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This study presents zircon U–Pb geochronology and Hf and O isotope data for granitic rocks in the Zijinshan ore field, southwestern Fujian Province, China. The intrusive rocks comprise monzogranite, granite and granodiorite. The magmatic zircon U–Pb ages from these granitic rocks can be divided into four episodes: episodes 1 (157.9–159.9 Ma) and 2 (141 Ma) in the Late Jurassic and episodes 3 (108.1–103.2 Ma) and 4 (97.5–99.7 Ma) in the Middle and Late Cretaceous, respectively. Patterns of rare-earth elements (REE) show enrichment in light REE and obvious negative Eu anomalies. These rocks are also enriched in Rb, Th, U, La, Ce, Nd and Hf, and depleted in Ba, Nb, Sr, P and Ti. The increasing La/Yb ratio and decreasing heavy REE content with decreasing age may imply an increasing contribution of mantle-derived materials from the Late Jurassic to Cretaceous. The zircon ϵHf(t) and δ18O values, ranging from −37.7 to −2.8 and 12.0 ‰ to 6.3 ‰, respectively, indicate that the lower crust is an important source of granitic rocks. There was a significant increase in ϵHf(t) values and a decrease in δ18O values in the younger magmatic episodes (3 and 4), which ranged from −11.4 to −0.6 and 10.7 to 6.3 ‰, respectively. This suggests an increasing contribution of mantle-derived magma to the crustal melts from the Late Jurassic to late Early Cretaceous in response to the changing regional tectonic setting from compression to extension and an increasing interaction between the crust and mantle.
This article is a case study on the Yunnanese scholar Li Yuanyang under the background of the Ming's incorporating and sinicizing Yunnan, exploring how he views the Ming's actions and writes Yunnan's becoming a part of China. First, it retells Li's life experiences and examines the Yunnan native things and Chinese traditions in his writings. Then, after noting his emphasis of Yunnan's belonging to China, it concentrates on his comments on the Ming's military campaigns. As it analyzes, on the one hand, he justifies these campaigns against indigenous rebellions, on the other hand, he also criticizes unnecessary wars and some imperial officials' selfish deeds. Besides, he considers the constructing and reconstructing projects as a symbol of the central state's righteous governance, which should also bring benefit and benevolence to the indigenes. In a word, Li's case reflects the deep impact of the Ming's invasion on the local elites, as well as how they react to this.
This study tracked the longstanding effect of childhood adversities on health status over the course of a life. This study used the data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study which was a nationally representative survey and documented the generation who had arrived in the middle- and old-age phase and experienced the difficult time in the early founding of PR China in their childhood. Results shown the significant associations between multiple forms of children adversities (economic distress, child neglect, child abuse, lack of friends, parental mental health problems) and health status in adolescence (from 0.068 to 0.102, p<0.01), and health status in mid and late adulthood, including self-rated general health problems (from 0.039 to 0.061, p<0.01), chronic conditions (from 0.014 to 0.120, p<0.01 except for lack of friends), body aches (from 0.016 to 0.062, p<0.01 except for child neglect), and depression (from 0.047 to 0.112, p<0.01). Meanwhile, results also shown an underlying pathway (i.e., health status in adolescence) linking childhood adversities and health status in mid and late adulthood. Results suggested that the experience of multiple forms of adversities in childhood represented a substantial source of health risk throughout life.
In this study, basing on the level-set and point-particle methods, we have developed a numerical methodology for simulating the dynamics of colloidal droplets under flow conditions in which the particle–particle, particle–interface and particle–fluid interactions are all taken into account efficiently. By using this methodology, we have determined the essential role of particle-laden interfaces in the deformation of colloidal droplets in simple shear flow with relatively low particle concentrations. Generally, adsorbed particles strongly enhance the deformability of the whole droplet, which is principally attributed to the particle-induced reduction of the effective surface tension. Systematic simulations are performed to reveal the detailed roles of interparticle interactions and particle surface coverage in the deformation of particle-covered droplets. Most importantly, we find the promotion effect of adsorbed particles on the droplet deformation cannot be completely included via the effective capillary number characterizing the particle-induced overall reduction of the effective surface tension, which is particularly obvious at high particle coverage. We propose two potential reasons for this surprising phenomenon, i.e. the convection-induced non-uniform distribution of adsorbed particles over the droplet surface and the particle-induced reduction of the droplet surface mobility, which have not been discussed yet in previous numerical and experimental studies of particle-covered droplets in shear flow.
Searching for residue in the glaze of porcelain or stoneware is a difficult task because these glazes are high-fired, well vitrified, and nonporous. This paper analyzes the chemical composition of residue observed in glaze cracks of porcelain via SEM-EDS to determine how the crackle effect was produced, in particular, if it was intentionally created during production or the result of post-depositional processes. This study offers insights to a specific type of ancient Chinese porcelain called “Ge-type ware”, which has two different types of cracks, and whose origin has been debated for nearly 60 years because it has never been found at any kiln site. This paper analyzes the chemical composition of the two crack types, first using elemental mapping to ascertain the different mechanisms that produced these two crack types of the Heirloom Ge ware, and second using residue analysis and chemical fingerprinting to determine the provenance of this puzzling type of porcelain. In doing so, this paper demonstrates how the residue in the glaze of porcelain can be observed and analyzed via microchemical approaches and hopes to inspire more research using this technique in future.
Some consider potatoes to be unhealthy vegetables that may contribute to adverse cardiometabolic health outcomes. We evaluated the association between potato consumption (including fried and non-fried types) and three key cardiometabolic outcomes among middle-aged and older adults in the Framingham Offspring Study. We included 2523 subjects ≥30 years of age with available dietary data from 3-d food records. Cox-proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for hypertension, type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (T2DM/IFG), and elevated triglycerides, adjusting for anthropometric, demographic and lifestyle factors. In the present study, 36 % of potatoes consumed were baked, 28 % fried, 14 % mashed, 9 % boiled and the rest cooked in other ways. Overall, higher total potato intake (≥4 v. <1 cup-equivalents/week) was not associated with risks of T2DM/IFG (HR 0⋅97, 95 % CI 0⋅81, 1⋅15), hypertension (HR 0⋅95; 95 % CI 0⋅80, 1⋅12) or elevated triglycerides (HR 0⋅99, 95 % CI 0⋅86, 1⋅13). Stratified analyses were used to evaluate effect modification by physical activity levels and red meat consumption, and in those analyses, there were no adverse effects of potato intake. However, when combined with higher levels of physical activity, greater consumption of fried potatoes was associated with a 24 % lower risk (95 % CI 0⋅60, 0⋅96) of T2DM/IFG, and in combination with lower red meat consumption, higher fried potato intake was associated with a 26 % lower risk (95 % CI 0⋅56, 0⋅99) of elevated triglycerides. In this prospective cohort, there was no adverse association between fried or non-fried potato consumption and risks of T2DM/IFG, hypertension or elevated triglycerides.
During late Carboniferous time, the residual ocean basin gradually closed in West Junggar and only a small amount of seawater remained in the Hala’alat Mountain area, where discussions of provenance and tectonics are limited. In this study, LA-ICP-MS U–Pb dating and heavy mineral identification are conducted on the upper Carboniferous tuffaceous sandstones from the Hala’alat and Aladeyikesai formations in the Hala’alat Mountain area. The results reveal the low maturity of the clastic sediments, indicating proximal deposition. The Hala’alat Formation detrital zircons present a single peak (c. 330 Ma). Speculatively, the primary provenance is the Boshchekul–Chingiz Arc, and the secondary sources are the Darbut Tectono-Magmatic Belt and island arcs in the basin. The main peak and provenance of the Aladeyikesai Formation are similar to those of the Hala’alat Formation. Moreover, several age groups, namely, 370–344 Ma, 427–404 Ma and 478–476 Ma, potentially correspond to provenances of the Darbut Tectono-Magmatic Belt, the Boshchekul–Chingiz Arc and the Kujibai–Hongguleleng Ophiolitic Mélange Belt. In addition, the maximum depositional ages of the Hala’alat and Aladeyikesai formations calculated are 314.6 ± 1.54 Ma and 330.8 ± 0.61 Ma, respectively. Comprehensive analysis shows a relatively singular provenance of the Hala’alat Formation. While the provenance of the Aladeyikesai Formation shows inheritance, the provenance area extends northwards to the Kujibai–Hongguleleng Ophiolitic Mélange Belt. Furthermore, the closure of the Junggar Ocean during Carboniferous time caused the potential source region of the Hala’alat Mountain area to migrate northeastwards from Barleik Mountain to Xiemisitai Mountain. This study provides a basis for the analysis of regional geological evolution.
Aberrations in how people form expectations about rewards and how they respond to receiving rewards are thought to underlie major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the underlying mechanism linking the appetitive reward system, specifically anticipation and outcome, is still not fully understood. To examine the neural correlates of monetary anticipation and outcome in currently depressed subjects with MDD, we performed two separate voxel-wise meta-analyses of functional neuroimaging studies using the monetary incentive delay task. During reward anticipation, the depressed patients exhibited an increased response in the bilateral middle cingulate cortex (MCC) extending to the anterior cingulate cortex, the medial prefrontal cortex, the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and the postcentral gyrus, but a reduced response in the mesolimbic circuit, including the left striatum, insula, amygdala, right cerebellum, striatum, and IFG, compared to controls. During the outcome stage, MDD showed higher activity in the left inferior temporal gyrus, and lower activity in the mesocortical pathway, including the bilateral MCC, left caudate nucleus, precentral gyrus, thalamus, cerebellum, right striatum, insula, IFG, middle frontal gyrus, and temporal pole. Our findings suggest that cMDD may be characterised by state-dependent hyper-responsivity in cortical regions during the anticipation phase, and hypo-responsivity of the mesocortico-limbic circuit across the two phases of the reward response. Our study showed dissociable neural circuit responses to monetary stimuli during reward anticipation and outcome, which help to understand the dysfunction in different aspects of reward processing, particularly motivational v. hedonic deficits in depression.
This paper examines whether changes in US presidential administration and central bank turnover during the period 1976–2016 caused regime shifts in Taylor rule deviations. Using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model to construct the welfare-maximizing policy rule and deviations from the optimal rule, we find evidence that politics indeed play a key role in explaining these deviations. In addition to politics, unemployment rates and the interest rate spread significantly account for regime shifts in Taylor rule deviations.
Preschool psychiatric symptoms significantly increase the risk for long-term negative outcomes. Transdiagnostic hierarchical approaches that capture general (‘p’) and specific psychopathology dimensions are promising for understanding risk and predicting outcomes, but their predictive utility in young children is not well established. We delineated a hierarchical structure of preschool psychopathology dimensions and tested their ability to predict psychiatric disorders and functional impairment in preadolescence.
Data for 1253 preschool children (mean age = 4.17, s.d. = 0.81) were drawn from three longitudinal studies using a similar methodology (one community sample, two psychopathology-enriched samples) and followed up into preadolescence, yielding a large and diverse sample. Exploratory factor models derived a hierarchical structure of general and specific factors using symptoms from the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment interview. Longitudinal analyses examined the prospective associations of preschool p and specific factors with preadolescent psychiatric disorders and functional impairment.
A hierarchical dimensional structure with a p factor at the top and up to six specific factors (distress, fear, separation anxiety, social anxiety, inattention-hyperactivity, oppositionality) emerged at preschool age. The p factor predicted all preadolescent disorders (ΔR2 = 0.04–0.15) and functional impairment (ΔR2 = 0.01–0.07) to a significantly greater extent than preschool psychiatric diagnoses and functioning. Specific dimensions provided additional predictive power for the majority of preadolescent outcomes (disorders: ΔR2 = 0.06–0.15; functional impairment: ΔR2 = 0.05–0.12).
Both general and specific dimensions of preschool psychopathology are useful for predicting clinical and functional outcomes almost a decade later. These findings highlight the value of transdiagnostic dimensions for predicting prognosis and as potential targets for early intervention and prevention.
To investigate spiritual care perceptions, spiritual well-being, and empathy, examine the correlations among spiritual care perceptions, spiritual well-being, and empathy, and explore the mediating role of spiritual well-being between other two variables of Chinese nursing students.
A cross-sectional design was implemented, and the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Checklist was used to ensure quality reporting of the study. A cluster sample of 2,718 nursing students was selected from 7 universities and colleges in China. The demographic characteristics questionnaire, the Chinese Version of the Spiritual Care-Giving Scale (C-SCGS), the Spiritual Health Scale Short Form (SHS-SF), and the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy-Nursing Student (JSPE-NS) were used. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and process plug-in mediation effect analyses were used to analyze the data.
The total score of spiritual care perceptions, spiritual well-being, and empathy were 173.83 ± 25.62, 98.74 ± 12.87, and 105.04 ± 21.34, respectively. Spiritual care perceptions were positively correlated with spiritual well-being (r = 0.617, p < 0.01) and empathy (r = 0.528, p < 0.01). And spiritual well-being played a partial mediating role between the other two variables (accounting for 28.1%).
Significance of results
Spiritual care perceptions, spiritual well-being, and empathy were quite moderate, which need in improving. It is suggested that nursing educators pay attention to the spiritual care education of nursing students, perfect the spiritual care education system, and take targeted measures according to nursing students’ individual personality traits and differences, improve their spiritual well-being and empathy in multiple ways, so as to improve their spiritual care perceptions and competence.
Despite the complexity and variation of physical signals, human perception of a speech sound uttered by different talkers or in diverse contexts is amazingly constant. Nonetheless, the neurocognitive mechanisms of this fundamental human perceptual ability are not well understood. Even less is known about the neural bases of phonetic constancy. We present an emerging picture of this important issue based on accumulating behavioral as well as neuroimaging evidence from lexical tone studies. Lexical tone offers a useful test of various existing theories proposed based on segmental studies, because of its variable and dynamic nature. We draw evidence from a series of studies on the perceptual normalization of lexical tones to shed light on prior theories. We also discuss findings from neuroimaging studies which advance our understanding of the temporal and spatial neural signature of phonetic constancy in lexical tone perception. A new model is proposed which emphasizes that listeners extract and integrate information from multiple sources in a fast and robust manner, to help them achieve phonetic constancy.
How did the 1918 influenza pandemic affect female labor force participation in India over the short run and the medium run? We use an event-study approach at the district level and four waves of decadal census data in order to answer this question. We find that districts most adversely affected by influenza mortality saw a temporary increase in female labor force participation in 1921, an increase that was concentrated in the service sector. We find suggestive evidence that distress labor supply by widows and rising wages help account for this result.
Healthcare-associated infection (HAI) is a major cause of morbidity, mortality and cost, which vary widely by region and hospital. In this case-control study, we calculated losses attributable to HAI in central China. A total of 2976 patients in 10 hospitals were enrolled, and the incidence rate of HAI (range, 0.88–4.15%) was significantly, but negatively associated with the cost per 1000 beds of its prevention (range, $24 929.76–$53 146.41; r = −0.76). The per capita economic loss attributable to HAIs was $2047.07 (interquartile range, $327.63–$6429.17), mainly from the pharmaceutical cost (median, $1044.39). The HAIs, which occurred in patients with commercial medical insurance, affected the haematologic system and caused by Acinetobacter baumannii, contributed most to the losses (median, $3881.55, $4734.20 and $9882.75, respectively). Furthermore, the economic losses attributable to device-associated infections and hospital-acquired multi-drug resistant bacteria were two to four times those of the controls. The burden attributable to HAI is heavy, and opportunities for easing this burden exist in several areas, including that strengthening antibiotic stewardship and practicing effective bundle of HAI prevention for patients carrying high-risk factors, for example, elders or those with catheterisations in healthcare institutions, and accelerating the medical insurance payment system reform based on diagnosis-related groups by policy-making departments.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been widely prevalent among older men (aged ≥50 years old) in Sichuan Province. The study aimed to discover associated factors with the new HIV infection in older men, and provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in this group. A cross-sectional survey study of newly reported HIV/AIDS and general male residents aged 50 years and older was conducted between April and June 2019, with a resample of respondents to identify cases and controls, followed by a case–control study. Logistic regression was applied to analyse the association between the selected factors and new HIV infection among older men. At last, 242 cases and 968 controls were included. The results of multiple logistic regression suggested that many factors including living alone/concentrated (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.20–2.04, P = 0.001), have a history of migrant worker (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.61–2.73, P < 0.001), have commercial sexual behaviour (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.32–2.22, P < 0.001), married (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.37–0.64, P < 0.001), have a history of HIV antibody testing (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56–0.96, P = 0.026), HIV-related knowledge (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.42–0.72, P < 0.001) were associated with new HIV infection among older men. The present study revealed some potential risky/protective factors altogether. The results highlighted the direction of HIV/AIDS prevention and control among older men, and it is a social issue that requires the joint participation of the whole society.
Elucidating individual aberrance is a critical first step toward precision medicine for heterogeneous disorders such as depression. The neuropathology of depression is related to abnormal inter-regional structural covariance indicating a brain maturational disruption. However, most studies focus on group-level structural covariance aberrance and ignore the interindividual heterogeneity. For that reason, we aimed to identify individualized structural covariance aberrance with the help of individualized differential structural covariance network (IDSCN) analysis.
T1-weighted anatomical images of 195 first-episode untreated patients with depression and matched healthy controls (n = 78) were acquired. We obtained IDSCN for each patient and identified subtypes of depression based on shared differential edges.
As a result, patients with depression demonstrated tremendous heterogeneity in the distribution of differential structural covariance edges. Despite this heterogeneity, altered edges within subcortical-cerebellum network were often shared by most of the patients. Two robust neuroanatomical subtypes were identified. Specifically, patients in subtype 1 often shared decreased motor network-related edges. Patients in subtype 2 often shared decreased subcortical-cerebellum network-related edges. Functional annotation further revealed that differential edges in subtype 2 were mainly implicated in reward/motivation-related functional terms.
In conclusion, we investigated individualized differential structural covariance and identified that decreased edges within subcortical-cerebellum network are often shared by patients with depression. The identified two subtypes provide new insights into taxonomy and facilitate potential clues to precision diagnosis and treatment of depression.
The codling moth Cydia pomonella is a major pest of global significance impacting pome fruits and walnuts. It threatens the apple industry in the Loess Plateau and Bohai Bay in China. Sterile insect technique (SIT) could overcome the limitations set by environmentally compatible area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches such as mating disruption and attract-kill that are difficult to suppress in a high-density pest population, as well as the development of insecticide resistance. In this study, we investigated the effects of X-ray irradiation (183, 366, 549 Gy) on the fecundity and fertility of a laboratory strain of C. pomonella, using a newly developed irradiator, to evaluate the possibility of X-rays as a replacement for Cobalt60 (60Co-γ) and the expanded future role of this approach in codling moth control. Results show that the 8th-day is the optimal age for irradiation of male pupae. The fecundity decreased significantly as the dosage of radiation increased. The mating ratio and mating number were not influenced. However, treated females were sub-sterile at a radiation dose of 183 Gy (20.93%), and were almost 100% sterile at a radiation dose of 366 Gy or higher. Although exposure to a radiation dose of 366 Gy resulted in a significant reduction in the mating competitiveness of male moths, our radiation biology results suggest that this new generation of X-ray irradiator has potential applications in SIT programs for future codling moth control.
Despite the wide recognition of language teacher educators’ contributions in the field of Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL), research on language teacher educators has only picked up the pace in the last decade, shedding light on their cognition, practices, and identities in relation to various personal, interpersonal, and contextual factors. This article provides a systematic and critical review of 69 empirical studies on university-based TESOL teacher educators from 2010 and 2020. A methodological review was also conducted to analyze the different research approaches employed by previous researchers. A synthesis of the identified research led to four major themes, namely: (1) a general professional state (including responsibilities, challenges and quality), (2) professional engagement (including teaching, practicum supervision, and research and publishing), (3) cognition (including beliefs, knowledge, and expertise), as well as (4) continuous learning and identity development. Through a critical discussion of the themes, the review argues against the implicit yet powerful discourse that characterizes language teacher educators as ‘supermen/superwomen’ and emphasizes the need to humanize them as whole people by recognizing their unique strengths and struggles as well as diverse learning needs. The review also proposes a new research agenda to stimulate and deepen future investigations on language teacher educators in TESOL.