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Bilingualism is hard to define, measure, and study. Sparked by the “replication crisis” in the social sciences, a recent discussion on the advantages of open science is gaining momentum. Here, we join this debate to argue that bilingualism research would greatly benefit from embracing open science. We do so in a unique way, by presenting six fictional stories that illustrate how open science practices – sharing preprints, materials, code, and data; pre-registering studies; and joining large-scale collaborations – can strengthen bilingualism research and further improve its quality.
Argentina has a fragmented healthcare system with social security covering almost two thirds of the population. Its benefit package—called compulsory medical program (PMO; by its Spanish acronym Programa Médico Obligatorio)—has not been formally and widely updated since 2005. However, laws, clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), and a high-cost technology reimbursement fund complement it. Our objective was to comprehensively review such a PMO and propose an update considering the corresponding complementary sources.
We followed four steps: (i) identification of health technologies from the current PMO and complementary sources, (ii) prioritization, (iii) assessment through rapid health technology assessment (HTA), and (iv) appraisal and recommendations. We evaluated three value domains: quality of evidence, net benefit, and economics, which were summarized in a five-category recommendation traffic-light scale ranging from a strong recommendation in favor of inclusion to a strong recommendation for exclusion.
Eight hundred fifty technologies were identified; 164 of those, considered as high priority, were assessed through rapid HTAs. Those technologies mentioned in laws and CPGs were mostly outpatient essential medicines, whereas those from the reimbursement system were mostly high-cost drugs; of these 101 technologies, 50 percent were recommended to be kept in the PMO. The other 63 (identified by the Superintendence of Health Services, technology producers, and patients) were mostly medical procedures and high-cost drugs; only 25 percent of those resulted in a favorable recommendation.
A methodology based on four clearly identified steps was used to carry out a comprehensive review of an outdated and fragmented benefit package. The use of rapid HTAs and a traffic-light recommendation framework facilitated the deliberative evidence-based update.
The burden of depression is increasing worldwide, specifically in older adults. Unhealthy dietary patterns may partly explain this phenomenon. In the Spanish PREDIMED-Plus study, we explored (1) the cross-sectional association between the adherence to the Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS), an a priori-defined high-quality food pattern, and the prevalence of depressive symptoms at baseline (cross-sectional analysis) and (2) the prospective association of baseline PDQS with changes in depressive symptomatology after 2 years of follow-up. After exclusions, we assessed 6612 participants in the cross-sectional analysis and 5523 participants in the prospective analysis. An energy-adjusted high-quality dietary score (PDQS) was assessed using a validated FFQ. The cross-sectional association between PDQS and the prevalence of depression or presence of depressive symptoms and the prospective changes in depressive symptoms were evaluated through multivariable regression models (logistic and linear models and mixed linear-effects models). PDQS was inversely associated with depressive status in the cross-sectional analysis. Participants in the highest quintile of PDQS (Q5) showed a significantly reduced odds of depression prevalence as compared to participants in the lowest quartile of PDQS (Q1) (OR (95 %) CI = 0·82 (0·68, 0·98))). The baseline prevalence of depression decreased across PDQS quintiles (Pfor trend = 0·015). A statistically significant association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2-years follow-up was found (β (95 %) CI = −0·67 z-score (–1·17, −0·18). A higher PDQS was cross-sectionally related to a lower depressive status. Nevertheless, the null finding in our prospective analysis raises the possibility of reverse causality. Further prospective investigation is required to ascertain the association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms along time.
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with multimorbidity in adulthood. This link may be mediated by psychosocial and biological factors, but evidence is lacking. The current study evaluates this mediation model.
We analyzed data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 27 170 community participants). Participants were 45–85 years at recruitment, when allostatic load and social engagement data were collected, and 3 years older at follow-up, when ACEs and multimorbidity data were collected. Structural equation modeling was used to test for mediation in the overall sample, and in sex- and age-stratified subsamples, all analyses adjusted for concurrent lifestyle confounds.
In the overall sample, ACEs were associated with multimorbidity, directly, β = 0.12 (95% confidence interval 0.11–0.13) and indirectly. Regarding indirect associations, ACEs were related to social engagement, β = −0.14 (−0.16 to −0.12) and social engagement was related to multimorbidity, β = −0.10 (−0.12 to −0.08). ACEs were related to allostatic load, β = 0.04 (0.03–0.05) and allostatic load was related to multimorbidity, β = 0.16 (0.15–0.17). The model was significant for males and females and across age cohorts, with qualifications in the oldest stratum (age 75–85).
ACEs are related to multimorbidity, directly and via social engagement and allostatic load. This is the first study to show mediated pathways between early adversity and multimorbidity in adulthood. It provides a platform for understanding multimorbidity as a lifespan dynamic informing the co-occurrence of the varied disease processes represented in multimorbidity.
The global growing rates of cognitive decline and dementia, together with the absence of curative therapies for these conditions, support the interest in researching potential primary prevention interventions, with particular focus on dietary habits. The aim was to assess the association between polyphenol intake and 6-year change in cognitive function in the ‘Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra’ (SUN) Project, a Spanish prospective cohort study. Changes (final – initial) in cognitive function were evaluated in a subsample of 806 participants (mean age 66 (sd 5) years, 69·7 % male) of the SUN Project using the validated Spanish Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status-modified score. Polyphenol intake was derived from a validated semi-quantitative FFQ and matching food composition data from the Phenol-Explorer database. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between total polyphenol intake, polyphenol subclasses and cognitive changes. No significant association between total polyphenol intake and changes in cognitive function was found. However, a higher intake of lignans (βQuintile (Q) 5 v. Q1 0·81; 95 % CI 0·12, 1·51; Ptrend = 0·020) and stilbenes (βQ5 v. Q1 0·82; 95 % CI 0·15, 1·49; Ptrend = 0·028) was associated with more favourable changes in cognitive function over time, particularly with respect to immediate memory and language domains. Olive oil and nuts were the major sources of variability in lignan intake, and wine in stilbene intake. The results suggest that lignan and stilbene intake was associated with improvements in cognitive function.
Social and environmental factors such as poverty or violence modulate the risk and course of schizophrenia. However, how they affect the brain in patients with psychosis remains unclear.
We studied how environmental factors are related to brain structure in patients with schizophrenia and controls in Latin America, where these factors are large and unequally distributed.
This is a multicentre study of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with schizophrenia and controls from six Latin American cities. Total and voxel-level grey matter volumes, and their relationship with neighbourhood characteristics such as average income and homicide rates, were analysed with a general linear model.
A total of 334 patients with schizophrenia and 262 controls were included. Income was differentially related to total grey matter volume in both groups (P = 0.006). Controls showed a positive correlation between total grey matter volume and income (R = 0.14, P = 0.02). Surprisingly, this relationship was not present in patients with schizophrenia (R = −0.076, P = 0.17). Voxel-level analysis confirmed that this interaction was widespread across the cortex. After adjusting for global brain changes, income was positively related to prefrontal cortex volumes only in controls. Conversely, the hippocampus in patients with schizophrenia, but not in controls, was relatively larger in affluent environments. There was no significant correlation between environmental violence and brain structure.
Our results highlight the interplay between environment, particularly poverty, and individual characteristics in psychosis. This is particularly important for harsh environments such as low- and middle-income countries, where potentially less brain vulnerability (less grey matter loss) is sufficient to become unwell in adverse (poor) environments.
To assess whether higher adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) was associated with lower consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) and lower free sugar intake.
Cross-sectional analysis of baseline information among participants in the SENDO project, a Spanish paediatric cohort. Dietary information was collected through a semi-quantitative FFQ. Food items were classified according to the NOVA classification. Adherence to the MedDiet was evaluated through the KIDMED index.
Three hundred eight-six children (52 % boys) with a mean age of 5·3 years old (sd 1·0) were included in the analysis.
74·4 % of the children had moderate adherence to the MedDiet (mean KIDMED score: 5·9 points; sd 1·7) and overall, 32·2 % of the total energy intake came from UPF. Each two additional points in the KIDMED score was associated with 3·1 % (95 % CI 2·1, 4·0) lower energy intake from UPF. Compared to those with low adherence to the MedDiet, children with medium and high adherence reported 5·0 % (95 % CI 2·2, 7·7) and 8·5 % (95 % CI 5·2, 11·9) lower energy intake from UPF, respectively. We also found that 71·6 % of the variability in free sugar intake was explained by the variability in UPF consumption.
Adherence to the traditional MedDiet was inversely associated with energy intake from UPF. Furthermore, most of the variability in free sugar intake was explained by the variability of UPF consumption. Public health strategies are needed to strengthen the adherence to the MedDiet in pre-schoolers while regulating the production, marketing and advertising of UPF.
This study uses psychological reactance theory as a framework for designing effective emergency preparedness messages. Psychological reactance is the motivational state that occurs when individuals perceive their freedom to be threatened. From the standpoint of persuasive message design, reactance is an undesirable outcome that should be avoided whenever possible.
Participants (N = 174) were randomly assigned to view 1 of 2 emergency preparedness messages (choice-enhancing language [“the choice is yours”] vs choice-restricting language [“you must”]) in a between-subjects-posttest-only online survey experiment.
Structural equation modeling revealed that choice-restricting language resulted in greater freedom threat and subsequent reactance. Reactance resulted in a diminished attitude and subsequent intention to prepare an emergency kit.
Public health practitioners would benefit from the inclusion of choice-enhancing language in their public communications, alongside the exclusion of choice-restricting language. Pretesting of messages is recommended to avoid eliciting reactance and subsequent boomerang effects.
We examined maternal depression and maternal sensitivity as mediators of the association between maternal childhood adversity and her child's temperament in 239 mother–child dyads from a longitudinal, birth cohort study. We used an integrated measure of maternal childhood adversity that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Parental Bonding Index. Maternal depression was assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 6 months postpartum. Maternal sensitivity was assessed with the Ainsworth maternal sensitivity scales at 6 months. A measure of “negative emotionality/behavioral dysregulation” was derived from the Early Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire administered at 36 months. Bootstrapping-based mediation analyses revealed that maternal depression mediated the effect of maternal childhood adversity on offspring negative emotionality/behavioral dysregulation (95% confidence interval [0.026, 0.144]). We also found a serial, indirect effect of maternal childhood adversity on child negative emotionality/behavioral mediated first by maternal depression and then by maternal sensitivity (95% confidence interval [0.031, 0.156]). Results suggest the intergenerational transmission of the effects of maternal childhood adversity to the offspring occurs through a two-step, serial pathway, involving maternal depression and maternal sensitivity.
The Sun is our dynamic host star due to its magnetic fields causing plentiful of activity in its atmosphere. From high energetic flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to lower energetic phenomena such as jets and fibrils. Thus, it is of crucial importance to learn about formation and evolution of solar magnetic fields. These fields cover a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, starting on the larger end with active regions harbouring complex sunspots, via isolated pores, down to the smallest yet resolved elements – so-called magnetic bright points (MBPs). Here, we revisit the various manifestations of solar magnetic fields by the largest European solar telescope in operation, the 1.5-meter GREGOR telescope. We show images from the High-resolution Fast Imager (HiFI) and spectropolarimetric data from the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS). Besides, we outline resolved convective features inside the larger structures – so-called light-bridges occurring on large to mid-sized scales.
Objective: To characterize cognitive function in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) in comparison with other chronic conditions, and to investigate its association with disease activity, and other psychological factors. Methods: Cross-sectional study including patients with AAV, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n = 30), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (n = 29). Patients underwent a standardized neuropsychological battery (NEUROPSI). Sleep quality, fatigue, depression, and anxiety levels were assessed. Results: A total of 60 patients with AAV were included, median age of 54 years, and disease duration of 5.6 years. Prevalence of cognitive dysfunction (CD) in AAV patients was similar to RA and CKD (35%, 40%, and 39.3%, respectively, p = .88). When AAV patients with (n = 21) and without (n = 39) CD were compared, significantly more patients with CD had high disease activity (67% vs. 31%, p = .009). Abnormal performance was more frequent in the executive functions in the three groups (45% AAV, 51.7% RA, and 50% CKD), followed by language (25%, 13.8%, and 25%, respectively). Verbal and visual attentional tests were more frequently impaired in patients from the CKD group (p = .021), and psychomotor functions were more frequently affected in AAV patients (p < .05). Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) total score (especially anxiety) was higher in patients with memory impairment than in those with normal memory function (M = 6.79, SD = 4.53 vs. M = 4.5, SD = 3.6, p < .01). Neither Sleep Quality Index nor fatigue scale scores differed between those cognitively impaired and not impaired. Conclusions: No statistically significant differences were found in the frequency of CD among the three clinical populations. (JINS, 2019, 25, 595–602)
The study of the stone sculpture production process is subject to the preservation and visibility of tool traces and surface finishes. In this article it is proposed that the parameters developed in conservation for the diagnosis of surface stone alteration processes can be used as descriptors to isolate the attributes of postproduction conditions and their influence on variation in the appearance of stonework traces. It shows how the application to a case study served to determine the alterations that contribute to the deterioration of carving traces, the selection of the best-preserved areas for recording, and the retrieval of information for increasing the sample number. The results of fracturing patterns caused by a stress sector in the sculpture body are shown. Certain sets of alterations occurred together, either affecting the integrity of the carving groove or increasing the texturing finish of the polished surface.
Polyphenols are a wide family of phytochemicals present in diverse foods. They might play a role in cancer development and progression. In vivo and in vitro studies have suggested beneficial properties and potential mechanisms. We aimed to evaluate the association between total and main classes of polyphenol intake and breast cancer (BC) risk in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra project – a prospective Mediterranean cohort study. We included 10 713 middle-aged, Spanish female university graduates. Polyphenol intake was derived from a semi-quantitative FFQ and matching food consumption data from the Phenol-Explorer database. Women with self-reported BC were asked to return a copy of their medical report for confirmation purposes; death certificates were used for fatal cases. Cox models were fitted to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for the association between tertiles (T) of polyphenol intake and BC. After 10·3 years of median follow-up, 168 probable incident BC cases were identified, out of which 100 were confirmed. We found no association between polyphenol intake and the overall BC risk. Nevertheless, we observed a significant inverse association between total polyphenol intake and BC risk for postmenopausal women, either for probable or only for confirmed cases (HRT3 v. T1 0·31 (95 % CI 0·13, 0·77; Ptrend=0·010)). Also, phenolic acid intake was inversely associated with postmenopausal BC. In summary, we observed no significant association between total polyphenol intake and BC risk. Despite a low number of incident BC cases in our cohort, higher total polyphenol intake was associated with a lower risk of postmenopausal BC.
This study explores the conceptualization of mother–infant cortisol attunement both theoretically and empirically, and its association with mother–infant attachment disorganization. In a community sample (N = 256), disorganization and cortisol were assessed during the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) at infant age 17 months. Salivary cortisol was collected at baseline, and 20 and 40 min after the SSP. We utilized three statistical approaches: correlated growth modeling (probing a simultaneous conceptualization of attunement), cross-lagged modeling (probing a lagged, reciprocal conceptualization of attunement), and a multilevel model difference score analysis (to examine the pattern of discrepancies in mother–infant cortisol values). Correlated growth modeling revealed that disorganized, relative to organized, dyads had significant magnitude of change over time, such that, among disorganized dyads, as mothers had greater declines in cortisol, infants had greater increases. The difference score analysis revealed that disorganized, relative to organized, dyads had a greater divergence between maternal and infant cortisol values, such that maternal values were lower than infant values. Disorganized attachment status was not significantly associated with attunement when conceptualized as reciprocal and lagged in the cross-lagged model. Findings suggest that mother–infant dyads in disorganized attachment relationships, who are by definition behaviorally misattuned, are also misattuned in their adrenocortical responses.
In order to analyse the effect of hosts’ relationships and the helminthic load on the switching of parasites between native and introduced hosts, we sampled rodents belonging to two suborders from Central Chile. We compared the number of helminthic species shared between murids (introduced) and cricetid (native, same suborder) rodents to those shared between murids and hystricomorphs (native, different suborder), and we assessed the association between parasitic presence, abundance and geographical dispersion in source hosts to the presence and abundance in recipient hosts. Introduced rodent species shared more helminth species with cricetid rodents than with non-cricetids. Presence and abundance in recipient hosts was not associated with the prevalence and mean abundance in source hosts’ population. The mean abundance of parasites in source hosts throughout the territory and wider dispersion was positively associated with the likelihood of being shared with a recipient host. Closer relationships between native and introduced hosts and high parasitic abundance and dispersion could facilitate host switching of helminths between native and introduced rodents. This work provides the first documentation of the importance of parasitic abundance and dispersion on the switching of parasites between native and introduced hosts.
A raw clay from Uruguay was modified with aluminium to obtain an aluminium pillared clay (Al-PILC). The solids were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The Al-PILC retained the typical laminar structure of montmorillonite. The specific surface area and the microporous volume of the Al-PILC, 235 m2 g-1 and 0.096 cm3 g-1, respectively, were much higher than those of the clay. The phosphate adsorption capacity of the Al-PILC was higher than those of the clay. The phosphate adsorption kinetic followed the pseudo-first-order model for both, the clay and the Al-PILC, and the phosphate adsorption isotherm for the Al-PILC fit the Freundlich model.
Although infants less than 18 months old are capable of engaging in self-regulatory behavior (e.g., avoidance, withdrawal, and orienting to other aspects of their environment), the use of self-regulatory strategies at this age (as opposed to relying on caregivers) is associated with elevated behavioral and physiological distress. This study investigated infant dopamine-related genotypes (dopamine receptor D2 [DRD2], dopamine transporter solute carrier family C6, member 4 [SLC6A3], and catechol-O-methyltransferase [COMT]) as they interact with maternal self-reported history of maltreatment to predict observed infant independent emotion regulation behavior. A community sample (N = 193) of mother–infant dyads participated in a toy frustration challenge at infant age 15 months, and infant emotion regulation behavior was coded. Buccal cells were collected for genotyping. Maternal maltreatment history significantly interacted with infant SLC6A3 and COMT genotypes, such that infants with more 10-repeat and valine alleles of SLC6A3 and COMT, respectively, relative to infants with fewer or no 10-repeat and valine alleles, utilized more independent (i.e., maladaptive) regulatory behavior if mother reported a more extensive maltreatment history, as opposed to less. The findings indicate that child genetic factors moderate the intergenerational impact of maternal maltreatment history. The results are discussed in terms of potential mechanism of Gene × Environment interaction.
To determine if a patient’s breast size accurately correlates with the breast volume measured in the computed tomography (CT) scan, and to determine which sizes correspond to a volume >750 cc; in order to predict which patients will benefit from breast irradiation in the prone position.
Breast size was calculated as the difference between the thoracic (band) and breast (bust) circumferences. Breast volume was contoured by a radiation oncologist and measured on the simulation CT scan. Pearson’s coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between both variables. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the optimal cut-off point to predict which differences between band and bust would be associated with a volume ≥750 cc.
Fifty-nine patients were included in this study. Mean breast volume was 851·8 cc and mean size difference was 4·7 inches. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0·61 (p<0·001). The ROC analysis determined that a difference of 5 inches between the band and bust circumferences was the optimal cut-off point to determine a breast volume of 750 cc.
A significant correlation between breast size as measured in the clinical practice and breast volume measured in the CT scan was found. Among other characteristics, a 5-inch difference between breast band and bust will be the cut-off point to decide if a patient will be treated prone at our institution.
Gravitational waves are a consequence of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, first presented in 1915 and published in 1916 . Einstein himself linearized his theory and derived wave equations and calculated the gravitational radiation produced by sources in the weak-field, slow-motion limit . As described in the following Chapter, this initial insight has been greatly expanded so that, in general, it is possible to calculate either numerically or analytically the details of the gravitational radiation for a broad range of potential astronomical sources. Much later, in the 1970s, the discovery of the binary neutron star system PSR1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor  demonstrated through this natural experiment that gravitational waves carry away energy and angular momentum, causing the neutron star orbit to decay at precisely the predicted rate. Early cosmological gravitational waves imprint a polarization signature in the electromagnetic microwave background that several sensitive instruments may detect. See  but also  and references therein for further discussion.
These brief remarks gloss over a more complex history where it was unclear whether gravitational waves were real or just gauge artifacts. The theory was finally settled on the side of reality . The standard next step in physics – to build a receiver to directly detect gravitational waves – proved to be extremely challenging. The analog of the Hertz experiment where artificially generated waves are detected within the wave zone will fail because of the undetectably small amplitude (see for example ). Astrophysical sources are much stronger but are, of course, more distant. Yet their detection may be possible because gravitational wave receivers respond to amplitude and not to intensity. Nonetheless, the numbers are daunting.
In the early 1960s, J. Weber followed through on a bold vision – that gravitational waves were detectable – by measuring the resonant excitation of acoustic modes in heavy metallic bars, as would be caused by a passing gravitational wave from relatively nearby astrophysical sources .