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This is the first comprehensive overview of the exciting field of the 'science of science'. Those concerned with maximizing their career impact and productivity, with their scientific creativity, with effective collaboration and with the metrics of assessment will better understand the fundamental workings of science. Big data analysis and quantitative tools help identify success and failure within the discipline. Areas in the 'science of science' that are ripe for further research are explored, and the implications this could have for future technological and innovative work are examined. With anecdotes and detailed, easy-to-follow explanations of the research, this book is accessible to all scientists, policy makers, and administrators with an interest in the wider scientific enterprise.
This exciting new textbook introduces the concepts and tools essential for upper-level undergraduate study in water resources and hydraulics. Tailored specifically to fit the length of a typical one-semester course, it will prove a valuable resource to students in civil engineering, water resources engineering, and environmental engineering. It will also serve as a reference textbook for researchers, practicing water engineers, consultants, and managers. The book facilitates students' understanding of both hydrologic analysis and hydraulic design. Example problems are carefully selected and solved clearly in a step-by-step manner, allowing students to follow along and gain mastery of relevant principles and concepts. These examples are comparable in terms of difficulty level and content with the end-of-chapter student exercises, so students will become well equipped to handle relevant problems on their own. Physical phenomena are visualized in engaging photos, annotated equations, graphical illustrations, flowcharts, videos, and tables.
Asia is now home to some 800 million multilingual speakers of English, more than the total number of native English speakers, and how they use English is continuously evolving and changing to reflect their cultural backgrounds and everyday experiences. Can English, therefore, be considered an Asian language? Drawing upon the Asian Corpus of English, this book will be the first comprehensive account of the roles, uses and features of English in Asia, encompassing several different varieties of Asian English. Chapters cover the distinctive linguistic features of English in different settings, such as in law, religion and popular culture, as well as the use of local rhetorical, pragmatic and cultural styles and its use as a lingua franca among Asian multilinguals. It will also examine the role of English in education - from primary through to higher education - and consider the implications of this for other languages of Asia.
The chapter establishes that economic and political grievances matter for economic protest in general and public economic protest in particular. In addition, it shows that, during the period covered, political grievances have been strongly influenced by economic grievances across Europe, but most clearly in southern Europe. While the rapid recovery of the countries of north-western Europe and the pain tolerance in the countries of central and eastern Europe probably served to limit the impact of the economic grievances on political dissatisfaction, the fact that the southern European countries not only were hard hit by the economic crisis, but also experienced a relative decline with regard to the other parts of Europe, most likely enhanced the impact of economic on political grievances in this part of Europe. Moreover, it is also above all in southern Europe that the effect of economic on political grievances was conditioned by state capacity and IMF interventions: while weak state capacity enhanced the effect of the former on the latter, IMF interventions attenuated it. Finally, a core finding of this chapter is that economic protest was most heavily influenced by the joint effect of economic and political grievances. Protest mobilization was particularly pronounced whenever dire economic conditions and dissatisfaction with the political system rose together and reinforced each other.
The focus of discussion in this chapter is on occupational stress and health of women in Asian contexts. There are similarities of occupational health and illness between Asian and Western women, and occupational health in Asian contexts is more related to culture, with working women expected to fulfill traditional modest feminist and family responsibilities. Two cases in Asian countries are examined in depth, Bangladesh and China, to illustrate the intersection role of culture and gender on occupational stress and health.
Adolescence is an important phase of development during which youth experience dramatic neurobiological, cognitive, and psychosocial changes. Decades of research have demonstrated gender similarities and differences during adolescence. This chapter takes both a gender perspective and a sociocultural perspective to understand adolescent development. For each of the following seven areas of adolescent development, we summarize latest research findings on gender similarities and differences in diverse cultures (e.g., North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia). We then particularly focus on singleton adolescent girls’ and boys’ development under the One-Child Policy in China as a case in point of sociocultural influences on gendered development during adolescence. Future directions of both theoretical and methodological concerns are discussed.
Identifying and quantifying sex differences and similarities has been a central research question and fascinated scientists for centuries. A large body of work has been accumulated on this topic; however, conclusions are often drawn as if they are applicable across cultures even though studies have predominantly relied on Western samples. This chapter reviews cross-cultural literature on several early childhood sex differences in domains of development that have caught attention in the literature recently: gender-typed play, gender identity, and gender expression. We also offer an overview of possible influences on sex differences, including evolutionary, biodevelopmental (genetics, sex hormones, and immune factors), and sociocultural mechanisms (socialization and macro-cultural factors). Given that a cross-cultural perspective has often been lacking in this literature, this chapter reviews research on early gender development in males and females from Western populations as well as the non-Western populations wherever possible to highlight important cultural (in)consistencies.
For a wide range of insect species, the microbiota has potential roles in determining host developmental programme, immunity and reproductive biology. The tea geometrid moths Ectropis obliqua and E. grisescens are two closely related species that mainly feed on tea leaves. Although they can mate, infertile hybrids are produced. Therefore, these species provide a pair of model species for studying the molecular mechanisms of microbiotal involvement in host reproductive biology. In this study, we first identified and compared the compositions of microbiota between these sibling species, revealing higher microbiotal diversity for E. grisescens. The microbiota of E. obliqua mainly comprised the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria, whereas that of E. grisescens was dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. At the genus level, the dominant microbiota of E. grisescens included Wolbachia, Enterobacter and Pseudomonas and that of E. obliqua included Melissococcus, Staphylococcus and Enterobacter. Furthermore, we verified the rate of Wolbachia to infect 80 samples from eight different geographical populations, and the results supported that only E. grisescens harboured Wolbachia. Taken together, our findings indicate significantly different microbiotal compositions for E. obliqua and E. grisescens, with Wolbachia possibly being a curial factor influencing the reproductive isolation of these species. This study provides new insight into the mechanisms by which endosymbiotic bacteria, particularly Wolbachia, interact with sibling species.