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This paper considers the diapycnal transport of passive tracers during a Kelvin–Helmholtz mixing event. Numerical simulations of a traditional Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) configuration of a stratified shear flow are extended to include layers of passive tracer at different locations relative to the shear layer. The evolution of the tracers during the simulation is followed and is analysed using different theoretical approaches. One is to consider the evolution via the distribution in density–tracer space which clearly reveals how the tracers are redistributed across isopycnals by the mixing driven by the growing and saturating KH billow. The shape of the distribution places constraints on the redistribution of the tracer and, for this problem of symmetrically stratified shear, it is shown that the distribution typically tends to a compact form, with significant regions that are nearly linear. The redistribution across isopycnals is also considered via a diffusion equation for the tracer relative to coordinates based on the geometry of density surfaces. The equation is a generalisation of an equation previously derived for transport of density in these coordinates and includes an extra eddy term that arises because there is variation of the tracer along density surfaces. Under certain circumstances and at later stages of the flow, the eddy term can be neglected, and the evolution of the mean tracer profile can be adequately represented using a simple diffusion equation where diffusivity is defined as the effective diffusivity of density, scaled by the molecular diffusion of the tracer.
Functional capacity (FC) has been identified as a key outcome to improve real-world functioning in schizophrenia. FC is influenced by cognitive impairments, negative symptoms, self-stigma and reduced physical activity (PA). Psychosocial interventions targeting FC are still under-developed.
we conducted a quasi-experimental study evaluating the effects of an exercise-enriched integrated social cognitive remediation (SCR) intervention (RemedRugby [RR]) compared with an active control group practicing Touch Rugby (TR). To our knowledge, this is the first trial to date evaluating the effectiveness of such a program provided in a real-life environment.
Eighty-seven people with schizophrenia were included and allocated to either the RR group (n = 57) or the TR group (n = 30) according to the routine clinical practice of the recruiting center. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline and post-treatment in both groups and after 6 months of follow-up in the RR group using standardized scales for symptom severity, social functioning, self-stigma, and a large cognitive battery. After treatment we observed moderate to large improvements in social function (Personal and Social Performance Scale [PSP], p < 0.001, d = 1.255), symptom severity (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] negative, p < 0.001, d = 0.827; PANSS GP, p < 0.001, d = 0.991; PANSS positive, p = 0.009, d = 0.594), verbal abstraction (p = 0.008, d = 0.554), aggression bias (p = 0.008, d = 0.627), and self-stigma (stereotype endorsement, p = 0.019, d = 0.495; discrimination experiences, p = 0.047; d = 0.389) that were specific to the RR group and were not observed in participants playing only TR. Effects were persistent over time and even larger between post-treatment and follow-up.
Exercise-enriched integrated SCR appears promising to improve real-life functioning in schizophrenia. Future research should investigate the potential effects of this intervention on neuroplasticity and physical fitness.
Although investigation have demonstrated that stimulants are effective medication for the treatment of the symptoms on the ADHD, a commonly described but quite slightly studied side effect of this type of medication, is the effect on the emotional expression of patients.
evaluate the effect of the treatment with Methylphenidate on the affective/emotional expression in children diagnosed with ADHD.
It's a descriptive study of several cases series, from a center and about a unique group, where 'n” will be 15 children diagnosed with ADHD at the University Hospital, who were required beginning treatment with methylphenidate, with a daily dose of at least 0,3mg/Kg. In this study it will be evaluated the emotional expression of the group, according to the scale Expression and Emotion Scale for Children (EESC) making a comparison between the previous moment to the treatment and a subsequent month from its beginning.
The evaluation of the total result of the EESC conducted by the parent didn't show statistically significant differences between scores previously of the treatment and results after a month with it. The dominions (positive emotions, emotional flatness and emotional lability) didn't show differences between both periods of time, nevertheless, the positive emotions showed a tendency of reduction more showy than the rest, without getting to be statistically significant (p=0.0638).
Statistically there haven't been significant changes in the emotional expression of the children caused by the treatment with methylphenidate. Nevertheless, the data show that there is a tendency to an improvement in it.
People with severe mental illness (SMI) have numerous risk factors that may predispose them to food insecurity (FI); however, the prevalence of FI and its effects on health are under-researched in this population. The present study aimed to describe the prevalence of FI and its relationship to lifestyle factors in people with SMI. This cross-sectional study recruited people with SMI receiving long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic medication from community services at three sites in Sydney, Australia. Assessments were completed on physical health and lifestyle factors. χ2 Tests, independent-samples t tests and binary logistic regression analyses were calculated to examine relationships between lifestyle factors and FI. In total, 233 people completed the assessments: 154 were males (66 %), mean age 44·8 (sd 12·7) years, and the majority (70 %) had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. FI was present in 104 participants (45 %). People with FI were less likely to consume fruits (OR 0·42, 95 % CI 0·24, 0·74, P = 0·003), vegetables (OR 0·39, 95 % CI 0·22, 0·69, P = 0·001) and protein-based foods (OR 0·45, 95 % CI 0·25, 0·83, P = 0·011) at least once daily, engaged in less moderate to vigorous physical activity (min) (OR 0·997, 95 % CI 0·993, 1·000, P = 0·044), and were more likely to smoke (OR 1·89, 95 % CI 1·08, 3·32, P = 0·026). FI is highly prevalent among people with SMI receiving LAI antipsychotic medications. Food-insecure people with SMI engage in less healthy lifestyle behaviours, increasing the risk of future non-communicable disease.
The effect of length scale on mechanical strength is a significant consideration for semiconductor materials. In III-V semiconductors, such as InSb, a transition from partial to perfect dislocations occurs at the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature (~150 °C for InSb). High temperature micro-compression reveals InSb to show a small size effect below the transition, similar to ceramics, while in the ductile regime it shows a size effect consistent with fcc metals. The source truncation model is found to agree with the observed trends in strength with size once the change in Burgers vector and bulk strength are taken into account.
In recent years, researchers in pre-Hispanic Central America have used new approaches that greatly amplify and enhance evidence of plants and their uses. This paper presents a case study from Puerto Escondido, located in the lower Ulúa River valley of Caribbean coastal Honduras. We demonstrate the effectiveness of using multiple methods in concert to interpret ethnobotanical practice in the past. By examining chipped-stone tools, ceramics, sediments from artifact contexts, and macrobotanical remains, we advance complementary inquiries. Here, we address botanical practices “in the home,” such as foodways, medicinal practices, fiber crafting, and ritual activities, and those “close to home,” such as agricultural and horticultural practices, forest management, and other engagements with local and distant ecologies. This presents an opportunity to begin to develop an understanding of ethnoecology at Puerto Escondido, here defined as the dynamic relationship between affordances provided in a botanical landscape and the impacts of human activities on that botanical landscape.
As part of the evaluation of the French plan for the elimination of measles and rubella, we conducted a seroprevalence survey in 2013, aimed at updating seroprevalence data for people 18–32 years old. A secondary objective was to estimate measles incidence in this population during the 2009–2011 outbreak, and thus estimate the exhaustiveness of measles mandatory reporting. We used a cross-sectional survey design, targeting blood donors 18–32 years old, living in France since 2009, who came to give blood in a blood collecting site. We included 4647 people in metropolitan France, 806 people in Réunion Island and 496 in the French Caribbean. A further 3942 individuals were interviewed in the south-east region of metropolitan France to estimate the exhaustiveness of measles mandatory reporting. One of the main findings of this survey is that the proportion of people 18–32 years old susceptible to both measles and rubella infections remained high in France in 2013, 9.2% and 5.4%, respectively, in metropolitan France, even after the promotion campaigns about vaccination catch-up during and following the major measles epidemic in 2009–2011. Applying our results to French census data would suggest that around 1 million people aged 18–32 years old are currently susceptible to measles in France, despite this age group being one of the vaccination targets of the national measles elimination plan. Another important finding is that only an estimated 45% of the true number of cases in this age group was actually notified, despite notification being mandatory.
To assess the feasibility of non-contrast T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging as compared to T1-weighted post-contrast magnetic resonance imaging for detecting acoustic neuroma growth.
Adult patients with acoustic neuroma who underwent at least three magnetic resonance imaging scans of the internal auditory canals with and without contrast in the past nine years were identified. T1- and T2-weighted images were reviewed by three neuroradiologists, and tumour size was measured. Accuracy of the measurements on T2-weighted images was defined as a difference of less than or equal to 2 mm from the measurement on T1-weighted images.
A total of 107 magnetic resonance imaging scans of 26 patients were reviewed. Measurements on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were 88 per cent accurate. Measurements on T2-weighted images differed from measurements on T1-weighted images by an average of 1.27 mm, or 10.4 per cent of the total size. The specificity of T2-weighted images was 88.2 per cent and the sensitivity was 77.8 per cent.
The T2-weighted sequences are fairly accurate in measuring acoustic neuroma size and identifying growth if one keeps in mind the caveats associated with the tumour characteristics or location.
Background: Children with biallelic mutations in TRNT1 have multi-organ involvement with congenital sideroblastic anemia, -B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD) as well as seizures, ataxia and sensorineural hearing loss. The TRNT1 gene encodes the CCA-adding enzyme essential for maturation of both nuclear and mitochondrial transfer RNAs accounting for phenotypic pleitropy. Neurodegenerative Leigh syndrome has not been previously reported. Methods:Case summary: A Portuguese boy presented with global developmental delay, 2 episodes of infantile Leigh encephalopathy at 8 mo and 4 yr responsive to high-dose steroids, slow neurodegeneration of cognitive, language and motor functions with optic atrophy, pigmentary retinopathy, spasticity, dystonia, and focal dyscognitive seizures, pancytopenia, transfusion dependent sideroblastic anemia, recurrent febrile infections (pulmonary, gastrointestinal), hypernatremia, with tracheostomy dependence at age 5 yr, malabsorption and TPN dependence at 9 yr, and survival to early adulthood. Neuroimaging showed symmetric hemorrhagic lesions in the thalamus, brain stem (periaqueductal grey) and cerebellum consistent with Leigh syndrome but no lactate peak on MRS. Results: Whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous missense pathogenic variant in TRNT1, c.668T>C (p.I223T) in the affected individual. Conclusions: This report expands the neurological phenotype of TRNT1 mutations and highlights the importance of considering this gene in the evaluation of Leigh syndrome.
The ability to sustain antibiotic efficacy is directly affected by incentive models aiming to stimulate antibiotic research and development. This paper analyzes the extent to which the models proposed by the Innovative Medicine Initiative-funded research project DRIVE-AB can be expected to support sustainable use, drawing on basic economic theory and the incentives that derive from it. It then discusses the use of minimal safeguards that will be needed to support sustainable use where industry incentives have not been re-aligned with those of public health.
Boron nitride (BN) has a very high thermal conductivity and excellent thermal shock resistance. These properties make BN an important material for industrial applications involving surfaces in contact with molten metals. These applications require straightforward deposition methods that produce uniform BN coatings. Using borazine (B3N3H6) as a precursor, we deposited BN coatings on silicon substrates by cold-wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The microstructure, composition, and morphology of the coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). These characterizations show that the BN coatings deposited are uniform, predominantly of hexagonal structure, and N-rich.
The nonlinear dynamics of energetic-particle (EP) driven geodesic acoustic modes (EGAM) is investigated here. A numerical analysis with the global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code ORB5 is performed, and the results are interpreted with the analytical theory, in close comparison with the theory of the beam-plasma instability. Only axisymmetric modes are considered, with a nonlinear dynamics determined by wave–particle interaction. Quadratic scalings of the saturated electric field with respect to the linear growth rate are found for the case of interest. As a main result, the formula for the saturation level is provided. Near the saturation, we observe a transition from adiabatic to non-adiabatic dynamics, i.e. the frequency chirping rate becomes comparable to the resonant EP bounce frequency. The numerical analysis is performed here with electrostatic simulations with circular flux surfaces, and kinetic effects of the electrons are neglected.
Bòbila Madurell-Can Gambús is the most emblematic Neolithic cemetery in the northeastern Iberian peninsula, with a total of 179 documented pit burials. Artifacts made of exogenous raw materials, such as honey flint (southeastern France), jadeite, amphibolite, eclogite and nephrite (Alps and the Pyrenees), variscite (coast of northeastern Iberia), and even obsidian (Sardinia), have been found in the burials. The presence of these raw materials is not exclusive to this necropolis, but they have also been documented in many of the graves of this region during this period. The literature has singled out this funerary practice as the Pit Burials cultural horizon. However, until now the chronology of this funerary practice has not been fully defined, so it was difficult to explain the development of the chronology and the networks through which the materials reached northeast Iberia. New, unpublished radiocarbon (14C) dates of Bòbila Madurell-Can Gambús are presented, as well as the results of different statistical analyses and Bayesian modeling that specify its chronology. Through the contribution of new data on the chronology of Bòbila Madurell-Can Gambús new clues regarding the temporal dynamics of pit burials and the raw materials exchange networks associated with them are presented.
Inversing the STICS crop model with remote-sensing-derived leaf area index (LAI) and yield data from the previous crop is used to retrieve some soil permanent properties and crop emergence parameters. Spatialized nitrogen (N) fertilization recommendations are provided to farmers, for the second and third N applications, following the screening of eleven N application rates under a range of possible forthcoming climates, with the objective to maximize of the gross margin while respecting some environmental constraints. As a first field validation, we show (1) the improvement brought by the assimilation of LAI and yield into STICS to simulate crop and soil variables and (2) the interest of site specific application to maximize both the gross margin and the agro-environmental criterion.
This study describes epidemiological trends for acute rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in Belgium in children aged ⩽5 years during the period June 2007 to May 2014 after the introduction of routine rotavirus (RV) vaccination. This period encompassed the switch from lyophilized to the liquid formulation of Rotarix™ (GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) in August 2011. Uptake of RV vaccine remained consistently high throughout the study period with Rotarix the brand most often used. RV was present in 9% (1139/12 511) of hospitalized cases with acute gastroenteritis included in the study. Epidemiological trends for hospital admissions for RVGE remained consistent throughout the study period, with no evidence of any change associated with the switch from lyophilized to liquid formulation of Rotarix. This suggests both formulations perform similarly, with the liquid formulation not inferior regarding ability to reduce hospital admissions for acute RVGE in children aged ⩽5 years. A strong seasonal effect was observed with most RVGE occurring in the winter months but with some variability in intensity, with highest incidence found in those aged 6–24 months. The main observation was the decreased number of hospital admissions for RVGE in Belgium that occurred during winter 2013/2014.
This Article examines the potential stakeholder-related obstacles hindering the implementation of mechanisms to re-ignite the development of novel antibiotics. Proposed economic models and incentives to drive such development include: Public Funding of Research and Development (“R&D”), Tax Incentives, Milestone Prizes, End Payments, Intellectual Property (“IP”) and Exclusivity Extensions, Pricing and Reimbursement Incentives, Product Development Partnerships (“PDPs”), and the Options Market for Antibiotics model. Drawing on personal experience and understanding of the antibiotic field, as well as stakeholder consultation and numerous expert meetings within the DRIVE-AB project and Uppsala Health Summit 2015, the Authors identify obstacles attributable to the following actors: Universities and Research Institutes, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (“SMEs”), Large Pharmaceutical Companies, Marketing Approval Regulators, Payors, Healthcare Providers, National Healthcare Authorities, Patients, and Supranational Institutions.
The analysis also proposes a characterization and ranking of the difficulty associated with implementing the reviewed mechanisms. Public Funding of R&D, Pricing and Reimbursement Incentives, and PDPs are mechanisms expected to meet highly systemic barriers (i.e., obstacles across the entire antibiotic value chain), imposing greater implementation challenges in that they require convincing and involving several motivationally diverse actors in order to have much effect.