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The Cognitive Battery of the National Institutes of Health Toolbox (NIH-TB) is a collection of assessments that have been adapted and normed for administration across the lifespan and is increasingly used in large-scale population-level research. However, despite increasing adoption in longitudinal investigations of neurocognitive development, and growing recommendations that the Toolbox be used in clinical applications, little is known about the long-term temporal stability of the NIH-TB, particularly in youth.
The present study examined the long-term temporal reliability of the NIH-TB in a large cohort of youth (9–15 years-old) recruited across two data collection sites. Participants were invited to complete testing annually for 3 years.
Reliability was generally low-to-moderate, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging between 0.31 and 0.76 for the full sample. There were multiple significant differences between sites, with one site generally exhibiting stronger temporal stability than the other.
Reliability of the NIH-TB Cognitive Battery was lower than expected given early work examining shorter test-retest intervals. Moreover, there were very few instances of tests meeting stability requirements for use in research; none of the tests exhibited adequate reliability for use in clinical applications. Reliability is paramount to establishing the validity of the tool, thus the constructs assessed by the NIH-TB may vary over time in youth. We recommend further refinement of the NIH-TB Cognitive Battery and its norming procedures for children before further adoption as a neuropsychological assessment. We also urge researchers who have already employed the NIH-TB in their studies to interpret their results with caution.
Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) values were measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in different regions of the brain in 27 patients with DAT. Significant correlations were found between rCBF in left parieto-temporooccipital regions and psychometric test scores. Patients with hemisphere asymmetry in SPECT performed worse on psychometric tests. SPECT did not permit prediction of or differentiation between depressive and psychotic symptoms.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
The lack of current research regarding teacher knowledge about early life stress (ELS) in children needs to be expanded. The purpose of this study was to assess teacher knowledge, educational training levels, and their individual ability to identify signs and symptoms of ELS. Participants were given the Early Life Stress Assessment Survey. The statistical analysis of respondent survey data indicated that 85% of survey participants had little or no knowledge of the topic and have not attended at least one professional training course or seminar. This result was significant, because 96% of participating teachers indicated they had students who have experienced ELS in their classrooms. Additionally, participants were asked to identify signs and symptoms of ELS versus other types of learning disabilities. The average survey score was 58% correct answers.
Adolescent subthreshold emotional symptoms arise from impaired self-referential information-processing and approach–avoidance behaviour network integration, which compromises goal evaluation and pursuit strategies.
We investigated whether impairment of negative emotion (goal) reappraisal strategies (self-focussing and self-distancing) generates emotional symptoms (emotional disorders precursors).
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a triple-network model (default mode, executive control and salience), functional connectivity differences within and between networks, and their modulation by task and relationships with emotional symptoms were determined in healthy adolescent girls (N = 202) grouped by presence or absence of emotional symptoms.
The groups differed in spectral power distribution and in dorsal default mode network and right executive control network modulation when self-focussing and self-distancing, respectively. Girls without emotional symptoms had greater spectral power and less network modulation. Greater spectral power was associated with reduced emotional symptoms and less dorsal default mode network modulation when self-focussing.
The early phases of anxiety and depressive disorders in adolescence are marked by emotional symptoms that usually emerge in the context of negative life events. To contend with the negative effect of such events, a typical reappraisal strategy is to distance oneself and switch the focus of one's thinking. This brain-imaging study in adolescent girls prone to the development of emotional disorders has found functional changes in key neural networks that are involved in reappraisal and shown that this process is impaired. This is important because it provides an early indication of these common disorders and a potential target for psychological interventions.
Herein we describe a technique for preparing samples from cycled Li-ion batteries with minimal contact with atmospheric water for examination by TEM and to provide the results of an analysis of the SEI in Li-ion cells. The electrode samples were prepared in a glove box by manipulation with a diamond tipped pen to carefully dislodge particles directly onto the TEM sample holder. Electrodes were extracted from Li-ion cells that contained a cathode of high capacity, manganese rich NCM (HCMR-NCM). Nanometer-sized MnF2 crystal particles embed themselves in the SEI layer of the anodes as observed and confirmed by HRTEM lattice image analysis and EELS. Cross-sections of the SEI layer reveal that the thickness of the SEI and propensity for MnF2 crystal deposition is non-uniform.
Positive symptoms are a useful predictor of aggression in schizophrenia. Although a similar pattern of abnormal brain structures related to both positive symptoms and aggression has been reported, this observation has not yet been confirmed in a single sample.
To study the association between positive symptoms and aggression in schizophrenia on a neurobiological level, a prospective meta-analytic approach was employed to analyze harmonized structural neuroimaging data from 10 research centers worldwide. We analyzed brain MRI scans from 902 individuals with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and 952 healthy controls.
The result identified a widespread cortical thickness reduction in schizophrenia compared to their controls. Two separate meta-regression analyses revealed that a common pattern of reduced cortical gray matter thickness within the left lateral temporal lobe and right midcingulate cortex was significantly associated with both positive symptoms and aggression.
These findings suggested that positive symptoms such as formal thought disorder and auditory misperception, combined with cognitive impairments reflecting difficulties in deploying an adaptive control toward perceived threats, could escalate the likelihood of aggression in schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia is associated with robust hippocampal volume deficits but subregion volume deficits, their associations with cognition, and contributing genes remain to be determined.
Hippocampal formation (HF) subregion volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer 6.0 from individuals with schizophrenia (n = 176, mean age ± s.d. = 39.0 ± 11.5, 132 males) and healthy volunteers (n = 173, mean age ± s.d. = 37.6 ± 11.3, 123 males) with similar mean age, gender, handedness, and race distributions. Relationships between the HF subregion volume with the largest between group difference, neuropsychological performance, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms were assessed.
This study found a significant group by region interaction on hippocampal subregion volumes. Compared to healthy volunteers, individuals with schizophrenia had significantly smaller dentate gyrus (DG) (Cohen's d = −0.57), Cornu Ammonis (CA) 4, molecular layer of the hippocampus, hippocampal tail, and CA 1 volumes, when statistically controlling for intracranial volume; DG (d = −0.43) and CA 4 volumes remained significantly smaller when statistically controlling for mean hippocampal volume. DG volume showed the largest between group difference and significant positive associations with visual memory and speed of processing in the overall sample. Genome-wide association analysis with DG volume as the quantitative phenotype identified rs56055643 (β = 10.8, p < 5 × 10−8, 95% CI 7.0–14.5) on chromosome 3 in high linkage disequilibrium with MOBP. Gene-based analyses identified associations between SLC25A38 and RPSA and DG volume.
This study suggests that DG dysfunction is fundamentally involved in schizophrenia pathophysiology, that it may contribute to cognitive abnormalities in schizophrenia, and that underlying biological mechanisms may involve contributions from MOBP, SLC25A38, and RPSA.
This paper reports the molecular organization and mechanical properties of electrospun, post-drawn polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers. Without post-drawing, the polymer chain was kinked and oriented in hexagonal crystalline structures. Immediate post-drawing in the semi-solid state disrupted the crystal structures and chain kink at maximum draw ratio. Structural re-orientation at maximum draw resulted in a 500% increase in Young's modulus and a 100% increase in ultimate tensile strength. By applying post-drawing to electrospinning it may be possible to obtain PAN fibers and PAN-derived carbon fibers with enhanced mechanical properties compared to available fabrication technologies.
Suicide is a serious and not uncommon consequence of mood disorders that occurs primarily when individuals are depressed. Understanding the neurobiology of suicidal activity (thoughts or behaviors) is likely to facilitate prevention.
Seventy-nine adult depressed mood disorder patients (MDP), of which 25 had attempted suicide at least once, and 66 healthy controls (HC) participated in this study. Resting-state functional MRI was used to identify neural activity differences between suicide attempters (SA) and non-attempters (NA). Specifically, differences were examined in functional connectivity both within and between four large cognitive networks [Executive Control (ECN), Default Mode (DMN), Salience (SN), and Basal Ganglia (BGN)] and their respective associations with suicidal activity.
Compared to HCs, patients had greater posterior DMN activity, but less activity in the BGN, and less low-frequency spectral power in the dorso-medial DMN. Furthermore, increased posterior DMN activity in SA was associated with recent suicidal activity, whereas NA had reduced BGN activity and less dorso-medial DMN spectral power, the latter being associated with lifelong suicidal thinking. SA also had greater activity in midline circuitry compared to both HC and NA, and the pattern of BGN and DMN co-activity differed between SA and NA.
DMN engagement raises the possibility that suicidal activity in mood disorder patients may be a consequence of impaired self-referential thought processing. Furthermore, differential BGN and DMN co-activation according to suicide attempt status suggests that attempting suicide perhaps alters cognitive flexibility. These insights are potentially useful for understanding the neural basis of suicide activity.
This article presents an analysis of three uniquely situated garden-based research studies. As colleagues intrigued by the rich, intricate, learning dynamics playing out within the garden spaces, our collaboration explored the broader meaning and potential for garden-based programming. As we discussed the three garden studies, two themes emerged as valuable for analysis: relationality and decolonisation. We understand the themes in relation to Gregory Cajete’s (2005) conceptualisation of coming to resonance within oneself, one’s community, and the surrounding ecosystem as being integral aspects of a holistic learning program. In addition, centring learning around relationality with place requires, as Delores Calderon (2014) asserts, a critique of colonisation that has shaped place over time. In our collaboration on the three studies and reading of current developments in the literature, it became clear that garden- and place-based education must grapple with the troubled histories of place and work towards decolonisation. Each garden project provided unique insight, but our collective analysis elicited an examination of assumptions about pedagogy and potential for decolonisation of land, body, and minds.
Selection of microscopes for student use involves many factors. The microscopes must stand up to daily use by students with little experience, be constantly up and running, and fit the budget requirements. Especially with student microscopes, practical aspects can be important. Thus, size, weight, cabling, and design should be taken into consideration even before the microscope and its accessories enter the decision process. If chosen carefully, educational microscopes can delight young minds in schools and universities, and, ideally, the experience will fascinate them enough that they decide to make science their profession.
Subsyndromal emotional symptoms in adolescence may represent precursors for full-blown emotional disorders in early adulthood. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms that drive this development is essential for prevention.
Self-referential processing and emotion regulation are remodelled substantively during adolescence, therefore this study examined integration of key neural networks involved in these processes.
At baseline, clinical and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected for 88 adolescent girls (mean age 15 years), and 71 of these girls underwent repeat clinical assessment after 2 years. These 71 girls were then partitioned into two groups depending on the presence (ES+) or absence (ES−) of emotional symptoms, and differences in dynamic functional network connectivity were determined and correlated with clinical variables.
The two groups displayed a differential pattern of functional connectivity involving the left lateral prefrontal network (LPFN). Specifically, in the ES+ group this network displayed positive coupling with the right LPFN but negative coupling with the default mode network, and the inverse of this pattern was found in the ES− group. Furthermore, the coupling strengths between left and right LPFN at the irst time point predicted follow-up depression and state anxiety scores.
Our findings suggest that in adolescent girls, emotional symptoms may emerge as a result of impaired integration between networks involved in self-referential information processing and approach-avoidance behaviours. These impairments can compromise the pursuit of important goals and have an impact on emotion processing and finally may lead to the development of emotional disorders, such as anxiety and depression in adulthood.
Objectives: Apathy is a debilitating symptom of Huntington’s disease (HD) and manifests before motor diagnosis, making it an excellent therapeutic target in the preclinical phase of Huntington’s disease (prHD). HD is a neurological genetic disorder characterized by cognitive and motor impairment, and psychiatric abnormalities. Apathy is not well characterized within the prHD. In previous literature, damage to the caudate and putamen has been correlated with increased apathy in other neurodegenerative and movement disorders. The objective of this study was to determine whether apathy severity in individuals with prHD is related to striatum volumes and cognitive control. We hypothesized that, within prHD individuals, striatum volumes and cognitive control scores would be related to apathy. Methods: We constructed linear mixed models to analyze striatum volumes and cognitive control, a composite measure that includes tasks assessing with apathy scores from 797 prHD participants. The outcome variable for each model was apathy, and the independent variables for the four separate models were caudate volume, putamen volume, cognitive control score, and motor symptom score. We also included depression as a covariate to ensure that our results were not solely related to mood. Results: Caudate and putamen volumes, as well as measures of cognitive control, were significantly related to apathy scores even after controlling for depression. Conclusions: The behavioral apathy expressed by these individuals was related to regions of the brain commonly associated with isolated apathy, and not a direct result of mood symptoms. (JINS, 2019, 25, 462–469)
The Guarded Negation Fragment (GNFO) is a fragment of first-order logic that contains all positive existential formulas, can express the first-order translations of basic modal logic and of many description logics, along with many sentences that arise in databases. It has been shown that the syntax of GNFO is restrictive enough so that computational problems such as validity and satisfiability are still decidable. This suggests that, in spite of its expressive power, GNFO formulas are amenable to novel optimizations. In this article we study the model theory of GNFO formulas. Our results include effective preservation theorems for GNFO, effective Craig Interpolation and Beth Definability results, and the ability to express the certain answers of queries with respect to a large class of GNFO sentences within very restricted logics.
The primary objective was to identify risk factors independently associated with acute in-hospital delirium within 72 hours of emergency department (ED) arrival for patients diagnosed with a hip fracture.
This was a retrospective chart review of patients ages 65 years and older presenting to one of two academic EDs with a discharge diagnosis of a hip fracture from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2015. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine variables independently associated with the development of acute in-hospital delirium within 72 hours of ED arrival.
Of the 668 included patients, 181 (27.1%) developed delirium within 72 hours of ED arrival. History of neurodegenerative disease or dementia (odds ratio [OR]: 5.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.9, 8.4), age > 75 (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.4, 5.6), and absence of analgesia (no opioid or nerve block) in the ED (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3, 3.2) were independently associated with the development of acute in-hospital delirium; 525 (78.6%) patients received opioid analgesia in the ED. The most common analgesics used in the ED were intravenous (IV) morphine (35.8%), IV hydromorphone (35.2%), or dual therapy with both IV hydromorphone and IV morphine (2.2%). Femoral nerve blocks were initiated for 36 (5.4%) patients and successfully completed in 35 (5.2%) patients in the ED.
Advanced age and signs of dementia or neurodegenerative disease are predictors of 72-hour delirium that can be screened for during triage. Improved pain control in the ED may reduce the risk of acute in-hospital delirium.
Studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa suggest a high prevalence of depression and suicidality among adolescents living with HIV (ALWH). This is an important public health issue because depression is known to compromise HIV treatment adherence. However, the drivers of depression and suicidality in this population are unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the associations between internalized stigma, bullying, major depressive disorder, and suicidality.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey between November 2016 and March 2017, enrolling a consecutive sample of 224 ALWH aged 13–17 years. We collected information on demographic characteristics, internalized HIV-related stigma (using the six-item Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale), bullying victimization (using the nine-item Social and Health Assessment Peer Victimization Scale), major depressive disorder [using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI-KID)], and suicidality (also using the MINI-KID). We fitted multivariable logistic regression models to estimate the associations between stigma, bullying, major depressive disorder, and suicidality.
Thirty-seven participants (16%) had major depressive disorder, 30 (13%) had suicidality, and nine (4%) had high-risk suicidality. Ninety-one participants (41%) had high levels of internalized stigma, while 97 (43%) reported two or more bullying events in the past year. In multivariable logistic regression models, major depressive disorder had a statistically significant association with bullying (AOR = 1.09; 95% CI 1.00–1.20; p = 0.04); while suicidality (low, moderate, high risk) had statistically significant associations with both bullying (AOR = 1.09; 95% CI 1.01–1.17; p = 0.02) and stigma (AOR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.03–1.30; p = 0.02).
Among ALWH in rural Uganda, stigma and bullying are strongly associated with major depressive disorder and suicidality. There is a need to incorporate psychological interventions in the mainstream HIV care to address these challenges for optimal management of HIV among ALWH.