In this study we describe psychosocial functions and seizure-related factors in a population-based sample of children with epilepsy. Psychosocial problems (Achenbach scales), cognitive function, and socioeconomic status were studied in 117 children with epilepsy aged between 6 and 13 years (mean age 11y [SD 2y 1mo] and 10y 8mo [SD 2y]; 71 males, 46 females) and in randomly selected controls matched with 117 children for sex and age (mean age 11y 2mo [SD 2y 1mo] and 10y 5mo [SD 2y 4mo]; 69 males, 48 females). The children had partial (n=67), generalized (n=43), or undetermined (n=7) epilepsy syndromes, and partial (n=68), generalized (n=47), or other (n=2) main seizure types. Psychosocial problems were more common among children with epilepsy than controls (odds ratio 5–9) and significantly related to epilepsy syndrome, main seizure type, age at onset, and seizure frequency. Mothers and teachers reported males with epilepsy as having more problems than females. Females self-reported psychosocial problems, males did not. Psychosocial problems were common in childhood epilepsy. Females appreciated the problems more realistically than males. Psychosocial problems should be considered an integral part of epilepsy management.