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The Systems Ecology Paradigm (SEP) incorporates humans as integral parts of ecosystems and emphasizes issues that have significant societal relevance such as grazing land, forestland, and agricultural ecosystem management, biodiversity and global change impacts. Accomplishing this societally relevant research requires cutting-edge basic and applied research. This book focuses on environmental and natural resource challenges confronting local to global societies for which the SEP methodology must be utilized for resolution. Key elements of SEP are a holistic perspective of ecological/social systems, systems thinking, and the ecosystem approach applied to real world, complex environmental and natural resource problems. The SEP and ecosystem approaches force scientific emphasis to be placed on collaborations with social scientists and behavioral, learning, and marketing professionals. The SEP has given environmental scientists, decision makers, citizen stakeholders, and land and water managers a powerful set of tools to analyse, integrate knowledge, and propose adoption of solutions to important local to global problems.
Following the landmark Paris agreement, policy makers are under pressure to adopt policies that rapidly deliver deep, society-wide decarbonisation. Deep decarbonisation requires more durable policies, but not enough is known about if and how they actually emerge. This book provides the first systematic analysis of the determinants of policy durability in three high-profile areas: biofuel production, car transport, and industrial emissions. It breaks new ground by exploring how key European Union climate policies have shaped their own durability and their ability to stimulate supportive political dynamics in society. It combines state-of-the-art policy theories with empirical accounts of landmark political events such as 'Dieselgate' and the campaign against 'dirty' biofuels, to offer a fresh understanding of how and why policy makers set about packaging together different elements of policy. By shining new light on an important area of contemporary policy making, it reveals a rich agenda for academic researchers and policy makers.
We engage in an affirmative feminist reading of the recent, predominantly Western, philosophical movement called the new materialisms—that is, we problematize the “new” while still valuing its contributions toward justice (Todd 2016; Schaeffer 2018). We put Sara Ahmed in conversation with María Lugones and Zoe Todd in order to recognize that not only have feminist scholars engaged in conversations around the material before publications of the “new” (Ahmed 2008; Lugones 2010; Todd 2016), but we also argue that the “new” creates a coloniality of non-modern knowledges that think and live some of the so-called groundbreaking ideas of the “new.” The new materialisms, then, function systematically to deny and silence the multiple and varied ways in which the concepts it engages have a prolonged and deep scholarship of theorization in both feminisms and non-modern knowledges. The significance of this, we contend, is not merely a question of semantics as (some) authors of the “new” purport—language matters. That is, language materializes the world; it affects. In engendering this philosophy as “new,” it acts, in effect, as a colonization that reinforces harmful and violent discourses of white, neoliberal, colonial capitalism (Lugones 2010) that some feminist theories seek to dismantle.
The retina of the gastropod mollusc, Aplysia californica, contains receptor and nonreceptor (secondary) cells. The ultrastructure of the receptor cells, but not of the secondary cells, has been described. This report describes a study of the secondary cells (SC) using electron microscopy and the fluorescence histochemica1 method of Falck and Owman.
The secondary cells (15-18μm. in diameter) (Fig. 1) are situated along the periphery of the retina. The cells are ovoid and often have an irregular outline. They contain a slightly eccentric nucleus that is 8-10μm. in diameter. The SC cytoplasm lacks the numerous clear vesicles found throughout the receptor cell cytoplasm. The SC cytoplasm contains mitochondria, ribosomes, polyribosomes, neurotubu1es, neurofilaments, vacuoles, dense bodies, Golgi bodies, and dense core vesicles (inset, Fig. 1). The SC resemble neuroendocrine cells because they often contain large vacuoles and dense core vesicles. The vesicles (90-130nm. in diameter) contain a dense core (80-100nm. in diameter) surrounded by a clear halo.
Field studies were conducted to determine sweetpotato tolerance to and weed control from management systems that included linuron. Treatments included flumioxazin preplant (107 g ai ha−1) followed by (fb) S-metolachlor (800 g ai ha−1), oryzalin (840 g ai ha−1), or linuron (280, 420, 560, 700, and 840 g ai ha−1) alone or mixed with S-metolachlor or oryzalin applied 7 d after transplanting. Weeds did not emerge before the treatment applications. Two of the four field studies were maintained weed-free throughout the season to evaluate sweetpotato tolerance without weed interference. The herbicide program with the greatest sweetpotato yield was flumioxazin fb S-metolachlor. Mixing linuron with S-metolachlor did not improve Palmer amaranth management and decreased marketable yield by up to 28% compared with flumioxazin fb S-metolachlor. Thus, linuron should not be applied POST in sweetpotato if Palmer amaranth has not emerged at the time of application.
Through a strategic learning process, prototypes unveil design directions. We provide a review of prototyping methods for novice designers to study and pedagogical practice for capstone design course faculty to juxtapose. Stanford University's ME310 graduate-level project-based learning course introduces students to various prototyping design techniques, such as Needfinding and Benchmarking, and prototyping methods, such as the Critical Experience Prototype, Critical Function Prototype, Dark Horse Prototype, Part-X is Finished, Funky System Prototype, and Functional System Prototype.
Wild sheep and many primitive domesticated breeds have two coats: coarse hairs covering shorter, finer fibres. Both are shed annually. Exploitation of wool for apparel in the Bronze Age encouraged breeding for denser fleeces and continuously growing white fibres. The Merino is regarded as the culmination of this process. Archaeological discoveries, ancient images and parchment records portray this as an evolutionary progression, spanning millennia. However, examination of the fleeces from feral, two-coated and woolled sheep has revealed a ready facility of the follicle population to change from shedding to continuous growth and to revert from domesticated to primitive states. Modifications to coat structure, colour and composition have occurred in timeframes and to sheep population sizes that exclude the likelihood of variations arising from mutations and natural selection. The features are characteristic of the domestication phenotype: an assemblage of developmental, physiological, skeletal and hormonal modifications common to a wide variety of species under human control. The phenotypic similarities appeared to result from an accumulation of cryptic genetic changes early during vertebrate evolution. Because they did not affect fitness in the wild, the mutations were protected from adverse selection, becoming apparent only after exposure to a domestic environment. The neural crest, a transient embryonic cell population unique to vertebrates, has been implicated in the manifestations of the domesticated phenotype. This hypothesis is discussed with reference to the development of the wool follicle population and the particular roles of Notch pathway genes, culminating in the specific cell interactions that typify follicle initiation.
The study of aphrodisiacs is an overlooked area of global history which this article seeks to remedy by considering how such substances were commercially traded and how medical knowledge of them was exchanged globally between 1600 and 1920. We show that the concept of ‘aphrodisiacs’ as a new nominal category of pharmacological substances came to be valued and defined in early modern Latin, English, Dutch, Swiss, and French medical sources in relation to concepts transformed from their origin in both the ancient Mediterranean world and in medieval Islamicate medicine. We then consider how the general idea of aphrodisiacs became widely discredited in mid-nineteenth-century scientific medicine until after the First World War in France and in the US, alongside their commercial proliferation in the context of new colonial trade exchanges between Europe, the US, Southeast Asia, Africa, India, and South America. In both examples, we propose that global entanglements played a significant role in both the cohesion and the discreditation of the medical category of aphrodisiacs.
Advances in genomics generated the concept that a better understanding of individual characteristics, e.g. genotype, will lead to improved tailoring of pharmaceutical and nutritional therapies. Subsequent developments in proteomics and metabolomics, in addition to wearable technologies for tracking parameters, such as dietary intakes, physical activity, heart rate and blood glucose, have further driven this idea. Alongside these innovations, there has been a rapid rise in companies offering direct-to-consumer genetic and/or microbiome testing, in combination with the marketing of personalised nutrition services. Key scientific questions include how disparate datasets are integrated, how accurate are current predictions and how these may be developed in the future. In this regard, lessons can be learned from systems biology, which aims both to integrate data from different levels of organisation (e.g. genomic, proteomic and metabolomic) and predict the emergent behaviours of biological systems or organisms as a whole. The present paper reviews the origins and recent advancement of ‘big data’ and systems approaches in medicine and nutrition. Conclusions are that systems integration of multiple technologies has generated mechanistic insights and informed the evolution of precision medicine and personalised nutrition. Pertinent ethical issues include who is entitled to access new technologies and how commercial companies are storing, using and/or re-mining consumer data. Questions about efficacy (both long-term behavioural change and health outcomes), cost-benefit and impacts on health inequalities remain to be fully addressed.
To explore what elective students learn about the specialty of Neurology.
A prospective qualitative study using pre- and post-elective written questionnaires.
Analysis concentrated on three main themes: What did students learn about the specialty of Neurology? What would they change about their experience? Did their opinions change? Major findings were (i) pre- and post-elective the most frequent response for “what is the best thing about Neurology?” was the “process of localization” and (ii) post-elective students were less likely to cite the challenge or problem-solving aspect of Neurology as the best thing while more emphasized the importance of the physical exam and the variety of cases. (iii) Students were most surprised by the scope of neurological practice. (iv) They would diversify the setting of their elective to include less time spent in the emergency room and more time in clinic. (v) The perception of Neurology as a specialty in which patients have a poor prognosis was the opinion that changed the most.
Showcasing the diversity of cases and careers in Neurology may be a useful strategy to increase interest in the specialty and reduce neurophobia. Lectures or small groups early in medical school should concentrate on clear examples of common neurological conditions and emphasize the role of general neurologists and subspecialists involved in patient care. Whenever possible students should rotate through different clinics and not concentrate exclusively on emergency room and in-patient cases.
Across disciplines, scholars strive to better understand individuals’ milieus—the people, places, and institutions individuals encounter in their daily lives. In particular, political scientists argue that racial and ethnic context shapes attitudes about candidates, policies, and fellow citizens. Yet, the current standard of measuring milieus is to place survey respondents in a geographic container and then to ascribe all that container's characteristics to the individual's milieu. Using a new dataset of over 2.6 million GPS records from over 400 individuals, we compare conventional static measures of racial and ethnic context to dynamic, precise measures of milieus. We demonstrate how low-level static measures tend to overstate how extreme individuals’ racial and ethnic contexts are and offer suggestions for future researchers.
We examined demographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics of a large cohort (n = 368) of adults with dissociative seizures (DS) recruited to the CODES randomised controlled trial (RCT) and explored differences associated with age at onset of DS, gender, and DS semiology.
Prior to randomisation within the CODES RCT, we collected demographic and clinical data on 368 participants. We assessed psychiatric comorbidity using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) and a screening measure of personality disorder and measured anxiety, depression, psychological distress, somatic symptom burden, emotional expression, functional impact of DS, avoidance behaviour, and quality of life. We undertook comparisons based on reported age at DS onset (<40 v. ⩾40), gender (male v. female), and DS semiology (predominantly hyperkinetic v. hypokinetic).
Our cohort was predominantly female (72%) and characterised by high levels of socio-economic deprivation. Two-thirds had predominantly hyperkinetic DS. Of the total, 69% had ⩾1 comorbid M.I.N.I. diagnosis (median number = 2), with agoraphobia being the most common concurrent diagnosis. Clinical levels of distress were reported by 86% and characteristics associated with maladaptive personality traits by 60%. Moderate-to-severe functional impairment, high levels of somatic symptoms, and impaired quality of life were also reported. Women had a younger age at DS onset than men.
Our study highlights the burden of psychopathology and socio-economic deprivation in a large, heterogeneous cohort of patients with DS. The lack of clear differences based on gender, DS semiology and age at onset suggests these factors do not add substantially to the heterogeneity of the cohort.
Bilingual children cope with a significant amount of phonetic variability when processing speech, and must learn to weigh phonetic cues differently depending on the cues’ respective roles in their two languages. For example, vowel nasalization is coarticulatory and contrastive in French, but coarticulatory-only in English. In this study, we extended an investigation of the processing of coarticulation in two- to three-year-old English monolingual children (Zamuner, Moore & Desmeules-Trudel, 2016) to a group of four- to six-year-old English monolingual children and age-matched English–French bilingual children. Using eye tracking, we found that older monolingual children and age-matched bilingual children showed more sensitivity to coarticulation cues than the younger children. Moreover, when comparing the older monolinguals and bilinguals, we found no statistical differences between the two groups. These results offer support for the specification of coarticulation in word representations, and indicate that, in some cases, bilingual children possess language processing skills similar to monolinguals.
Undiagnosed coronary sinus obstruction can be a source of paediatric exertional chest pain and death. We present a case series of three interesting children who developed only exertional angina from various degrees of coronary sinus stenosis or atresia. We discuss the diagnosis and management of each case and the potential pathophysiology involved with their symptoms.
Introduction: This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of the Échelle québécoise de triage préhospitalier en traumatologie (EQTPT) to identify patients who will need urgent and specialized trauma care in the La Capitale-Nationale region, province of Quebec. Methods: A detailed review of prehospital and in-hospital medical charts was conducted for a sample of patients transported following a trauma by ambulance to one of the five CHU de Quebec's emergency departments (ED) between November 2016 and March 2017. Data related to the trauma mechanism, population, injuries sustained, diagnosis, intervention and patient outcomes were extracted. The study primary outcome was the use of at least one urgent and specialized trauma care defined as: admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), urgent surgery within less than 24 hours after arrival (excluding orthopedic surgery for one limb only), intubation in ED, angioembolization within 24 hours after ED arrival, activation of a massive transfusion protocol in the ED. Also, patients who died secondary to their trauma were also considered as requiring urgent care. Results: 902 patients were included. The mean age (SD) was 59 (28.5) years old, 494 (54.8%) were female. The main trauma mechanisms were falls (592 (65.6%)) followed by motor vehicle accident (201 (22%)). 367 (40.7%) patients were transported directly to the tertiary trauma centre from the field. 231 (25.6%) patients had at least one criteria included in the steps 1, 2 or 3 of the EQTPT. Subsequently, most patients (649 (71.9%) were discharged home from the ED while 177 (19.6%) patients were admitted to the hospital. 82 (9.1%) patients required urgent and specialized trauma care. Of these 82 patients, 27 patients (32%) were identified in step 1 of the protocol, 12 patients (14.6%) in step 2, 5 patients (6.1%) in step 3, 13 patients (15.9%) in step 4 and 2 patients (2.4%) in step 5 while 23 (28.0%) patients were not identified by any steps of the EQTPT protocol. Therefore, 44 (53.6%) of the patients requiring urgent and specialized trauma care were identified by the criteria proposed in the steps 1, 2 or 3. Conclusion: In this retrospective cohort study, the EQTPT was insensitive to identify trauma patients who will need prompt and complex trauma management. Studies are required to determine the factors that could help improve its accuracy.
Introduction: Patients hospitalized following a trauma will be frequently treated with opioids during their stay and after discharge. We examined the relationship between acute phase (< 3 months) opioid use after discharge and the risk of opioid poisoning (OP) or opioid use disorder (OUD) in older trauma patients Methods: In a retrospective multicenter cohort study conducted on registry data, we included all patients aged 65 years and older admitted (hospital stay >2 days) for injury in 57 trauma centers in the province of Quebec (Canada) between 2004 and 2014. We searched for OP and OUD from ICD-9 and ICD-10 code diagnosis that resulted in a hospitalization or a medical consultation after their initial injury. Patients that filled an opioid prescription within a 3-month period after sustaining the trauma were compared to those who did not fill an opioid prescription during that period using Cox proportional hazards regressions. Results: A total of 70,314 participants were retained for analysis; median age was 82 years (IQR: 75-87), 68% were women, and 34% of the patients filled an opioid prescription within 3-months of the initial trauma. During a median follow-up of 2.6 years (IQR: 1-5), 192 participants (0.30%; 95%CI: 0.25%-0.35%) were hospitalized for OP and 73 (0.10%; 95%CI: 0.07%-0.13%) were diagnosed with OUD. Having filled an opioid prescription within 3-months of injury was associated with an increased hazard ratio of OP (2.6; 95%CI: 1.9-3.5) and OUD (4.0; 95%CI: 2.3-7.0). However, history of OP (2.7; 95%CI: 1.2-6.1), of substance use disorder (4.3; 95%CI: 2.4-7.9), or of opioid prescription filled (2.7; 95%CI: 2.1-3.5) before trauma were also related to OP or OUD. Conclusion: Opioid poisoning and opioid use disorder are rare events after hospitalization for trauma in older patients. However, opioids should be used cautiously in patients with history of substance use disorder, opioid poisoning or opioid use during the past year.