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This paper presents a taxonomy of human wayfinding behaviours. For the purposes of this paper, wayfinding is purposeful navigating in everyday life, in man-made environments, traversing an environment or aiming for an objective with which the individual is unfamiliar. The taxonomy is developed through a review of wayfinding literature from research and practice, user studies conducted specifically for this research and a process of thinking by designing. This taxonomy can also be applied to navigating in documents printed on paper and on-screen, but this paper concentrates on behaviours in environmental space. This taxonomy creates twelve categories of behaviour differentiated by the characteristics of the information that they use. The categories of behaviour are also separated into three groups: social, semantic and spatial. This paper briefly describes and gives examples of each of the categories of behaviour. This is followed by insights into the behaviours from user studies conducted by the author. (This paper borrows its title from Cohen, 2015).
A few studies have evaluated the impact of clinical trial results on practice in paediatric cardiology. The Infant Single Ventricle (ISV) Trial results published in 2010 did not support routine use of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril in infants with single-ventricle physiology. We sought to assess the influence of these findings on clinical practice.
A web-based survey was distributed via e-mail to over 2000 paediatric cardiologists, intensivists, cardiothoracic surgeons, and cardiac advance practice nurses during three distribution periods. The results were analysed using McNemar’s test for paired data and Fisher’s exact test.
The response rate was 31.5% (69% cardiologists and 65% with >10 years of experience). Among respondents familiar with trial results, 74% reported current practice consistent with trial findings versus 48% before trial publication (p<0.001); 19% used angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in this population “almost always” versus 36% in the past (p<0.001), and 72% reported a change in management or improved confidence in treatment decisions involving this therapy based on the trial results. Respondents familiar with trial results (78%) were marginally more likely to practise consistent with the trial results than those unfamiliar (74 versus 67%, p=0.16). Among all respondents, 28% reported less frequent use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor over the last 3 years.
Within 5 years of publication, the majority of respondents was familiar with the Infant Single Ventricle Trial results and reported less frequent use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in single-ventricle infants; however, 28% reported not adjusting their clinical decisions based on the trial’s findings.
In this paper we consider PDE-constrained optimization problems which incorporate an H1 regularization control term. We focus on a time-dependent PDE, and consider both distributed and boundary control. The problems we consider include bound constraints on the state, and we use a Moreau-Yosida penalty function to handle this. We propose Krylov solvers and Schur complement preconditioning strategies for the different problems and illustrate their performance with numerical examples.
There is now a well-established link between childhood maltreatment and
psychosis. It is, however, unclear what the mechanisms are by which this
occurs. Here, we propose a pathway linking the experience of childhood
maltreatment with biological changes in the brain and suggest a
psychological intervention to ameliorate its effects.
Ptolemaaїs is the only Greek woman on record as a musical theorist. Most writings in Pythagorean harmonics after the fourth century BC were heavily influenced by Plato's Republic, with its rejection of empirical considerations and its insistence on the authority of reason, and especially by the cosmological and psychological implications of his musical construction of the World-Soul in the Timaeus. One of the Pythagorean approaches that Ptolemaїs describes seems nevertheless to preserve a pre-Platonic character, privileging reason over perception but still focused at least in part on the analysis of audible music; and so too do the Pythagoreans discussed by Ptolemy and Porphyry. The principle that a concord's ratio must be either multiple or epimoric has a significant consequence: the interval of an octave plus a fourth (which sense-perception, according to Aristoxenus, Ptolemy and many others, unquestionably recognizes as a concord) cannot really be concordant.
A long and important fragment of the Περὶ μοψσικῆς of Theophrastus is preserved in Porphyry's commentary on Ptolemy's Harmonics. Both Porphyry and Ptolemy were reedited earlier in this century by Düring, in works which have rightly been taken to supersede the texts of Wallis: and so far as the Theophrastus passage is concerned, we should expect to be able to abandon in Düring's favour the text published by Wimmer, who in effect reprints Wallis, though adopting a few variant readings and emendations from Schneider. But it seems to me that Düring's text is not in all respects an improvement, and that the comments made on it in a subsequent publication by Alexanderson have muddied the waters still further. It is not only a matter of the text: Alexanderson prints also a (partial) translation and an interpretative commentary, and both are open to serious objections. I intend in this paper to deal only with a portion of the fragment, but it is that portion whose argument is the most intricate, and one which ought to shed a good deal of light on central controversies among the musical theoreticians who follow Aristotle. I am not in a position to dispute any of Düring's findings in the manuscripts, but where emendation has in any event proved necessary or where the manuscripts differ among themselves, I hope to show through a study of the content of the argument that the case in favour of Düring is not always closed.
A cursory glance at the reports of the later students of harmonic theory is enough to give a clear if perhaps artificially systematic picture of the character and relations of the major conflicting schools of thought in the first century or so A.D. In the centre of the field are the supposed followers of Aristoxenus, lined up against the forces of the so-called Pythagoreans. Each side is linked with a more or less lunatic fringe; to the right of the Pythagoreans those mathematical extremists who find no place in harmonic studies for αἴσθησις at all, and to the left of the more empirical Aristoxeneans a collection of persons known as ὀργανικοί, whose work, whatever it was, is based wholly in perception and in familiarity with the properties of musical instruments, and who find no place for theory or for the pursuit of the αἰτίαι of harmonic truths.
This paper is concerned with one little-known but intriguing and conceptually promising episode in the history of Greek thought about metaphor. Remarks made by two distinguished scholars will help us to get some preliminary bearings. In ancient discussions of rhetoric, says D.A. Russell, there was ‘a sharp distinction between content (to legomenon) and verbal form (lexis). With some hazy and uncertain exceptions, ancient writers on poetry also adhered firmly to this distinction’. Qualifications are added later in the book; but Russell leaves us with the clear impression that no Greek or Roman theorist made significant concessions to any nonsense about the medium being the message; and that whatever may be true of isolated examples of critical practice, all general theories about the elements of poetry assumed that discussions of what is said can be conducted quite independently of discussions of how it is said. In so far as connections were envisaged at all, Russell maintains, it was in terms of a rather vague notion of ‘suitability’: many writers cite with approval the Gorgian slogan, ‘great words suit great things’.
Autobiographical memories are a key component of our identity. Here, in the light of Cuervo-Lombard and colleagues' paper in this issue, we review impairments in autobiographical memory in schizophrenia and the association between autobiographical memory and outcome in the disorder. We also discuss whether these deficits are specific to schizophrenia and a possible link with traumatic events.
“Rot-Weiss-Rot bis in den Tod!” — Joseph Roth and Ernst Weiss in Paris
From the moment the Nazis grabbed power, many Austrian writers living in Germany knew that the game was up if they stayed on there. Some, like Robert Musil and Stefan Großmann, simply returned home to carry on writing there as best they could. Fortunate enough to be supported by a Viennese foundation bearing his name, Musil continued working on Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften, whose second volume had appeared in Berlin in December 1932. To remind the public of his existence as he worked on the next installment, Musil published a collection of shorter items with the Humanitas Verlag in Zurich, ironically entitled Nachlass zu Lebzeiten (Posthumous Papers of a Living Writer, 1936). In the prescient and challenging essay “Unabhängiges Österreich” (Independent Austria), published in Klaus Mann's Amsterdam-based journal Die Sammlung, Großmann turned his attention to the state of the nation itself following the events of February 1934. This essay was promptly banned there.2 Such experiences may explain why many other Austrian writers domiciled in Germany chose not to return home as the country sank into its own form of fascism. A large proportion of these non-returning expatriates were Jews, often with roots in the former “Kronländer” rather than the new Austria. Joseph Roth and Ernst Weiss were two such emigrés who, like Heinrich Heine a century beforehand, travelled to France in the hope it would provide a refuge from Germany's rottenness.
From Trakl's battle-poem “Grodek” (1914) to Kraus's gargantuan drama Die letzten Tage der Menschheit (The Last Days of Mankind, 1919–22), some of the finest works in the Austrian canon were inspired by the trauma of the Great War. For many readers today, however, war fiction in German usually begins and ends with two novels belonging to the Weimar tradition rather than the Austrian tradition – Arnold Zweig's Der Streit um den Sergeanten Grischa (The Argument over Sergeant Grischa, 1927) and E. M. Remarque's Im Westen nichts Neues (All Quiet on the Western Front, 1929). Since both novels appeared some while after the war's end, their authors were at pains to declare them authentic records stemming directly from lived experience of the conflict itself. The two works presented here to illustrate war writing by front-line soldiers in the Austro-Hungarian army required no such retrospective justification.
Unlike Zweig and Remarque, Andreas Latzko and Ernst Weiss felt no need for their experiences to be distilled by the passage of time. Latzko's Menschen im Krieg (Men in War, 1917) appeared while the battles still raged; Weiss's Franta Zlin came out shortly after the ceasefire in 1919. The first created a now-forgotten literary sensation across Europe, but has long been out of print. The other was recently included by Marcel Reich-Ranicki in Robert Musil bis Franz Werfel, the seventh volume of his extended collection provocatively entitled Der Kanon: Die deutsche Literatur (the editor's notion of what constitutes a “German” author may not be shared by all commentators).
Between Two Empires — Bruno Brehm: Die Throne stürzen (1931–33/1951)
The year 1932 saw the publication of two novels that today enjoy iconic status across modern Austrian and German literature: Joseph Roth's elegaic Radeztkymarsch, and the second installment of Robert Musil's majestic fragment Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften (The Man without Qualities). Sadly, neither man rated the other's work very highly. Musil dismissed Radetzkymarsch as a typical “Kasernenroman” (novel of military life); Roth was exasperated by Musil's repeated use of the word “Kakanien” to designate the Habsburg Empire whose death throes had inspired them both. Insofar as each instrumentalizes aspects of recent history, rather than dealing directly with the immediate present, the novels exemplify a widespread trend in the German-language novel of the day. It is less well remembered that 1932 also marked the publication of Das war das Ende (That was the End), the second of three ambitious historical novels charting the decline of the Habsburgs by the Slovenianborn Nazi Bruno Brehm, a writer who had found fame through the very “Kasernenromane” that Musil disparaged.
Not quite forgotten today, Brehm's trilogy opens with Apis und Este: Ein Franz Ferdinand-Roman (Apis and Este: A Franz Ferdinand Novel, 1931), a work beginning with the assassination of the King and Queen of Serbia in 1903 and climaxing in the murder of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand at Sarajevo in June 1914. The second novel Das war das Ende examines the political machinations starting in Brest-Litowsk in December 1917 and ending with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1919, the fifth anniversary of the assassination of Franz Ferdinand.
This study focuses on literature from and about Austria between the war-torn end of the Dual Monarchy and the jubilant annexation of the First Republic by the Nazis. Its aim is to show how writers across the spectrum of race, politics, and religion responded to the burden of the past, the demands of the present, and the prospect of what was for many a terrifying future. Mining the wealth of relatively unfamiliar material still available to scholars from two of the most widely debated decades in European history, I try to redress the critical imbalance that has arisen thanks to a Germany-centered emphasis in the cultural chronicling of German-speaking Central Europe between the wars. In short, I want to show how much literary life there was beyond the bounds of Weimar and Berlin.
What is missing from the volume will soon become obvious. Lyric poetry is almost completely absent, while drama and writing by women feature only on the margins. Similarly, some of the leading authors of the era, universally claimed for both German and Austrian literature, are mentioned either not at all, or merely in passing. My contention is that Hermann Broch, Elias Canetti, Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Ödön von Horváth, Franz Kafka, Robert Musil, and Rainer Maria Rilke, to name merely some of the more obvious absentees, are already well served by the critical acclaim they enjoy.
Race, Sex, and Character — Arthur Schnitzler: Fräulein Else (1924)
Acknowledged as a peerless chronicler of Vienna at the turn of the twentieth century, Arthur Schnitzler unwrapped the social and psychological realities of the society that nurtured both Freud and Hitler. It is also often noted that Schnitzler's works written after 1918 rarely reflect life in the postimperial era. Instead, despite their diminishing relevance to the troubled new realities of the First Republic, Schnitzler continued to evoke the pre-war days until the end of his working life. The monologue novella Fräulein Else, published in 1924 but set in 1896, therefore seems typical of an author apparently working in a time warp. As W. E. Yates notes, true to his lifelong apolitical habits, Schnitzler did not react to external crisis by publicly confronting it; rather he reworked old material or turned inward.
Although Schnitzler resisted suggestions that his work was autobiographical and “resented all written references to his personal life,” the publication of his diaries and letters has revealed evidence of the real life impetus for many of his works, including Fräulein Else. In 1917, for instance, he wrote at some length about Stephi Bachrach, a Jewish military nurse whose suicide by morphine and veronal is reminiscent of the fate of the fictional Else. Bachrach's father had already committed suicide in 1912 after suffering financial ruin, a fate that threatens Else's father in the novella.