polarization of GWs, tests of General Relativity, and constraints on the Hubble parameter. Excited by these prospects, and intrigued by the presence of so-called “heavy black holes” in the early detections by LIGO-Virgo, we commenced a search for strongly-lensed GWs and possible electromagnetic counterparts in the latter stages of the second LIGO observing run (O2). Here, we summarise our calculation of the detection rate of strongly-lensed GWs, describe our review of BBH detections from O1, outline our observing strategy in O2, summarize our follow-up observations of GW170814, and discuss the future prospects of detection.
Callous–unemotional (CU) traits characterize a subgroup of youths with conduct problems who exhibit low empathy, fearlessness, and elevated externalizing behaviors. The current study examines the role of aberrant amygdala activity and functional connectivity during a socioemotional judgment task in youths with CU traits, and links these deficits to externalizing behaviors. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural responses in 18 healthy youths and 30 youths with conduct problems and varying levels of CU traits as they evaluated the acceptability of causing another person to experience each of several emotions, including fear. Neuroimaging analyses examined blood oxygenation level dependent responses and task-dependent functional connectivity. High-CU youths exhibited left amygdala hypoactivation relative to healthy controls and low-CU youths primarily during evaluations of causing others fear. CU traits moderated the relationship between externalizing behavior and both amygdala activity and patterns of functional connectivity. The present data suggest that CU youths' aberrant amygdala activity and connectivity affect how they make judgments about the acceptability of causing others emotional distress, and that these aberrations represent risk factors for externalizing behaviors like rule breaking and aggression. These findings suggest that reducing externalizing behaviors in high-CU youths may require interventions that influence affective sensitivity.
Specific knowledge and skills are required, especially in the first 72 hours post-disaster, to bridge the time gap until essential services are restored and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) can focus on individuals’ needs. This study explores disaster knowledge and preparedness in the first 72 hours as a function of the individual’s engagement in discussions about disasters, and several other factors (both at personal and community/country level), as well as the entities/organizations perceived by the individual as being responsible for disaster risk reduction (DRR) education.
A prospective, cross-sectional survey of 3,829 final-year high-school students was conducted in nine countries with different levels of disaster risk and economic development. Regression analyses examined the relationship between a 72-hour disaster preparedness composite outcome (ability to make water safe for drinking, knowledge of water potability, home evacuation skill, and improvising a safe room) and a series of independent predictors.
Respondents from countries with lower economic development were significantly better prepared for the first 72 hours post-disaster than those from developed countries (OR=767.45; CI=13.75-48,822.94; P=.001). While several independent predictors showed a significant main effect, combined disaster risk education (DRE) efforts, as a partnership between school and local government, had the best predictive value (OR=3.52; CI=1.48-8.41; P=.005).
Disaster preparedness in final-year high-school students is significantly better in developing countries. Further improvement requires a convergent effort in aligning the most effective educational policies and actions to best address the individual’s and the community needs.
CodreanuTA, NgoH, RobertsonA, CelenzaA. Challenging Assumptions: What Do We Need to Address in Our Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts?Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(2):134–147.
IUE and optical data were obtained throughout the supercycles of RZ LMi and ER UMa during 1993/94. While most of the spectral and photometric characteristics are consistent with disk changes in systems with a relatively high accretion rate and low inclination, the cause of the high accretion rate in this subset of SU UMa stars is not known.
We present the results of two multi-wavelength studies of the angular diameters of the Mira-like stars ο Cet, W Hya and R Leo. The MAPPIT experiment was able to deliver diameters of these stars over a continuous wavelength region from 0.65 – 1 micron, while the Keck aperture-masking experiment was able to deliver diameters between 1.2 and 3.5 microns. Strong size variations with wavelength were recorded for all stars, and we discuss the implications for model atmospheres of these stars, and speculate on the necessity of including dust scattering in radiative transfer calculations.
This paper reports on the second season of the new fieldwork at Euesperides (Benghazi). Excavations continued in Areas P (a large building with early Hellenistic mosaics) and Q (an area of streets and buildings built against the line of the Archaic period city wall), and were commenced at a site in the Lower City (Area R), where evidence for purple dye production from the Murex trunculus shellfish was found. In addition, a programme of machine-cut evaluation trenching was carried out in an area to the south of the Sidi Abeid mound to determine the limits of the archaeological area; this showed that occupation deposits continued for some distance to the south-east of the zone formerly considered to have encompassed the city. Geophysical prospection was completed in the Lower City, giving a fuller understanding of the city plan and of manufacturing activities. Preliminary quantification of the fine pottery suggests heavy reliance on imported wares (some 90%) to meet demand for tablewares, and carries important implications for the volume of ancient shipping and trade reaching Euesperides.
1.1 The paper was prepared by the authors as members of the Pensions Research Group of the Faculty of Actuaries. It covers the major factors influencing the design of pension schemes during the last decade. This period saw an unprecedented level of legislation on pensions, much of it with far reaching consequences. In the final sections of the paper some suggestions are put forward as to the likely form of benefit design in the 1990s and beyond.
The law of civil remedies is a fascinating subject. More than any other field of study in the core curriculum, it lays bare fundamental questions as to the nature and purpose of the law of obligations. The law of remedies defines what it means to have particular private law rights and to owe particular private law duties. Difficult issues concerning remedies necessarily direct attention to questions as to what precisely is to be remedied, why particular obligations are imposed, and the nature of the interests protected by different private law causes of action. The law of remedies is also an immensely practical subject. Remedies are, after all, the ends of civil litigation. The principles that govern their application are in many cases simple to state in the abstract but give rise to great difficulty in their application to particular fact situations. The finer points of the law of remedies are therefore not only matters of great theoretical interest and intense academic debate, but also of great day-to-day importance for legal practitioners.
For all of these reasons, the publication of this substantial new book on the Australian law of civil remedies is an exciting event. It is the more so since Remedies in Australian Private Law has been written by two up-and-coming remedies scholars who have recently published monographs offering insightful analyses of particular aspects of the field. Sirko Harder is the author of Measuring Damages in the Law of Obligations: The Search for Harmonised Principles (Hart Publishing, 2010), and Katy Barnett is the author of Accounting for Profit for Breach of Contract: Theory and Practice (Hart Publishing, 2012). Readers of their new jointly authored book are offered new perspectives on the nature of the subject and new ways of approaching the many thorny issues that make it so challenging.
In late February and early March 2002, an archaeological watching brief at Lynford Quarry, Mundford, Norfolk revealed a palaeochannel with a dark organic fill containing in situ mammoth remains and associated Mousterian stone tools and debitage buried under 2–3 m of bedded sands and gravels. Well-preserved in situ Middle Palaeolithic open air sites are very unusal in Europe and exceedingly rare within a British context. As such, the site was identified as being of national and international importance, and was subsequently excavated by the Norfolk Archaeological Unit with funding provided by English Heritage through the Aggregates Levy Sustainability Fund.
This report presents some of the initial results of the excavation. It sets out how the site was excavated, outlines the stratigraphic sequence for the site, and presents some provisional findings of the excavation based on the results of the assessment work carried out by project specialists and Norfolk Archaeological Unit staff.
This paper seeks to develop a deeper understanding of the role of policy-based reasoning in the determination of duty of care questions. In order to do this, the first part explores the distinction between considerations of interpersonal justice and considerations of community welfare in the determination of duty questions. While imperfect, the distinction illuminates the nature of the factors taken into account by courts in determining duty of care questions and has practical as well as theoretical implications. The second part of the paper analyses the respective roles of interpersonal justice considerations and community welfare considerations in a sample of first instance and intermediate appellate cases from England and Canada. That study suggests that community welfare considerations play a far less significant role in determining duty cases at the first instance and intermediate appellate level than at the ultimate appellate level. Analysis of the cases also reveals significant differences between the English and Canadian courts in their approaches to the interpersonal justice and community welfare aspects of duty of care questions.