To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Feminist literary retrieval projects in Ireland quickly embraced the bibliographical and hypertextual possibilities offered in the early 2000s by the then burgeoning field of digital humanities. This essay examines the printed prehistory of projects such as the Women in Modern Irish Culture Database and the Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing (volumes IV and V), demonstrating how this genealogy has shaped the nature and impact of the online archive. The chapter argue that the continuing absence from university syllabi, and publishers’ lists, of many of the Irish women ‘discovered’ by digital research projects, indicates that presence is only the first step in securing real engagement with the literary archive of women’s writings. Looking to the future of the feminist digital, and the potential offered by big data, this chapter explores how long-standing digital questions of access, interoperability, and sustainability continue to influence the parameters of the field.
Using a communal approach that employs diverse feminist perspectives, co-authors Anne Choike, Martha Albertson Fineman, and Cheryl L. Wade argue that feminism offers corporate law a vitally important analytical tool to advance the creation of a more just legal framework governing corporations and their stakeholders. Choike, Fineman, and Wade highlight feminist corporate law literature that uses various feminist and feminist-inspired approaches to illuminate how using such perspectives can facilitate critical examination of corporate law concepts (including corporate personhood, limited liability, board diversity, firm ownership, and theories of the firm). Choike, Fineman and Wade argue that each type of feminism offers unique tools to analyze corporate law. Liberal feminism’s focus on gender identity, among other intersectional identity characteristics, reveals corporate law’s inequitable substance and operation. Relational feminism’s attention to gendered values and ethical frameworks highlights their impact upon the role and function of the corporation. Dominance feminism’s focus on power enables critique of implicitly gendered privileges that corporate law confers upon corporate actors. Feminism-inspired universal theories like vulnerability theory transcend gender to consider how institutional relationships in corporate law, such as principal/agent and worker/owner, may be unequal. Professional practitioners, scholars, and students can benefit from this chapter.
The plaintiff, John Walkovsky, was struck by a taxi owned by Seon Cab Corporation while walking in New York City. Seon Cab Corp. was one of the ten cab companies owned by a group of shareholders, including William Carlton. The case highlights the harms visited on innocent parties by limited liability and shareholders’ focus on profit. A feminist rewrite would examine the costs visited upon vulnerable groups such as tort victims with limited access to the legal system, children who are likely to be more severely injured if harmed by corporate activity or by the loss of a parent so injured, and immigrants and lower-income Americans who may not have health insurance to cover the physical harms caused by corporate business. Intentional undercapitalization of corporations and an adherence to minimum insurance requirements externalizes the costs of doing business onto the rest of society. This externalization of costs is particularly harmful when it causes physical injury or death to portions of the population who cannot absorb the costs ducked by the corporation. A feminist perspective could consider the interests of these vulnerable populations in designing a limited liability doctrine that encourages entrepreneurial risk-taking while balancing it against the cost of significant corporate externalities.
This study aimed to estimate the value of the typical Australian herding dog in terms of predicted return on investment. This required an assessment of the costs associated with owning herding dogs and estimation of the work they typically perform. Data on a total of 4,027 dogs were acquired through The Farm Dog Survey which gathered information from 812 herding dog owners around Australia. The median cost involved in owning a herding dog was estimated to be a total of AU$7,763 over the period of its working life. The work performed by the dog throughout this time was estimated to have a median value of AU$40,000. So, herding dogs typically provided their owners with a 5.2-fold return on investment. When respondents were asked to nominate the maximal, one-off, veterinary expenditure they would consider to remedy an illness or injury for an especially valued dog, the median response was AU$1,001-2,000 which is not concordant with the dogs’ calculated median lifetime value. The current findings equip working dog owners with useful information to make financially appropriate expenditure decisions related to their working dogs. This is expected to increase farm profitability and improve welfare for farm dogs.
Threshold analysis is a novel statistical approach which can be used to investigate which direct comparisons in a network meta-analysis (NMA) have estimated relative effects that may not be robust to changes in the evidence, either due to possible bias, sampling variation, or relevance.
In a health technology assessment of the clinical effectiveness of ablative and non-invasive therapies for patients with early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we conducted a threshold analysis to identify treatment comparisons that would be sensitive to changes in the randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence used in the NMAs, potentially leading to a change in the recommended treatment. The results of the threshold analysis were used to guide a targeted systematic review of high-quality, non-randomized, prospective comparative studies that could strengthen the evidence for those comparisons identified as sensitive to change.
We conducted NMAs of RCT evidence for four outcomes: overall survival (16 RCTs), progression-free survival (6 RCTs), overall recurrence (7 RCTs), and local recurrence (10 RCTs). The results of the NMAs displayed a high level of uncertainty, attributable to the sparse nature of the network, characterised by interventions being mainly compared in small trials. A targeted systematic review was conducted on relevant interventions that were identified as being sensitive to changes in evidence by the threshold analysis. The studies identified in this review were incorporated into a second NMA to support the RCT evidence.
Threshold analysis has been typically used as a tool to assess how robust comparisons in an NMA are to additional sources of evidence, but it can also be used to guide the search for additional non-randomized evidence when the available RCT evidence is sparse.
Avian influenza (AI) is an important disease that has significant implications for animal and human health. High pathogenicity AI (HPAI) has emerged in consecutive seasons within the UK to cause the largest outbreaks recorded. Statutory measures to control outbreaks of AI virus (AIV) at poultry farms involve disposal of all birds on infected premises. Understanding of the timing of incursions into the UK could facilitate decisions on improved responses. During the autumnal migration and wintering period (autumn 2019– spring 2020), three active sampling approaches were trialled for wild bird species considered likely to be involved in captive AI outbreaks with retrospective laboratory testing undertaken to define the presence of AIV.
Faecal sampling of birds (n = 594) caught during routine and responsive mist net sampling failed to detect AIV. Cloacal sampling of hunter-harvested waterfowl (n = 146) detected seven positive samples from three species with the earliest detection on the 17 October 2020. Statutory sampling first detected AIV in wild and captive birds on 3 November 2020. We conclude that hunter sourced sampling of waterfowl presents an opportunity to detect AI within the UK in advance of outbreaks on poultry farms and allow for early intervention measures to protect the national poultry flock.
A parasitological survey of terrestrial slugs and snails was conducted at popular dog walking locations across the city of Nottingham, with the intensions of finding gastropods infected with parasites of medical (or veterinary) importance such as lungworm (metastrongyloid nematodes) and trematodes. A total of 800 gastropods were collected from 16 sites over a 225 km2 area. The extracted nematodes and trematodes were identified by molecular barcoding. Of the 800 gastropods collected, 227 were infected (172 had nematode infections, 37 had trematode infections and 18 had both nematode and trematode infections). Of the nematode infected gastropods genotyped, seven species were identified, Agfa flexilis, Angiostoma gandavense, Angiostoma margaretae, Cosmocerca longicauda, Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, Phasmarhabditis neopapillosa and an unknown Cosmocercidae species. Of the trematode infected gastropods genotyped, four species were identified, Brachylaima arcuate, Brachylaima fuscata, Brachylaima mesostoma and an unknown Plagiorchioidea species. No lungworm species were found within the city of Nottingham. To our knowledge, this study represents the first survey of gastropod-associated nematodes and trematodes in the East midlands of the United Kingdom.
Climate change and soil degradation are the issues depleting the soil's ability to promote good yield. One of the ways to combat this is the practice of conservation agriculture (CA). This study was carried out to explore and investigate the impact of CA. Multinomial endogenous switching regression model and cross-sectional data were used to investigate the determinants and the impact of the adoption of CA on the income of smallholder maize farmers in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Three categories of CA (minimum tillage, crop diversification and a combination of both minimum tillage and crop diversification) were considered. The empirical results revealed that regardless of the choices of CA practices adopted by the maize farmers, the income realized was higher for adopters than for non-adopters of CA practices. The average treatment effect for the adopters of both minimum tillage and crop diversification was the highest, showing an increase in income by 60.31% (R15575.99/$996.57USD) compared to the non-adopters. The policy implication for these results is that there is a need to promote the adoption of CA practices, particularly a combination of both minimum tillage and crop diversification, given their significant impact on farmer income, an important welfare outcome that has significant implications on food security and poverty alleviation.
We investigate differences in profitability of three Aberdeen-influenced breeds, Angus, Red Angus, and American Aberdeen. Using data from North Dakota, we measure differences in birth weights, calving intervals, weaning weights, cow weights, and profitability. Weaning weights differ between breeds, setting up a trade-off between lower feed costs for smaller cows and higher revenue for larger cows. American Aberdeen-influenced cows bred to Red Angus bulls have $1–$6 per acre higher returns than Angus or Red Angus-influenced cows. Aberdeen sires have the lowest returning calves.
Over the past two decades, society has seen incredible advances in digital technology, resulting in the wide availability of cheap and easy-to-use software for creating highly sophisticated fake visual content. This democratisation of creating such content, paired with the ease of sharing it via social media, means that ill-intended fake images and videos pose a significant threat to society. To minimise this threat, it is necessary to be able to distinguish between real and fake content; to date, however, human perceptual research indicates that people have an extremely limited ability to do so. Generally, computational techniques fair better in these tasks, yet remain imperfect. What's more, this challenge is best considered as an arms race – as scientists improve detection techniques, fraudsters find novel ways to deceive. We believe that it is crucial to continue to raise awareness of the visual forgeries afforded by new technology and to examine both human and computational ability to sort the real from the fake. In this article, we outline three considerations for how society deals with future technological developments that aim to help secure the benefits of that technology while minimising its possible threats. We hope these considerations will encourage interdisciplinary discussion and collaboration that ultimately goes some way to limit the proliferation of harmful content and help to restore trust online.
This article offers the first extensive analysis of female agency in the marine insurance industry of early modern Europe. Drawing from a data set of more than four thousand insurance policies signed in the Royal Insurance Chamber in Paris between 1668 and 1672, the article studies the activities of Parisian women within the institution. These policies illustrate that women played a crucial role in the Chamber as underwriters, creditors, commission agents, and policyholders. Moreover, institutional papers and the records of the Parisian admiralty court reveal that women acted ably in defense of their interests when conflicts emerged, although there were limitations to their agency in the Chamber itself. In this way, the article challenges the long-standing perception that underwriting was an exclusively masculine activity in pre-modern Europe. Moreover, it sheds light on the role of women in supporting the maritime and colonial policies of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Louis XIV’s eminent minister, thereby becoming underwriters of France’s early Atlantic Empire.
To examine the impact of early traumatic brain injury (TBI) on effortful control (EC) over time and the relationship of EC and executive functioning (EF) to long-term functional and social outcomes.
Parents of children (N = 206, ages 3–7) with moderate-to-severe TBI or orthopedic injuries (OIs) rated EC using the Child Behavior Questionnaire at 1 (pre-injury), 6, 12, and 18 months post-injury. Child functioning and social competence were assessed at 7 years post-injury. Mixed models examined the effects of injury, time since injury, and their interaction on EC. General linear models examined the associations of pre-injury EC and EC at 18 months with long-term functional and social outcomes. Models controlled for EF to assess the unique contribution of EC to outcomes.
Children with severe TBI had significantly lower EC than both the OI and moderate TBI groups at each post-injury time point. Both pre-injury and 18-month EC were associated with long-term outcomes. Among those with low EC at baseline, children with moderate and severe TBI had more functional impairment than those with OI; however, no group differences were noted at high levels of EC. EC had main effects on parent-reported social competence that did not vary by injury type.
Findings suggest that EC is sensitive to TBI effects and is a unique predictor of functional outcomes, independent of EF. High EC could serve as a protective factor, and as such measures of EC could be used to identify children for more intensive intervention.
Stigma can maintain discrimination and oppression and reduce compassion and understanding. In the area of mental illness and psychological help seeking, stigma acts as a considerable barrier to recovery and adds additional burdens to be managed. This reality has led many different research groups to explore the workings of stigma and ways to intervene to help people who suffer from the stigma associated with mental health problems. We wanted to create a state-of-the-science source for the best research being done in this area and so we organized the Handbook of Stigma and Mental Health. This chapter provides an overview to the Handbook and the excellent research that is reviewed in it. In their chapters, the authors of the Handbook answer four important questions: “What are the forms of mental health stigma?”; “What are impacts of mental health stigma?”; “How can we develop interventions to reduce mental health stigma across contexts?”; “How can we understand the specific ways that mental health stigma impacts different groups (e.g., racial minorities, veterans)?” We hope that asking these questions will stimulate and drive more innovative research in the future.