To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The effect of length scale on mechanical strength is a significant consideration for semiconductor materials. In III-V semiconductors, such as InSb, a transition from partial to perfect dislocations occurs at the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature (∼150 °C for InSb). High temperature micro-compression reveals InSb to show a small size effect below the transition, similar to ceramics, while in the ductile regime it shows a size effect consistent with fcc metals. The source truncation model is found to agree with the observed trends in strength with size once the change in Burgers vector and bulk strength are taken into account.
In recent years, researchers in pre-Hispanic Central America have used new approaches that greatly amplify and enhance evidence of plants and their uses. This paper presents a case study from Puerto Escondido, located in the lower Ulúa River valley of Caribbean coastal Honduras. We demonstrate the effectiveness of using multiple methods in concert to interpret ethnobotanical practice in the past. By examining chipped-stone tools, ceramics, sediments from artifact contexts, and macrobotanical remains, we advance complementary inquiries. Here, we address botanical practices “in the home,” such as foodways, medicinal practices, fiber crafting, and ritual activities, and those “close to home,” such as agricultural and horticultural practices, forest management, and other engagements with local and distant ecologies. This presents an opportunity to begin to develop an understanding of ethnoecology at Puerto Escondido, here defined as the dynamic relationship between affordances provided in a botanical landscape and the impacts of human activities on that botanical landscape.
As part of the evaluation of the French plan for the elimination of measles and rubella, we conducted a seroprevalence survey in 2013, aimed at updating seroprevalence data for people 18–32 years old. A secondary objective was to estimate measles incidence in this population during the 2009–2011 outbreak, and thus estimate the exhaustiveness of measles mandatory reporting. We used a cross-sectional survey design, targeting blood donors 18–32 years old, living in France since 2009, who came to give blood in a blood collecting site. We included 4647 people in metropolitan France, 806 people in Réunion Island and 496 in the French Caribbean. A further 3942 individuals were interviewed in the south-east region of metropolitan France to estimate the exhaustiveness of measles mandatory reporting. One of the main findings of this survey is that the proportion of people 18–32 years old susceptible to both measles and rubella infections remained high in France in 2013, 9.2% and 5.4%, respectively, in metropolitan France, even after the promotion campaigns about vaccination catch-up during and following the major measles epidemic in 2009–2011. Applying our results to French census data would suggest that around 1 million people aged 18–32 years old are currently susceptible to measles in France, despite this age group being one of the vaccination targets of the national measles elimination plan. Another important finding is that only an estimated 45% of the true number of cases in this age group was actually notified, despite notification being mandatory.
To assess the feasibility of non-contrast T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging as compared to T1-weighted post-contrast magnetic resonance imaging for detecting acoustic neuroma growth.
Adult patients with acoustic neuroma who underwent at least three magnetic resonance imaging scans of the internal auditory canals with and without contrast in the past nine years were identified. T1- and T2-weighted images were reviewed by three neuroradiologists, and tumour size was measured. Accuracy of the measurements on T2-weighted images was defined as a difference of less than or equal to 2 mm from the measurement on T1-weighted images.
A total of 107 magnetic resonance imaging scans of 26 patients were reviewed. Measurements on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were 88 per cent accurate. Measurements on T2-weighted images differed from measurements on T1-weighted images by an average of 1.27 mm, or 10.4 per cent of the total size. The specificity of T2-weighted images was 88.2 per cent and the sensitivity was 77.8 per cent.
The T2-weighted sequences are fairly accurate in measuring acoustic neuroma size and identifying growth if one keeps in mind the caveats associated with the tumour characteristics or location.
Background: Children with biallelic mutations in TRNT1 have multi-organ involvement with congenital sideroblastic anemia, -B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD) as well as seizures, ataxia and sensorineural hearing loss. The TRNT1 gene encodes the CCA-adding enzyme essential for maturation of both nuclear and mitochondrial transfer RNAs accounting for phenotypic pleitropy. Neurodegenerative Leigh syndrome has not been previously reported. Methods:Case summary: A Portuguese boy presented with global developmental delay, 2 episodes of infantile Leigh encephalopathy at 8 mo and 4 yr responsive to high-dose steroids, slow neurodegeneration of cognitive, language and motor functions with optic atrophy, pigmentary retinopathy, spasticity, dystonia, and focal dyscognitive seizures, pancytopenia, transfusion dependent sideroblastic anemia, recurrent febrile infections (pulmonary, gastrointestinal), hypernatremia, with tracheostomy dependence at age 5 yr, malabsorption and TPN dependence at 9 yr, and survival to early adulthood. Neuroimaging showed symmetric hemorrhagic lesions in the thalamus, brain stem (periaqueductal grey) and cerebellum consistent with Leigh syndrome but no lactate peak on MRS. Results: Whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous missense pathogenic variant in TRNT1, c.668T>C (p.I223T) in the affected individual. Conclusions: This report expands the neurological phenotype of TRNT1 mutations and highlights the importance of considering this gene in the evaluation of Leigh syndrome.
Multiple pregnancies (MP) are almost always the result of multiple ovulations (MO) (Ginther and Bergfelt, 1988). Twinning is the most common non-infectious cause of abortion in the mare (Roberts and Myhre, 1983) and represents a significant economic loss. As a consequence, further investigation into its occurrence and outcome is warranted in order to determine effective management practices.
Ultrasonic scanning was used to monitor and classify ovulation in 1582 Thoroughbred mares. Further ultrasonic scanning at Day 13 was used to identify and classify the resulting pregnancies (single pregnancy (SP), or MP)) in varying samples of mares. All MP mares underwent manual reduction of the smallest embryo at Day 13. 1170 mares, both SP and crushed MP, were monitored for the remainder of pregnancy with regard to pregnancy failure or success. Chi squared was used to test for significance throughout.
Longitude-coordinated high-precision photometry has been obtained a few weeks before the beginning of a strong Be and shell phase (1988) in HR 8762 (o And). The star showed variations of a few millimagnitudes in amplitude; i.e., just over the detection threshold. The classical 1.57-day double-wave period is still detected, showing that it probably never fades out completely, whatever the phase of the star. These variations can be interpreted as normal photospheric activity in a regular rotating B star. Although the variations of HR 8762 during our campaign were quite small, we could detect their amplitudes at a level of a few mmag.
We still have to check whether they are still “in phase” with previous photometric observations: if this is the case, it means that in the “spot” hypothesis, these (superficial?) features would remain in the same position on the photosphere, changing only in surface area and/or brightness with the star's activity.
Boron nitride (BN) has a very high thermal conductivity and excellent thermal shock resistance. These properties make BN an important material for industrial applications involving surfaces in contact with molten metals. These applications require straightforward deposition methods that produce uniform BN coatings. Using borazine (B3N3H6) as a precursor, we deposited BN coatings on silicon substrates by cold-wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The microstructure, composition, and morphology of the coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). These characterizations show that the BN coatings deposited are uniform, predominantly of hexagonal structure, and N-rich.
The nonlinear dynamics of energetic-particle (EP) driven geodesic acoustic modes (EGAM) is investigated here. A numerical analysis with the global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code ORB5 is performed, and the results are interpreted with the analytical theory, in close comparison with the theory of the beam-plasma instability. Only axisymmetric modes are considered, with a nonlinear dynamics determined by wave–particle interaction. Quadratic scalings of the saturated electric field with respect to the linear growth rate are found for the case of interest. As a main result, the formula for the saturation level is provided. Near the saturation, we observe a transition from adiabatic to non-adiabatic dynamics, i.e. the frequency chirping rate becomes comparable to the resonant EP bounce frequency. The numerical analysis is performed here with electrostatic simulations with circular flux surfaces, and kinetic effects of the electrons are neglected.
Bòbila Madurell-Can Gambús is the most emblematic Neolithic cemetery in the northeastern Iberian peninsula, with a total of 179 documented pit burials. Artifacts made of exogenous raw materials, such as honey flint (southeastern France), jadeite, amphibolite, eclogite and nephrite (Alps and the Pyrenees), variscite (coast of northeastern Iberia), and even obsidian (Sardinia), have been found in the burials. The presence of these raw materials is not exclusive to this necropolis, but they have also been documented in many of the graves of this region during this period. The literature has singled out this funerary practice as the Pit Burials cultural horizon. However, until now the chronology of this funerary practice has not been fully defined, so it was difficult to explain the development of the chronology and the networks through which the materials reached northeast Iberia. New, unpublished radiocarbon (14C) dates of Bòbila Madurell-Can Gambús are presented, as well as the results of different statistical analyses and Bayesian modeling that specify its chronology. Through the contribution of new data on the chronology of Bòbila Madurell-Can Gambús new clues regarding the temporal dynamics of pit burials and the raw materials exchange networks associated with them are presented.
Synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) equipment has been used to analyze impurities in polar ice. A customized sample holder has been developed and the μXRF equipment has been adapted with a thermal control system to keep samples unaltered during analyses. Artificial ice samples prepared from ultra-pure water were analyzed to investigate possible contamination and/or experimental artefacts. Analyses of polar ice from Antarctica (Dome C and Vostok) confirm this μXRF technique is non-destructive and sensitive. Experiments can be reproduced to confirm or refine results by focusing on interesting spots such as crystal grain boundaries or specific inclusions. Integration times and resolution can be adjusted to optimize sensitivity. Investigation of unstable particles is possible due to the short analysis time. In addition to identification of elements in impurities, μXRF is able to determine their speciations. The accuracy and reliability of the results confirm the potential of this technique for research in glaciology.
It is well known that light elements like lithium are good indicators of the hydrodynamical behaviour of the outerlayers of the stars. As they are nuclearly destroyed at low temperature, i.e. close to the surface, their surface abundances reflect the nature of the transport process at work between the photosphere and the nuclear destruction region.
Inversing the STICS crop model with remote-sensing-derived leaf area index (LAI) and yield data from the previous crop is used to retrieve some soil permanent properties and crop emergence parameters. Spatialized nitrogen (N) fertilization recommendations are provided to farmers, for the second and third N applications, following the screening of eleven N application rates under a range of possible forthcoming climates, with the objective to maximize of the gross margin while respecting some environmental constraints. As a first field validation, we show (1) the improvement brought by the assimilation of LAI and yield into STICS to simulate crop and soil variables and (2) the interest of site specific application to maximize both the gross margin and the agro-environmental criterion.
For 5 out of 28 known rapidly oscillating magnetic chemically peculiar (roAp) stars, the largest observed frequency seems to exceed the theoretical acoustic cutoff frequency, which is determined by the outermost stellar regions. We show that a better modelling of the atmosphere reconciles the theory with the observations for at least the roAp star α Cir.
For stars cooler than 6400°K, the lithium is observed to be depleted with respect to the universal value for Population I stars. The depletion depends on mass and age and occurs, both during the main-sequence (Hyades) and the pre-main-sequence (Pleiades).
This study describes epidemiological trends for acute rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in Belgium in children aged ⩽5 years during the period June 2007 to May 2014 after the introduction of routine rotavirus (RV) vaccination. This period encompassed the switch from lyophilized to the liquid formulation of Rotarix™ (GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) in August 2011. Uptake of RV vaccine remained consistently high throughout the study period with Rotarix the brand most often used. RV was present in 9% (1139/12 511) of hospitalized cases with acute gastroenteritis included in the study. Epidemiological trends for hospital admissions for RVGE remained consistent throughout the study period, with no evidence of any change associated with the switch from lyophilized to liquid formulation of Rotarix. This suggests both formulations perform similarly, with the liquid formulation not inferior regarding ability to reduce hospital admissions for acute RVGE in children aged ⩽5 years. A strong seasonal effect was observed with most RVGE occurring in the winter months but with some variability in intensity, with highest incidence found in those aged 6–24 months. The main observation was the decreased number of hospital admissions for RVGE in Belgium that occurred during winter 2013/2014.
Photospheric parameters and abundances of 13 chemical species are presented for a sample of single-lined chromospherically active binaries from a differential LTE analysis of high-resolution spectra. Our results indicate that the X-ray active binaries studied are not as metal poor as previously claimed, but are at most mildly iron-depleted relative to the Sun (—0.41 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ +0.11). A significant overabundance of several elements (e.g., Na, Mg, Al, Ca) is observed. The temperatures derived from the (V — R) and (V — I) colours are found to be significantly affected by activity processes.