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This chapter is not designed to invoke guilt but to tell a story based on fact and lived experiences. Readers may find it challenging and may even feel a sense of responsibility, but responsibility in contemporary terms is to provoke empathy and understanding from an historical misguidance of people who were ignorant of the actions governments and individuals had taken that would have such a negative effect on Aboriginal people, and with devastating effects. Two examples of government policy directed at Aboriginal people that may be seen to have the greatest effects on mental and physical health were the Assimilation Policy and the Child Removal Policy.
The contributors to this chapter are Aboriginal women who, while they have led diverse lives, have in common certain similarities that can be drawn from the effects of colonisation and the challenges that have shaped many lives. Many Aboriginal Australians live with the challenges that stem from the colonisation process (that is, past government policies) on a day-to-day basis, and it is not us who live in the past, but rather the past that lives in us.
‘Aboriginal’ is a term used to refer to individuals of Aboriginal descent and who are recognised by the community in which they live, or who identify as Aboriginal. While there is a scarcity of national data that specifically measure the social and emotional well-being of Indigenous Australians, data that are available paint a consistent picture: one of much higher rates of use of mental health services by Indigenous Australians, compared to other Australians (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2009). To gain an understanding as to why Aboriginal people have higher incidence of mental distress. we must examine the historical and cultural factors that have and continue to affect the lives of Aboriginal Australians.
This chapter sets the context for further discussion regarding Aboriginal people and explores issues relating to social and emotional well-being and mental health. Colonisation and its history are discussed, as well as the subsequent decimation/devastation that followed and continues today. Government policies that were specifically designed to control the lives of Aboriginal people are discussed and the effects revealed. The resilience and struggle that has taken place, along with cultural recognition and renewal, ultimately shapes the present.
One of Tom Dishion's most significant contributions to prevention science was the development of affordable, ecologically valid interventions, such as the Family Check-Up, that screen for child and family risk factors broadly, but concentrate family-specific interventions on those with greatest potential for population impact. In the spirit of this approach, investigators examined effects of a brief, universal postnatal home visiting program on child emergency medical care and billing costs from birth to age 24 months. Family Connects is a community-wide public health intervention that combines identification and alignment of community services and resources with brief, postpartum nurse home visits designed to assess risk, provide supportive guidance, and connect families with identified risk to community resources. Over 18 months, families of all 4,777 resident Durham County, North Carolina, births were randomly assigned based on even or odd birth date to receive a postnatal nurse home visiting intervention or services as usual (control). Independently, 549 of these families were randomly selected and participated in an impact evaluation study. Families, blind to study goals, provided written consent to access hospital administrative records. Results indicate that children randomly assigned to Family Connects had significantly less total emergency medical care (by 37%) through age 24 months, with results observed across almost all subgroups. Examination of billing records indicate a $3.17 decrease in total billing costs for each $1 in program costs. Overall, results suggest that community-wide postpartum support program can significantly reduce population rates of child emergency medical care through age 24 months while being cost-beneficial to communities.
Anecdotal evidence suggests the use of bolus tube feeding is increasing in long term home enteral tube feed (HETF) patients. A cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of bolus tube feeding and to characterise these patients was undertaken. Dietitians from 10 centres across the UK collected data on all adult HETF patients on the dietetic caseload receiving bolus tube feeding, (n=604, 60% male, age 58years). Demographic data, reasons for tube and bolus feeding, tube and equipment types, feeding method and patients’ complete tube feeding regimens were recorded. Over a third of patients receiving HETF used bolus feeding (37%). Patients were long-term tube fed (4.1years tube feeding, 3.5years bolus tube feeding), living at home (71%) and sedentary (70%). The majority were head and neck cancer patients (22%) who were significantly more active (79%) and lived at home (97%), while those with cerebral palsy (12%) were typically younger (age 31years) but sedentary (94%). Most patients used bolus feeding as their sole feeding method (46%), because it was quick and easy to use, as a top up to oral diet or to mimic meal times. Importantly, oral nutritional supplements (ONS) were used for bolus feeding in 85% of patients, with 51% of these being compact-style ONS (2.4kcal/ml, 125ml). This survey shows that bolus tube feeding is common amongst UK HETF patients, is used by a wide variety of patient groups and can be adapted to meet the needs of a variety of patients, clinical conditions, nutritional requirements and lifestyles.
Throughout this book, I have disassembled the book of Revelation line by line in search of the principles that underlie its organization. The Epilogue is the moment to reassemble it and verify the model of reading. The result is positive, and it is concluded that the narrative form of Rev 1.9–22.16 is analogous to the short story form as it has developed since the nineteenth century. The principal argument put forward in this book is that one of the singular characteristics of this form is its emphasis on the reader or listener. Revelation also coincides with the short story form in that it features a wide range of characters whose adventures are woven into a plot charged with successive waves of tension and relief that lead eventually to a happy ending. Lastly, there are similarities in the techniques employed: flexibility in the use of space–time coordinates and the intensive use of descriptive adjectives that simultaneously sway the emotions of the reader/listener and provide clues as to the goodness or wickedness of the characters portrayed.
In this chapter, it is shown that the textual heterogeneity of the book of Revelation is only on the surface. To the contrary, it has a clear structure, designed to provide unity to the whole: a prologue in which the author provides the guidelines to the reader (1. 1–3); an introductory liturgical dialogue (1. 4–8); an account of the things John saw and heard during his vision (1.9–22.16); and a closing liturgical dialogue (22.17–21). After this, the type of account constituted by Rev 1.9–2.16 is examined, through analysis of previous proposals. We conclude that Rev 1.9–2.16 is a special narrative, with the following characteristics: the use of a homodiegetic narrator (allowing John to simultaneously appear as a witness to the story and as one of its characters, and thus to highlight the veracity of the story he tells); a flexibility in the use of space–time coordinates; the variety of characters that participate in the plot; the fact that the plot has a happy ending; etc. Finally, I explore the author’s purpose of showcasing the truthfulness of the narrative.
If description facilitates the effect of ante oculos ponere, one can also state (echoing Cicero) that direct speech confers upon John the power ad aures ponere, allowing him simultaneously to appear as a mere spectator and aural witness to what he has heard. This explains the recurrent use of the lexeme ????sa throughout the entire account. As we know, direct speech facilitates the momentary concealment of the narrator. John deftly uses this device to shift the protagonist role to the voices that he hears. To recreate the dramatic action, the author of the book of Revelation borrows various techniques from tragedy: the chorus; a frequent recourse to deixis; the use of dialogue to indicate movement; and messenger speeches. As though these theatrical devices were not sufficient to express what the narrator heard, the author also makes use of the dramatized epistolary form. In addition, we must remember that John also witnessed an aural environment replete with celestial chanting, the sound of trumpets, etc. Through language, the audience is immersed in the revelation’s aural context. Finally, John is aware that his text will be read aloud; this explains the use of the oral style.
Intertidal biofilms are a diverse mixture of bacteria, algae as well as sporelings of macroalgae embedded in a polysaccharid matrix. As the primary colonisers of newly formed surfaces, biofilms undergo a succession of different microbe assemblage until the mature state is reached. A biofilm can act as primary producers and as such recycle nutrients in a habitat. It will influence macrobiota by providing a food source or sending out cues to settlers. Biofilms themselves will be controlled by these settlers. This interaction between bottom-up and top-down plays a crucial part for the functioning of the rocky shore ecosystems. However, the diversity of biolfilms as well as it nature to react quickly to environmental changes makes identification and quantification of the individual compounds a difficult task. Subsequently, the understanding of biofilms in general and intertidal, rocky shore microbe assemblages has always tied to techniques and methods available at the time of study. This chapter focusses on the techniques that have greatly contributed to increasing knowledge of biofilms and discusses their findings. Nonetheless, newly developed methods promise to further this knowledge of the ecological role of biofilms on rocky coastlines.
After a short status quaestionis laying out the main perspectives from which the book of Revelation has been studied, we show how the study of the reading guidelines laid out in the Introduction have hitherto been overlooked. We propose the methodology to follow in order to discover them. According to the reading theory, every reader creates a ‘model’ through which the sense is grasped and the text interpreted. The elaboration of this model involves a process of ‘disassembling the mechanism without ruining it; disassembling it until the keys to its organisation are found’, according to Alonso Schökel. This process is what we will examine in the following chapters.
This chapter is dedicated to showing the technique used by John to portray himself as an eyewitness: description. This description, in the classical rhetorical tradition of ante oculos ponere, engages the audience in the narrative by giving them the opportunity to visualize what John himself saw. For example, descriptions introduced by the phrase ?a? e?d?? are rendered as though they formed part of a transcription of a vision made at the very moment it occurred. This is why they appear in the text ex abrupto, marked only by the introductory sign ?a? e?d??, a device habitually used to signal the reader/listener that a given vision has occurred unexpectedly. The ?a? e?d?? structure mimics the mechanics of sight. However, the descriptive forms employed in the book of Revelation are not limited to the use of this ?a? e?d?? pattern. On the contrary, throughout the text John employs six other kinds of descriptions: 1) ????sa ?a? e?d?? descriptions, or ecphrasis; 2) e?d??-????? descriptions; 3) t? p???e??µe?a descriptions; 4) ?a? e?d?? ???e??? descriptions; 5) ?? t? d????se? descriptions; 6) t?p?? or t?p???af?a descriptions.
This article examines counter-terrorism efforts in the EU as it matures as a field of law. It sets out three critiques of EU counter-terrorism law: that of ineffectiveness, of anti-constitutionalism, and of contrariness to human rights and the rule of law. It considers these critiques in light of the development of policies and legal initiatives—against foreign terrorist fighters and against radicalisation. It concludes that there are both persistent problems, and some improvements, in the law. The EU's capacity to meet the challenges posed by terrorism and the counter-terrorism imperative, and how it does so, has global impact. The article concludes with an argument for better law-making in the EU to ensure it serves as a better exemplar of transnational law.
The study was designed to establish and evaluate the impact of a 6-week Balint group on empathy and resilience in fourth-year medical students during their psychiatry rotation.
This prospective study used the Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Student Version and the Brief Resilience Scale before and after 6-week Balint groups. Participating students also completed a qualitative assessment of their experience.
Students who participated were enthusiastic regarding the value of Balint groups in promoting self-reflection and gaining insight into self- and patient-care dynamics. There was a significant difference in empathy scores pre- and post-Balint intervention. There was no significant difference in resilience scores.
The establishment of a 6-week Balint group for fourth-year medical students was successful in increasing empathy. Students reported a positive view of Balint and its beneficial role in this study group.