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Vulnerability to depression can be measured in different ways. We here examine how genetic risk factors are inter-related for lifetime major depression (MD), self-report current depressive symptoms and the personality trait Neuroticism.
We obtained data from three population-based adult twin samples (Virginia n = 4672, Australia #1 n = 3598 and Australia #2 n = 1878) to which we fitted a common factor model where risk for ‘broadly defined depression’ was indexed by (i) lifetime MD assessed at personal interview, (ii) depressive symptoms, and (iii) neuroticism. We examined the proportion of genetic risk for MD deriving from the common factor v. specific to MD in each sample and then analyzed them jointly. Structural equation modeling was conducted in Mx.
The best fit models in all samples included additive genetic and unique environmental effects. The proportion of genetic effects unique to lifetime MD and not shared with the broad depression common factor in the three samples were estimated as 77, 61, and 65%, respectively. A cross-sample mega-analysis model fit well and estimated that 65% of the genetic risk for MD was unique.
A large proportion of genetic risk factors for lifetime MD was not, in the samples studied, captured by a common factor for broadly defined depression utilizing MD and self-report measures of current depressive symptoms and Neuroticism. The genetic substrate for MD may reflect neurobiological processes underlying the episodic nature of its cognitive, motor and neurovegetative manifestations, which are not well indexed by current depressive symptom and neuroticism.
The Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI) is a globally complete collection of digital outlines of glaciers, excluding the ice sheets, developed to meet the needs of the Fifth Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for estimates of past and future mass balance. The RGI was created with limited resources in a short period. Priority was given to completeness of coverage, but a limited, uniform set of attributes is attached to each of the ~198 000 glaciers in its latest version, 3.2. Satellite imagery from 1999–2010 provided most of the outlines. Their total extent is estimated as 726 800 ± 34 000 km2. The uncertainty, about ±5%, is derived from careful single-glacier and basin-scale uncertainty estimates and comparisons with inventories that were not sources for the RGI. The main contributors to uncertainty are probably misinterpretation of seasonal snow cover and debris cover. These errors appear not to be normally distributed, and quantifying them reliably is an unsolved problem. Combined with digital elevation models, the RGI glacier outlines yield hypsometries that can be combined with atmospheric data or model outputs for analysis of the impacts of climatic change on glaciers. The RGI has already proved its value in the generation of significantly improved aggregate estimates of glacier mass changes and total volume, and thus actual and potential contributions to sea-level rise.
For the last twenty years or so, archaeologists of Roman Britain, among other provinces, have been seeking ways of moving beyond the concept of ‘Romanisation’ as a framework for thinking about Roman imperialism. Many of the ideas proposed have been drawn from two related bodies of thought which have emerged as ways of understanding the contemporary world: postcolonialism and globalisation theory. While achieving significant success in transforming interpretations of the Roman world, applications of these approaches present some fresh problems of theoretical and practical coherence. These in turn point to important issues to do with the role of theory in Roman archaeology, issues which have rarely been tackled head-on but which present obstacles to interdisciplinary dialogue. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare the perspectives of postcolonial and globalisation theories, assess their strengths and weaknesses, and suggest some possibilities for linking the insights of these and other approaches to define a more holistic agenda for Roman archaeology.
Bushkiller, an aggressive perennial vine native to Southeast Asia, has invaded several sites in Alabama, North Carolina, Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Bushkiller has only recently been discovered in North Carolina. The potential economic and environmental consequences associated with established exotic invasive perennial vines and the lack of published control measures for bushkiller prompted research to be conducted at North Carolina State University that may be used in an early-detection rapid-response program. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to determine bushkiller response to selected foliar-applied herbicides. Field study 1 evaluated efficacy of glyphosate, triclopyr, triclopyr plus 2,4-D, triclopyr plus aminopyralid, and triclopyr plus glyphosate applied postemergence to bushkiller. No control was evident from any treatment at 10 mo after application. In a separate experiment, aminocyclopyrachlor, imazapyr, metsulfuron, sulfometuron, and sulfometuron plus metsulfuron were applied postemergence to bushkiller. Control with aminocyclopyrachlor, imazapyr, sulfometuron, and sulfometuron plus metsulfuron was 88 to 99% at 10 mo after application. Each treatment was also applied to bushkiller in a greenhouse trial. Aminocyclopyrachlor and triclopyr-containing treatments generally resulted in the greatest control, lowest dry weights, and shortest vine lengths among the treatments. These results indicate that several herbicides may be employed initially in an early-detection, rapid-response program for bushkiller. Additional research is needed to determine how effective these herbicides would be in multiple-season treatments that may be required at well established bushkiller infestation sites.