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Conductive composites are being considered for use in applications such as electromagnetic shielding. Prior work has shown correlation of electrical conductivity to the microstructure of corresponding composite. In the present paper, composites consisting of polyurethane acrylic and dispersed nickel nanoparticles were fabricated, and tested for their electrical conductivity. In the fabrication process, half of the suspensions were agitated by sonication and half were not. Correlations between electrical conductivity and composite microstructural details are presented. These correlations show an optimum concentration of nickel nanoparticles that result in maximum conductivity enhancement. In addition, sonicating the suspensions increased conductivity of resulting nanocomposites. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) images were used to estimate surface concentration and distribution of Nickel nanoparticles, and were correlated to electrical conductivity measurements. Parameters such as number of particles in contact and junction distance between the nano particles in the composites are suggested as a way of enhancing electrical conductivity.
Age and growth of the little Indian squid Loliolus hardwickei (Gray, 1849) were studied using samples collected in the coastal waters of Arabian Sea. Statolith increment counts demonstrated that L. hardwickei has a fast growth rate (dorsal mantle length: 0.31–0.73 mm day−1 in females and 0.27–0.56 mm day−1 in males) and a short lifespan of less than 6 months. Females are the larger sex and their daily growth rates were higher than in males. The oldest male and female were 110 and 130 days old; the youngest mature female and male were 62 and 52 days old respectively. The oviducal fecundity ranged from 104–480 eggs, mean = 360 eggs (14–23 eggs g−1 body weight).
Using general-purpose photovoltaic device model, we have simulated the operation and functionality of a working Sn perovskite/Cu2O hole transport layer (HTL)/Cu back-contact device versus a standard Pb perovskite/Spiro HTL/Ag back-contact device. The results are extremely promising in that they showcase comparable cell efficiencies, with the Sn perovskite/Cu2O HTL/Cu back-contact device showing a highest 22.9% efficiency [Jsc of 353.4 A/m2, Voc of 0.84 V, fill factor (FF) of 0.77] at 427 nm active layer thickness compared with 24.6% of the standard Pb perovskite/Spiro HTL/Ag back-contact device (Jsc of 356.8 A/m2, Voc of 0.82 V, FF of 0.84) at the same active layer thickness. Jsc, Voc, and FF kinetics reveal that the Sn perovskite/Cu2O HTL/Cu back-contact device can perform better by reducing the recombination centers both within each layer matrix and in the interfacial contacts.
India has the second largest number of people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) globally. Epidemiological evidence indicates that consumption of white rice is positively associated with T2D risk, while intake of brown rice is inversely associated. Thus, we explored the effect of substituting brown rice for white rice on T2D risk factors among adults in urban South India. A total of 166 overweight (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2) adults aged 25–65 years were enrolled in a randomised cross-over trial in Chennai, India. Interventions were a parboiled brown rice or white rice regimen providing two ad libitum meals/d, 6 d/week for 3 months with a 2-week washout period. Primary outcomes were blood glucose, insulin, glycosylated Hb (HbA1c), insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) and lipids. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was a secondary outcome. We did not observe significant between-group differences for primary outcomes among all participants. However, a significant reduction in HbA1c was observed in the brown rice group among participants with the metabolic syndrome (−0·18 (se 0·08) %) relative to those without the metabolic syndrome (0·05 (se 0·05) %) (P-for-heterogeneity = 0·02). Improvements in HbA1c, total and LDL-cholesterol were observed in the brown rice group among participants with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 compared with those with a BMI < 25 kg/m2 (P-for-heterogeneity < 0·05). We observed a smaller increase in hs-CRP in the brown (0·03 (sd 2·12) mg/l) compared with white rice group (0·63 (sd 2·35) mg/l) (P = 0·04). In conclusion, substituting brown rice for white rice showed a potential benefit on HbA1c among participants with the metabolic syndrome and an elevated BMI. A small benefit on inflammation was also observed.
In applying the innovative 'sustainomics' framework and identifying the balanced inclusive green growth (BIGG) path to achieve sustainability, this book provides a rigorous and practical analysis of sustainable development today. Developed and applied globally over the past twenty-five years by world renowned multi-disciplinary expert Mohan Munasinghe, sustainomics gives us an optimistic message: although our problems are serious, we can respond effectively by making development more sustainable, but only if we begin immediately. Sustainomics shows us the first practical steps in making the transition from the risky business-as-usual scenario to a safe and sustainable future for all. Some key features include: an explanation of the key principles of sustainomics, free of technical jargon; empirical case studies that are practical and policy-relevant over a wide range of time scales, countries, sectors, ecosystems and circumstances; annexes that provide mathematical and additional details; and an extensive and up-to-date bibliography to aid further research.